Top PDF The Impact Behaviour Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

The Impact Behaviour Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

The Impact Behaviour Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

There are many reasons to promote the selection of PP as a matrix in the composite fabrication process. The main benefit of PP is their relatively low processing temperature which is especially required in the fabrication process of natural fibre based composites due to the low thermal stability of natural fibres. Most of the natural fibre has an average degradation temperature below 200°C. Due to the limitation of low degradation temperature of natural fibres, thermoplastic with a low processing temperature is preferable to be used as matrix. The melting point of polypropylene is identified through the search of the maximum temperature of a differential scanning calorimetry chart as the melting of polypropylene takes place across a range. Most commercial PP possess levels of crystallinity in the range between 40% and 60%, which are the intermediate level. Isotatic polypropylene has a melting point of perfectly 171°C while commercial isotactic polypropylene has a melting point in the range between 160°C to 166°C in dependence on atactic material and crystallinity (Quazi et al., 2011).
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Behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with kenaf and steel hybrid fibre

Behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with kenaf and steel hybrid fibre

carrying capacity for this shear reinforcement arrangement. The low strength performance is due to the high amount of kenaf fibre in the beam, which absorbs the water and delay the internal hardening of the concrete. Consequently, the strength of the beam with the highest amount of fibres is lower than the one with 1% of fibre content. A similar pattern was observed in the case of the beam with reduced in shear reinforcement (S=200mm) as illustrated in Figure-6. It is apparent that the beam with reduced in shear reinforcement produced better strength as compared to the beam without fibre (refer to Figure-6). The aforementioned results suggest that kenaf and steel fibres demonstrate its prospective characteristics as part of shear reinforcement in the KFSF-RC beams.
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Experimental Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Hybrid Nano Composites Reinforced with Kenaf/Banana/Glass Fiber

Experimental Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Hybrid Nano Composites Reinforced with Kenaf/Banana/Glass Fiber

B. Free Vibration Characteristics of Hybrid nano composites. A rectangular symmetric plate of kenaf/Glass and Banana/Glass hybrid nano composites with different weight percentage of graphene of fiber oriented at [+90/0] hybrid Nano composites laminate is prepared. The Experimental setup for modal analysis as shown in Figure 2. A grid of 5x6 (30 points) measurement points were marked over the surface of the test specimen. The specimen was clamped on test fixture and an impulse technique was used to excite the structure by impact hammer with force transducer built in to the tip to register the force input. The excitation signal was feed to the analyzer through amplifier unit. A piezoelectric accelerometer stuck on the desired measuring point of the specimen senses the resulting vibration response. The accelerometer signals were conditioned in the charge amplifier and fed to the analyzer. The analyzer in conjunction with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) gives mathematical relation between time and Frequency Response Spectrum (FRS) and coherence functions are registered in the selected frequency range. At each grid point five measurements were made and their average was obtained. The output data of all 30 measurements was used as an input data for LABVIEW-2009 package to identify response frequencies. From the response frequencies natural frequencies, damping factor and mode shapes were obtained and animated.
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Mechanical strength and thermal stability of woven glass/kenaf fibre hybrid-reinforced nanoclay with epoxy composites

Mechanical strength and thermal stability of woven glass/kenaf fibre hybrid-reinforced nanoclay with epoxy composites

Flexural test revealed improved flexural strength and flexural modulus among treated kenaf composites. Impact test was conducted at two different energy levels of 15 J and 30 J. It was observed that composite dispersed with nanoclay is capable of sustaining both the loads. Morphology study through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) revealed the roughness on the surface of the fractured treated kenaf fibre.

