Top PDF When identity prevents compliance: the cases of croatia and Turkey

When identity prevents compliance: the cases of croatia and Turkey

When identity prevents compliance: the cases of croatia and Turkey

However, as we have established in section 3.2, international relations are not limited to the international stage and societal elites, it is a two-level stage also including domestic actors. Although the Croatian governmental actors have primarily been favorable to EU induced reforms through their pursuit of escaping the Balkan identity, the population has been more EU skeptic. In fact, the Croatians constitute the most skeptical candidate state on a structural basis; support for membership was 30% in 2004, a small rise to 32% in 2006 and down to only 23% in 2010 (EuroBarometer 2005b; EuroBarometer 2006; EuroBarometer 2010). The primary reason for skepticism is the outrage of the Croatian population to the EU demand of extraditing war criminal Ante Gotovina to the ICTY in the Hague (Štulhofer, 2006, p.142). Proclaimed a national hero, the extradition was seen as unjustifiable to the people, who formed their identity through the war-time experience. As shown by section 5.1, territory constitutes an central element of war-forged Croatian identity. Therefore, the suggested transfer of territory to Slovenia under the proposed agreement was met with huge public outrage and media coverage (Arnaut, 2002, p.43). As a result, the Croatian parliament did not ratify the agreement (Arnaut, 2002, p.43). Following the non-ratification of the agreement, the anger of the Croats was demonstrated through political punishment; Račan was voted out of office in 2003 in favor of Ivo Sanader of the nationalistic ‘Croatian Democratic Union’ or ‘Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica’ (HDZ) (Noutcheva & Aydin-Düzgit, 2012, p.65). The HDZ had been the prime opposition party to the agreement and argued that no territory should be given up. This case of electoral punishment shows how the two-level game connects with the ‘external incentives model’; Račan had future EU membership in mind when forging the agreement, ignoring the will of the domestic level, which led to the cost of electoral punishment. His successor, Sanader, realized that solving identity conflict through territorial concessions would lead to political costs and therefore refused to do so, a finding in line with the two hypotheses. Since the dispute was still unresolved, it became more problematic for Croatia after 2004; upon Slovenia’s EU membership the resolution of the dispute would be directly tied to its own accession.
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University Students Attitudes: Croatia Versus Turkey

University Students Attitudes: Croatia Versus Turkey

Although in most cases the response was not significantly different, Croatian males tended to give slightly more positive ratings about their country than their female counterparts. As can be seen in Table 2, males were significantly more positive (all at 5% statistical level) for “In 10 years, Croatia will be a great place to live” and “I am proud to be Croatian.” Croatian females gave a significantly more positive response to “Croatian people are hard working” and in rating of the USA’s present leadership (again all at 5% statistical level).

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MAY. Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe

MAY. Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe

below the speed of adjustment predicted by the model—include Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. At the same time, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine stand out with debt above the level consistent with fundamentals and growth of debt higher than predicted by the short-term dynamics of the model. In the model, the debt overhangs weigh on credit growth because positive credit gaps must be gradually closed through reduction in debt stocks (Annex IV). One important caveat is that the model assumes the credit gap to be zero, on average over the sample period (1995–2013) in each country. In reality, it is possible that the initial debt levels were already too high in some cases. A comparison between country-specific constants and the fitted trend line with these countries’ relative institutional strength suggests that in some cases debt levels are indeed notably higher than one would expect given their institutional quality (see Annex IV for details).
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The Impact of Academic, Personal, and Professional Attributes on the Occupational Identity of School Counselors in Israel

The Impact of Academic, Personal, and Professional Attributes on the Occupational Identity of School Counselors in Israel

The Israeli State Comptroller recognized the need to address the issue of counselors’ professional identity, and claimed that since the Psychology and Counseling Services do not gather updated information on the extent or success of counseling activity in each district, they lack the necessary information to develop a national policy on counseling. School counseling and teaching are subjects studied separately at institutions of higher education, yet the Ministry of Education requires school counselors employed in the educational system to teach in class for one third to one sixth of their position. This situation might generate frustration and burnout, and undermine the professional development of those engaged in this field. Moreover, the counselor has two essentially different roles: as a teacher who is a pedagogic figure who tests and enforces discipline, and as a counselor who is a therapeutic, containing, and helping figure. In these circumstances, students and staff members who encounter the counselors as teachers may find it difficult to trust them as counselors and avail themselves of the counselors’ assistance (State Comptroller Report, 2014).
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The Determinant Effect of Theory of  Planned Behavior and Tax Knowledge on  Taxpayer Compliance