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Monotonic and fatigue properties of kenaf/glass fiber-reinforced hybrid composites

Monotonic and fatigue properties of kenaf/glass fiber-reinforced hybrid composites

Chairman : Zulkiflle Leman, PhD Faculty : Engineering The range of applications involving natural fiber composites in engineering design is still limited due to a lack of understanding of the long-term behavior of these materials, especially under cyclic fatigue loading. The primary aim of this research was to experimentally determine the monotonic properties and fatigue life behavior of woven kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites and the effects of hybridization of E-glass fabric on these properties through stages of hybridization and different states of stress. This work was divided into four stages to achieve the specified objectives. The first stage investigated the mechanical properties of a single layer of woven kenaf reinforced unsaturated polyester, fabricated by vacuum infusion and hand lay- up. The results showed an overall improvement in tensile and flexural strengths also their corresponding moduli for composites fabricated by the hand lay-up when compared with the ones fabricated by vacuum infusion.
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Processing, Characterization and Mechanical Behaviour of Coir/Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Based Hybrid Composites

Processing, Characterization and Mechanical Behaviour of Coir/Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Based Hybrid Composites

Coir is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut fruit. The husk contains coir fibre and a corky tissue called pith. It is a fibre which is highly available in India the second highest in the world after Philippines [1]. It consists of water, fibres and small amounts of solvable solids. Because of the high lignin content coir is more long-lasting when compared to other natural fibres. Natural fibres such as coir based composites enjoying broader applications in automobiles and railway coaches & buses for public transport system. There exist a very good opportunity in fabricating coir based composites towards a wide array of applications in building and construction such as sheets and slabs as reconstructed wood, flooring tiles etc. Coir nets are used to prevent soil destruction during heavy rains and cyclones. However, the main disadvantages of natural fibres and matrix is the relative high moisture absorption. So, a hybrid composite material that contains two or more different types of fibre in which one type of fibre could complement with what are lacking in the other.
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Fatigue Life Characteristic Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Metal Laminates

Fatigue Life Characteristic Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Metal Laminates

Fatigue failure is the most common mechanism that occurs in the majority of mechanical structures in industries. This kind of failure mechanism is still not well understood as there is limited research on this topic. Critical factors such as temperature, humidity, vibration and material properties trigger the initiation of cracks in materials. Defects during the manufacturing of the material will eventually worsen the crack initiation due to the high concentration of stress near the defects. Fatigue can result in the premature failure of a structure due to repeated cyclic loading, which will lead to the development of micro-cracks and an increase in the local stress level near to the crack tip. The crack will continue to grow and propagate until the structure fails. Therefore, the development of FMLs was intended to enhance the performance of structures as well as prolong the useful life of the material. In this study, the fatigue life performance of a hybrid composite reinforced metal laminate was investigated based on the availability of the constituent materials and their promising environmental friendly characteristics.
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A Study On Mechanical Properties Of Hybrid Kenaf/Kevlar Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

A Study On Mechanical Properties Of Hybrid Kenaf/Kevlar Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

A composite is a material made from two or more constituents with different physical or chemical properties. After combined the materials, it will produce a material with different properties from the individual components. The characteristics of composites are lightweight, high strength, high stiffness and easily mouldable to complex shapes (Mallick, 2008). Hybrid composite is known as a composite with two or more fibres with different properties embedded in a single matrix (Cheung et al. 2009).

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Pultruded Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Composites: Effect of Different Kenaf Fibre Yarn Tex

Pultruded Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Composites: Effect of Different Kenaf Fibre Yarn Tex

1. Introduction By the increasing of worldwide social awareness about environmental impact, sustainability, and renewable energy sources, the polymer natural fibre composites recently have attracted the attention of researchers due to the fact that they are recyclable and biodegradable. The increasing environmental awareness and new rules and regulations are asking the industries to seek more ecologically friendly materials for their products. Nowadays natural fibres composites are replacing the synthetic and conventional fibre composites because of their easy availability, high specific strength, and low cost. Many studies have been made on the potential of the natural fibres as reinforcements for composites and in several cases the results have shown that the natural fibre composites own good advantages compared to synthetic fibre such as availability in large amounts, renewable, biodegradable, low cost, low density, less equipment abrasion and less skin and respiratory irritation 1-6 . Recent studies have investigated the development of biodegradable composite materials using natural fibres such as kenaf 7-9 , flax 10, 11 , bamboo 12 , pineapple 13 , sisal 14 and jute 15 as a reinforcement for biodegradable polymer composites. Concerning the matrix, the choice of unsaturated polyester is only based on economic interest. It incorporates very cheap resin, is easily available, has good mechanical properties, and has been used in many applications, such as transport, maritime, and sport 16 .
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Adhesive wear and frictional behaviour of glass fibre reinforced thermoset composites