The Determinant Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior and Tax Knowledge on Taxpayer Compliance

Factors knowledge is one of the factors included in the external variables that build construct Theory of Planned Behavior. Gangl (2015) states that the individual in a different country in the motivation to behave honestly based on the intensity of knowledge (knowledge) on the legal and tax rules as well as their understanding of the procedural aspects. The lower the taxpayer knowledge about taxation, the higher their level to avoid tax avoidance and finally non-compliant behavior so that the knowledge factor is one very important factor in motivating people to voluntarily comply with tax laws. Knowledge Factor is one very important factor in motivating people to voluntarily comply with tax laws. Knowledge (knowledge) is the reaction people obtain through observation sense. In other words, knowledge is the result of the transfer of information that turns humans from not knowing to know. A person who has knowledge of a thing will understand how to act and behave. Saad (2014) says that taxpayers who have knowledge of taxation will have a higher level of compliance. Further Bornman (2019) adds that compliance is based on the knowledge of the taxpayer on three things: general knowledge about taxes, tax procedural knowledge,
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The Reluctant Fundamentalist: Hybridity and the Struggle for Identity

The Reluctant Fundamentalist: Hybridity and the Struggle for Identity

Changez comes from a different culture. He has a different set of values and expectations. In the beginning, he seems to try really hard to blend in. He even considers himself a New Yorker; tempted by the power and the desire to fit in. At first, He accepts being a part of the American culture and living the American dream. However, he is aware that he is different and can never be looked at as an equal let alone an American"…and was well liked as an exotic acquaintance"(Hamid 11). He is well aware that he is the "exotic" other and will always be looked at and regarded as such. Nonetheless, he assumes a hybrid identity. Changez talks about being in New York. He states: "moving to New York felt, unexpectedly- like coming home" (Hamid 18). He talks about his own culture in the same paragraph: "Urdu was spoken by taxicab drivers… the presence of a Samosa -and -Channa serving establishment…" (Hamid 18). The two identities merge.
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The Effect of Audit Experience, Complexity of Duties and Compliance Pressure on Audit Judgment

The Effect of Audit Experience, Complexity of Duties and Compliance Pressure on Audit Judgment

Abstract:- Audit Judgment is the auditor's consideration as a continuous process of obtaining information, the choice to act or inaction, and acceptance of further information carried out by the auditor. There are several factors that influence audit judgment including Audit Experience, Task Complexity, and obedience pressure. This study aims to examine the effect of auditor experience, obedience pressure, and complexity of the task on audit judgment in public accounting firms in DKI Jakarta Province. The number of samples in this study were 117 respondents with the method of determining the sample is a non probability sampling technique that is sampling insidential. The data used in this study are primary data with a method of collecting data using questionnaires. Data processing This study uses multiple linear regression analysis techniques with the results of research namely Audit Experience, task complexity, and compliance pressure does not affect audit judgment.
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Exchange Rate Forecasting: Evidence from the Emerging Central and Eastern European Economies

Exchange Rate Forecasting: Evidence from the Emerging Central and Eastern European Economies

Table 1 summarizes our empirical findings. As can be observed from the table, with the exception of one-step-ahead forecasts for Turkey and Romania, both univariate and multivariate time series models perform better than the random walk based on an absolute comparison of the MSPE of each model and the MSPE of the random walk. However, it is not possible to come to similar conclusions for the structural models. Based on the same criterion, the forecasts from structural models beat those of the random walk only for one-step-ahead forecasts for all countries except Romania where the MSPEs of the structural models and the random walk are almost the same. Thus, if one were to base the forecast evaluations on an absolute pairwise comparison of the MSPEs of time series models and structural models with the MSPEs of the random walk, it would seem that the time series models have a better forecast performance than the structural models against the random walk.
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Lexical Borrowing and the Construction of Identity and Politics in Ushie’s Poetry

Lexical Borrowing and the Construction of Identity and Politics in Ushie’s Poetry

The fact that language, identity and politics are interrelated has long been established in linguistic scholarship. Working within the concept of language and culture, and how language gives expression to politics, the present article discusses the place of lexical borrowing in the construction of identity and politics. Data for the study were drawn from Ushie‟s poetic oeuvre, one of Africa‟s prominent poets of the twenty-first century. The study identifies poetic use of language as a veritable resource for the expression of identity and politics. It is revealed that when poets indulge in lexical borrowing, they do so (in most cases) to assert their identity on the one hand and to discuss the political situation of their country and time on the other. The linguistic act of borrowing in Ushie‟s poetry shows how Nigeria‟s language problem has been politicized and used as an instrument in search of identity.
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When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

Three characteristics of the local ecology and society are important for the way eth- nicity was articulated and maintained in the 1950s and 1960s (Eidheim 1971). Firstly, local knowledge enabled people to recognise others as either Sámi or Norwegian in a relatively large district. Secondly, the time when people were Sámi was a relatively close past. Most people had lived in a community and led an everyday life that were regarded by themselves and others as coastal Sámi. Thirdly, the contact with other Sámi in the interior was only with the reindeer herders on their annual migrations to the coast. The emerging ethnic revival in the interior settlements and in academic milieus was unknown. Today, in the regional centre, people’s knowledge of each other is much more fragmented. The Sámi past, conceptualised as such, is for most of the inhabitants the past of their parents, their grandparents or even further back. The Sámi language was spoken – if it was heard at all – by old people or reindeer herders, and was sel- dom passed on to younger generations. Also those who grew up in settlements in the fjords usually spent their childhood in settlements that were regarded by themselves and others as Norwegian. They made up a Norwegian population, in contrast to the Sámi population in the interior, even if they were different from the Southerners that often took central positions in the booming labour market of the 1960s and 70s. Last but not least, the ethno-political movement has made the Sámi culture in the interior today into a modern vibrant culture where there are a multitude of possibilities of expressing a Sámi identity in different ways. This is so even if ideas of authenticity that empha- sise the culture of the minority occupation of reindeer herding and general ideas about indigenousness found in a global fourth-world discourse (Eidheim 1992, 1997; Thuen 1995, 2003; Stordahl 1996; Hovland 1996) are still predominant.
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When Identity Crime Strikes You

When Identity Crime Strikes You

Identity theft crimes are on the rise, causing nationwide concern. Your personal identifying information can be accessed in an increasing variety of ways. An im- postor can use your information to open fraudulent credit card accounts, secure deposits on cars and housing, obtain employment opportunities, create insurance benefits, and rob retirement earnings. This form of financial sabotage can devastate your credit and require endless hours of telephone and written communication to resolve. In the meantime, you may experience difficulty writing checks, obtaining loans, renting apartments, and even getting hired. This guide provides victims of identity theft with clear and concise information, including major resources to contact to resolve the conflicts which remain long after the thief disappears. Unfortunately, the responsibility of identifying and resolving the consequences of identity theft is left largely to the victim. It is important to act quickly and as- sertively to minimize the damage to your credit reputation. While identity theft is a crime, the perpetrator is often difficult to track. In addition, law enforcement officials cannot “clean up” the havoc created for you. When dealing with the au- thorities and financial institutions, keep a log of all conversations, including dates of contact, names, and telephone numbers. Keep notes on the time spent and any expenses incurred. Confirm all conversations of those spoken with in writing. Send correspondence by certified mail, return receipt requested. Keep copies of all letters and documents.
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Macroeconomic analysis of trade in some CEE countries

Macroeconomic analysis of trade in some CEE countries

3 BULGARIA 40,32128 97,51677 4 ESTONIA 9,447333 123,1373 5 HUNGARY 13,23595 98,20598 6 LATVIA 13,68353 90,95152 7 LITHUANIA 31,40437 93,09437 8 MACEDONIA 25,97468 87,42893 9 MONTENEGRO 7,112455 48,12252 10 POLAND 44,1738 55,29973 11 ROMANIA 63,53405 59,07675 12 SERBIA 24,29886 38,95737 13 TURKEY 46,03214 40,15636 14 CROATIA 8,236396 80,47098