Adhesive wear and frictional behaviour of glass fibre reinforced thermoset composites

surface and then change the mechanical properties of the composite. Finally, the results from friction are temperature during converting mechanical energy to heat, this heat is produced by friction and deformation of materials leads to generate heat. On the other hand, few beneficial applications are provided by the friction such as tyres, and brakes friction. There are several studies have been done to inspect the tribological performance of polymeric composites based on synthetic fibres such as glass, (Pihtili, 2009). Carbone fibres were investigated by (Suresha and Kumar, 2009). From the literature, there is a lack of understanding on the tribological behaviour of thermoset composites based on synthetic fibres such as glass. In the recent work by Shalwan and Yousif (2013), it is highly recommended further studies on the thermoset composites to identify the wear and frictional characteristics of thermoset composites based on glass fibres. This motivates the current study. In the current report, the wear and frictional behaviour of two fibre thermoset composites are considered as epoxy and polyester. Three different orientations of fibre with respect to the sliding distance are accounted in the study and different sliding distance 0- 15 km. As a result of the rapid development that the world witnesses and the challenge in using metal materials in tribological industrial applications, the tribological behaviour of polymeric composites has recently experienced a create development, and attention by many researchers. Fibre reinforced polymeric composites have numerous advantages compared to the metal materials due to their competitive mechanical properties of high specific strength, low weight, low cost of raw materials, low processing cost etc. Recently, composites materials are heavily used in many applications that have been determined for these materials. Furthermore,
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Fabrication and Characterization of Jute/Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Fabrication and Characterization of Jute/Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

dominant role in many industrial applications. Major OMEs such as Airbus and Boeing have shown the potential for large-scale composite application in aviation, and NASA is continually looking to composite manufacturers for innovative space solutions for rocket and other spacecraft. In this point of view, the objective of our present work is to analyze the effect of hybrid fibers (glass fiber and jute fiber) on mechanical behavior of epoxy resin based composite. Different types of composites are fabricated by using hand layup method
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Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass-Jute Fibre Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass-Jute Fibre Reinforced Hybrid Composites

KEYWORDS: Glass-Jute Fibre reinforced hybrid composite, Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite (FRP) I. I NTRODUCTION Hybrid polymeric composites are new and more developed composites as compared to the traditional fiber reinforced polymer composites. FRP composite contains on one reinforcing phase in the single matrix but hybrids can have more than one reinforcing phase and a single matrix phase or single reinforcing phase with multiple matrix phases or multiple reinforcing. Nowadays, composite materials are used in large number of engineering applications such as aviation, automobile and robotics due to versatility in their properties which enables them to be applied in large number of fields. Other reasons are their light weight, corrosion resistance and durability. Composite materials are commonly classified at following two distinct levels: The first level of classification is usually made with respect to the matrix constituent. The major composite classes include Organic Matrix Composites (OMCs), Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) and carbon matrix composites commonly referred to as carbon-carbon composites. The second level of classification refers to the reinforcement form - fibre reinforced composites, laminar composites and particulate composites. Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and enhancing their properties as desired. Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials [1].The authors in [2] have applied linear and polynomial equations for finding the mechanical properties, with a simple algorithm that links them. This technique is the accurate method available to determine modulus of elasticity and toughness of the anisotropic materials like composites.
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Fatigue Behavior of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Fatigue Behavior of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Fig. 4. The S max -N f curves of all tested specimens and a reference data of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites obtained from Harik and co-worker [13]. From the results in Table 2, a stress level versus fatigue life graph (Smax -Nf) is plotted to view the significant difference of fatigue life at different fibre volume ratios as in Fig. 3. Let the Smax to be 0.9, the fatigue life seems to be sensitive on fibre volume ratios where the fatigue life increases along with fibre volume ratios and this trend continues until the final Smax. This result is contrary to the previous research done by Kalam and co-worker [14]. The increasing of oil palm fruit bunch fibre ratio in their composites have significantly reduces the fatigue life and the tensile strength. The present investigation indicates that the fibre-matrix interfacial is unaffected when the fibre volume ratio increases. The good fibre-matrix interfacial is seen in Fig. 5. There is no gap existed between the fibre’s surface and epoxy matrix. Moreover, a fibre still intact with the epoxy matrix although there is a matrix cracking formation, the cracked epoxy matrix unintentionally a little upraised above by chances. According to Gu and co-worker [12], the increasing of fibre volume ratio in composite creates more area within the fibre-matrix interfacial and therefore, the stress concentration can be distributed efficiently among the fibres from matrix. For every cycle in fatigue loading, higher fibre volumes ratio in composites could sustain more damages and lead to longer fatigue life in composites.
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The Effect Of Natural Weathering Exposure And Hygrothermal Aging On The Properties Of Pultruded Hybrid Glass/Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