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The Significance of Modern Writers of Turkey and Their Influence on Contemporary English Novel

The Significance of Modern Writers of Turkey and Their Influence on Contemporary English Novel

The Turkish literature was influenced in three periods. These are namely adoption of Islam, the Islamic period and the period under western influence. The writings of Nazim Hikmet and Yasar Kemal were considered to be the literature works of the third period of influenced by western influence and Islamic period. But the works given by these two authors reflected the strong need for democracy and human values. The writings of these authors were strongly demanding the reader to have a social responsibility to react for the evil in the society and betrayal (Marian Aguiar (2007)). The writing style was mixed with adventurous twists combined with the social, economic and political reforms. The revolutionary- democratic reflections ware probing to achieving social change until the proclamation of the Republic. It can be seen obviously in the literary works of Nazim Hikmet and Yasar Kemal. In their literary period Turkey achieved the Republic and the democratic thoughts were inherited by the modern writers could adopted the humanitarian grounds, feminism, gender equalism and moral values combined with Western culture and Eastern culture (Qaisar Abbas (2013)).
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Urbanization and Urbanism as a Way of Life: The Case of Konya as a Metropolitan Village in Turkey

Urbanization and Urbanism as a Way of Life: The Case of Konya as a Metropolitan Village in Turkey

Rather than enlargement of cities on space and development process through time, or instead of economic, ecological or geographical improvement of cities, Louis Wirth focuses on the social behavior as an outcome of urbanization. Urbanization effects on human behavior and there are unique behaviors that urban people act. Urban people differ from rural people in terms of acts, attitudes, and behaviors. Wirth distinguishes rural and urban in regards to life style, and urbanization, for Wirth, is also a transformation of lifestyle (Wirth, 1938: 112-116). The social dimension of urbanization based on human behavior is the subject of this article. In Turkey, urbanization occurs in terms of geographical enlargement, rise of population density, or improvement of physical conditions. However, in terms of human behaviors, social scientists wait for unique urban behaviors from the living people to define that city as urban.
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The efect of the financial crisis on Croatia's primary budget deficit and public debt

The efect of the financial crisis on Croatia's primary budget deficit and public debt

The variable of the primary deficit, although it has a significant role in the formation of the changes of the public debt, is not sufficient to quantify it completely, and so addi- tional variables were used in the analysis: stock-flow adjustment, the growth rate of the real GDP and the real interest rate. On analysis the stock-flow adjustment, a negative cor- relation was found with the primary deficit, which means that those variables can be linked in the model. Basic macroeconomic variables are considered as exogenous variables, with- out consideration of the interaction of macroeconomic variables in Croatia and between other countries and Croatia. Moreover, all possible reactions of economic policies were also excluded. Instead, by formation of confidence intervals of the estimate, all potential sources of uncertainty were included, regardless of their origin.
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When Use Cases Aren t Enough

When Use Cases Aren t Enough

Here’s another type of project for which use cases aren’t sufficient. I enjoy watching auto races, probably because I raced stock cars myself (alas, with little success) as a teenager. Several shop- ping malls throughout the United States have NASCAR race-car simulators. These consist of small car bodies mounted on motion-control bases. The customer is a driver in a computer- controlled simulated race. Each driver’s view of the racetrack is projected on a screen in front of his car. The driver is racing against whatever other customers happen to be competing in that race as well as against several simulated drivers that the computer controls. The car body tilts and sways on its motion-control base during the race in response to the driver’s actions. A synthesized voice provides information to the driver over a speaker, warning when other cars are nearby and reporting the driver’s position and how many laps are left in the race. It’s a blast! Defining the requirements for this complex system of interacting hardware and software com- ponents demands more than use cases. There aren’t that many use cases for the driver. He can Table 11-1 Partial Event-Response Table for a Highway Intersection
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Income Redistribution in Croatia: The Role of Individual Taxes and Social Transfers

Income Redistribution in Croatia: The Role of Individual Taxes and Social Transfers