The Effect Of Natural Weathering Exposure And Hygrothermal Aging On The Properties Of Pultruded Hybrid Glass/Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

5 many researchers utilizing bamboo-glass fibre (Thwe and Liao, 2002), palmyra-glass fibre (Velmurugan and Manikandan, 2007) and jute-glass fibre (Akil et al., 2010). Nevertheless, stand-alone natural fibre FRP composites have it owns downside. They are facing some critical issues such as poor resistance to weathering, inconsistence properties and interface compatibility between fibre and matrix. In addition, natural fibres tend to absorb moistures and that may be the main cause to the previous issues when natural fibres were used as reinforcement in FRP composites. Studies had proven that natural fibre that was exposed to various environment at a prolonged period undergo certain degree of degradation and significant loss in their mechanical properties (Nosbi et al., 2010a, Mazuki et al., 2011). This vulnerability to environmental degradation after a long period of exposure has made natural fibre less desirable and not suitable to be used for outdoor applications. Based on these studies, hybridization of natural fibres with synthetic fibres could be the solution; but it needs to compromise the fact that it is not a whole natural fibre composite anymore. Although the synthetic fibres are still being used in this hybridization, but at least the portion of synthetic fibres used have been reduced and being replaced by natural fibres. The fibres arrangement also requires more attention since it may affect the properties of FRP composites based on where the fibres place themselves inside the composites.
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Flexural behaviour of hybrid fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) matrix composites

Flexural behaviour of hybrid fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) matrix composites

noticed that specimens which failed in a shear mode resulted in lower compressive strength in their group in comparison with those that failed in a transverse mode. Experimental observation of Moran and Shih [205] confirmed that kink band formation in ductile matrix composites, in this particular case, an IM7 carbon fibre-reinforced PEEK composite, consist of three stages, i.e., initial kinking, transitory kinking and band broadening. In the first stage, at a certain level of loading, fibres with micro-structure imperfections, such as curved or disoriented, will start to rotate and generate shear deformation of the matrix leading to non- linear stress-strain relationships up to its peak load. Further loading in the next step will drive kink band propagation across the specimen in combinations with a significant drop of load. Due to fibre rotation, its surrounding matrix experiences extreme shear straining, until it reaches it rotation limit. This will then be followed by a softer deformation mode of band broadening at considerably constant load until complete failure. They also predicted the magnitude of kink band angle between 10 o – 35 o , and the magnitude of steady-state driving stress to be between 3 and 7 times the shear yield strength of the composite.
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Experimental Investigations on Tribological Properties of Glass-Jute Fibre Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Experimental Investigations on Tribological Properties of Glass-Jute Fibre Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,B.N.M Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India 1 Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,B.N.M Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India 2 ABSTRACT:This paper presents the tribological properties of Glass-Jute Fibre reinforced with epoxy hybrid composites. The fabrication of these composites were carried out using hand layup process. Using Taguchi technique and Taguchi orthogonal array, the main effect plots for composite with 5% filler material and 10% filler material were plotted. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) values were also studied for composites with 5% and 10% filler material.
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Fatigue strength of woven kenaf fibre reinforced polyester composites