All calculations are now repeated for post-TB income as a reference base, and the re- sults are shown in Table 5. To ask the main question again: which instruments are most important in achieving redistribution in Croatia? Tables 4 and 5 contain all the relevant data to compare the results for two approaches: the “decomposition” (Lambert, 1985) and “exclusion” (Immervoll et al, 2005) approaches, and for two reference bases: pre-TB in- come and post-TB income. Redistributive effects of single instruments can be found in columns 7 and 12 of Tables 4 and 5 respectively, but for now we are more interested in the rankings shown in columns 8 and 13 of the same tables. These rankings are copied into the Table 6, and sorted in ascending order of the first column.
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The Cases For and Against Financial Fraud - Identity Theft

The Cases For and Against Financial Fraud - Identity Theft

The bust out and disappearance of the account holder complicate detecting fictitious identity fraud. From the lender’s perspective, the evidence includes (1) the account has gone delinquent and (2) collection teams have been unable to contact the account holder. On one hand, the account could have been legitimate, but for one of several reasons, such as a change in employment status, the account holder has decided to not repay the loan and to avoid collection- related efforts. Alternatively, the account may have been opened using a fabricated identity, and therefore, the account holder’s disappearance may be an incidence of fraud. In either case, the lender’s inability to contact the account holder undermines efforts to determine which situation the lender is dealing with. This same uncertainty hinders efforts to quantify financial losses resulting directly from fictitious identity fraud, and generally, without a clear indication of fraud, related charge-offs will be characterized as loan losses. One firm that offers identity-theft- detection solutions, ID Analytics, suggests that this form of identity theft accounts for “88.3 percent of all identity fraud events and 73.8 percent of the total dollars lost by U.S. businesses.” 10 While a number of observers have argued that these estimates are overstated little published information, other than that from ID Analytics, is available to quantify the total dollar losses or incidence of fictitious identity fraud.
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Carbon Storage Potential of Forest Land: A Comparative Study of Cases in Finland and Croatia

Carbon Storage Potential of Forest Land: A Comparative Study of Cases in Finland and Croatia

the national level), but more detailed data will be available after the completion of management plans. In addition, there are special issues which have not yet been investigated, regarding some areas in the Croatian mountain region where pastures have been overtaken by forests of autochthonous tree species (Picea abies) through the process of natural succession. In those areas the carbon pool in the soil would be decreased [43], but also the carbon sequestration through biomass production may benefit climate mitigation. But, this process raises the issue of acceptability from the point of gaining carbon credits, because pastures are usually not managed (private lands with questionable ownership). In addition, succession processes may induce a decrease in the biodiversity and therefore be contradictory to the UN´s Convention on Biological diversity [44] and guidelines of the IUCN for afforestation and reforestation for climate change mitigation. If those areas may officially be converted to forests in order to gain carbon credits and wood certificates, how much that would participate in the total potential for mitigation in Croatia remains an open question for further research. There is no current data about the size of those areas, but it may be substantial (e.g. Lika and Gorski Kotar). Therefore, further research is needed if those areas are to be considered as potentials for mitigation.
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Language of self-definition in the disorders of identity

Language of self-definition in the disorders of identity

Indeed, the language adopted by persons with EDs to de- fine themselves is often exclusively based on terms re- garding objective evaluation of their body, such as large or thin, fat or slim, the way dresses fit around their body, or the proportion of space their bodies occupy in a room. In most cases, the terms fat or slim transcend objective measures and regard the moral value of the persons: fat means lacking control of ones’ instincts, of little worth, and weakness. The use of the word hunger is often pre- sent in the speech of persons with EDs to express their difficulty in defining their emotions (alexithymia) and sen- sations, which, again, they perceive as extraneous and dangerous. In the diaries of persons with EDs we can find expressions such as: “I came back home after a terrible day where it all went wrong… I realised I have an irre- sistible hunger…”. The quality of food transcends its as- sociation with taste and can be viewed as a dysfunctional way to express and modulate different emotions: salty and full-bodied foods seem to predominate in moments of anxiety, while the sweet, warm, soft or liquid prevail in conditions of sadness: “I want the food that I swallow to be something cuddly… sweet after so many things to love…”  39 . The term pleasure reported in their diaries of-
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