Fatigue strength of woven kenaf fibre reinforced polyester composites

melt flow index was used to aid in fiber matrix adhesion and to ensure proper wetting of the fibers. Samples were made with 40% fiber content of kenaf, coir, sisal, hemp, and jute. After the samples were fabricated, tensile and impact tests were run to compare the properties of these composites to those made with glass fiber. The tensile strengths all compared well with glass, except for the coir, but the only sample with the same flexural strength was hemp. It was shown with kenaf fibers that increasing fiber weight fraction increased ultimate strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. However, the composites tested showed low impact strengths compared to glass mat composites. This study demonstrated that natural fiber composites have a potential to replace glass in many applications that do not require very high load bearing capabilities (Wambua et al., 2003).
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Effect of impregnation of silica into kenaf fibre- reinforced epoxy composites

Effect of impregnation of silica into kenaf fibre- reinforced epoxy composites

April 2018 Chair: Norkhairunnisa Mazlan, PhD Faculty: Engineering Natural fibers are mechanically and thermally weaker than synthetic fibre due to its high water intake. To overcome this problem, addition of hydrophilic silica is expected to penetrate into the lumen and cell walls of fibre thus serving as blocking agent to inhibit water absorption. Two methods were adopted for the fabrication of hybrid epoxy reinforced with kenaf/silica: (1) Vacuum Infusion (VAC) and (2) Hand Lay-up/Hot Press (HP). For VAC process, the silica/epoxy solution was infused into fibre using vacuum pressure while for HP composites, silica/epoxy solution was spread onto fibre before hot pressed at 85˚C for 20 mins and cold pressed subsequently for another 5 mins. Another method was applied for HP which involves impregnation (IMP) of silica/epoxy solution into fibre. To achieve this, fibre was first degassed before submerged into silica/epoxy solution overnight and then compressed to remove excess resin prior to hot pressing the composite. Overall, the highest flexural strength and flexural modulus was achieved by IMP specimen of 40 vol% kenaf and 5 vol% silicas, with 78.8MPa and 5.11 GPa respectively. For HP specimens, the increment in kenaf volume leads to increase in flexural properties. In addition to that, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of HP specimens with 0, 1 and 5 vol% silica were found to be higher than VAC specimens.
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Kenaf/Glass Hybrid Composites: Preparation, Characterization And Properties

Kenaf/Glass Hybrid Composites: Preparation, Characterization And Properties

4 are due to global community pressure to reduce environmental impact, weight and cost (George, 2008). The work presented in this study concerns the use of long kenaf bast fibers as a potential reinforcement when combining with fabric form synthetic fibers in polymer composites. The common advantages of kenaf fibers composites with comparison to synthetic fibers composites are environmental friendliness, lower cost hence reducing the production cost of composites end product, renewable resources with regards to fiber reinforcement materials, lower density with regards to composites application and healthier working environment with regards to processing stages. As proof of demand and interest towards Malaysian kenaf bio-composites, articles published by Malaysia Agricultural Research Development Institute (MARDI) and Malaysian Tobacco Board in recent years showed the vast potential of kenaf fibers for Malaysia (Jalaluddin, 2001).
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Oil palm EFB/Kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites: dimension stability behaviours

Oil palm EFB/Kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites: dimension stability behaviours

*Corresponding: jawaid@upm.edu.my Abstract. In recent years, natural fibres composites have gained increasing interest as a most promising material in different applications due to its attractive properties such as eco- friendly, cost-effectiveness and light weight. Though extensive research has been made on the performance evaluation of natural fibres composite materials, not much data is available on the dimension stability which restricts their use in exterior applications. In this study, hybrid composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique by reinforcing oil palm empty fruits bunch (EFB) and kenaf fibre mats with epoxy matrix. Experiments are evaluated to study dimension stability that includes water absorption, thickness swelling, density and void content. Increasing the kenaf fibre into EFB composite totally improves the dimension stability of the hybrid composites thus indirectly leads to reduction in voids compared to oil palm EFB composites which is presented lowest percentage of dimension stability and higher void content.
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