First of all, I’d like to give my sincere thanks to my principal supervisor, Prof. Dr. Christian Bernhofer, who has been invaluable on both an academic and a personal level. He accepted me as his Ph.D. student without any hesitation when I presented him my research proposal. His encouragement and help made me feel confident to fulfill my desire and to overcome every difficulty I encountered. He advised me to work in two different institutes and he introduced me to my second honorific supervisor Prof. Dr. Peter Krebs who accept me as one of his Ph.D. students, not to mention his advice and unsurpassed knowledge of Urban Water, for which I am extremely grateful and it is not sufficient to express my gratitude with only a few words. Always, they offered me so much advice, patiently supervising me, and always guiding me in the right direction. I’ve learned a lot from them, without their help I could not have finished my dissertation successfully. I am grateful to Prof. Marco Borga; professor of Hydrology and Hydraulics at the University of Padua/ Italy; for his excellent support & encouragement and for his acceptance to review my work.
during the months of April and July and decreased during November. Abdou (2014) studied temperature trend on Makkah, Saudi Arabia and concluded that the annual mean of daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature increased by 0.0398, 0.0552, 0.0398°C per year, respectively. Azooz and Talal (2015) provided an evidence of climatechange in Iraq. Nahlah et al. (2016) assessed climatechangeimpact on water resources of Lesser Zab, Kurdistan, Iraq using SWAT Model. Tarawneh and Chowdhury (2018) studied trends of climatechange in Saudi Arabia to determine the implications on water resources. Karimi et al. (2018) studied the climatechange and agriculture: impacts and adaptive responses in Iran.
There is wide variety of impact assessment methods available in SimaPro. The basic structure of impact assess- ment methods in SimaPro is characterization, damage assessment, normalization and weighting. The last three steps are optional according to the ISO standards . In this study, the IMPACT2002+ method was used to de- termine the environmental impacts of the sewerage network. Figure 3 shows the overall scheme of the IMPACT 2002+ framework, linking all types of LCI results via the 14 midpoint categories (human toxicity, respiratory effects, ionizing radiation, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial eco- toxicity, terrestrial acidification/nitrification, aquatic acidification, aquatic eutrophication, land occupation, global warming, non-renewable energy and mineral extraction) to the damage categories (human health, eco- system quality, climatechange and resources) .
no snowfall and rainfall is limited . It is fed by rainfall only therefore, the occur- rence of effective flow is during the wet season . Al-Adhaim generates about 0.79 cubic billion meters annually at its convergence with the Tigris . It links Tigris Riv- er approximately 13 km downstream of Balad city . Its length is 230 km (from the source to the junction with the Tigris. The annual precipitation for the Al-Adhaim basin ranges from 80 to 330 mm, and temperatures vary between 2˚C and 48˚C. Al-Adhaim flow system is classified as an irregular flow system that depends intensely on precipita- tion . This river runs dry in summer from May to October and high flow occurs dur- ing November to May. Accordingly, Al-Adhaim can be classified as an arid basin. Ap- proximately 71% of the basin is covered by forest, and 29% by Agricultural Land-Row. 2.2. Description of SWAT Model
model, which sometimes fails to converge during dry peri- ods. Therefore, the conceptualization of the geological units for the MODFLOW model in this study is chosen as sug- gested by Woldeamlak et al. (2007) and represents a com- promise between geological detail and optimal hydrogeolog- ical model conceptualization. The watershed boundaries of the applied model are assumed to be no-flow boundaries. All major rivers, canals and lakes are simulated as internal boundaries and parameterized with the RIVER package. The RIVER package controls the flux exchanged between the groundwater system and the river, based on the river stage, the elevation of the bottom of the riverbed, the riverbed hy- draulic conductance and the hydraulic head calculated for the particular model cell containing the surface-water feature. The river stage of the main rivers, in the MODFLOW model, is based on an upstream river profile simulated by a hydraulic model according to the river discharge at the outlet calculated by WetSpa. The groundwater drainage from ditches, small streams and wetlands is simulated using the DRAIN package (Batelaan and De Smedt, 2004). Drain cells are defined for the whole model area except for the cells where river con- ditions are defined. Drain simulated by MODFLOW repre- sents flow from the saturated zone towards the land surface. The drain flow simulated by the DRAIN package depends on the drainage level and conductance. The drainage level is set to the deepest location in the soil profiles where oxidation appears as suggested by Stuurman et al. (2002).
level. The single subcatchments are linked through channel processes, which calculate the movement of water from the spatial units. Figure 3 illustrates the most important processes calculated by SWAT. For some processes, such as evapotranspiration or surface runoff, SWAT has several calculation options, but here only the applied methods to calculate the water balance are described. Precipitation is taken from single precipitation stations and is either intercepted by plants or hits the ground where it is divided into surface runoff or infiltration water by utilizing the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) curve number . As long as water is near or on the surface it might evaporate according to the atmospheric conditions . Once water enters the soil it might move vertically following a storage routing technique based on physical soil parameters, or laterally by using a kinematic storage model . If water percolates, it passes by the unsaturated zone and enters an unconfined aquifer, from where it either leaves as capillary rise due to water demand of the surface plants, or it moves laterally as return flow into the reach. A third option is to percolate further into the confined aquifer from where the water is treated as a discharge contributor to other catchments. A more detailed description on the theoretical background is given by Neitsch et al.  and all the relevant model parameters are described in detail by Arnold et al. . Water 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 30
Climatechange also impacts phytoplankton biomass. In both stations, this effect is mostly due to water warming (Fig. 8). During the growth period (January to April), biomass is higher under climatechange, because growth is enhanced at higher temperatures. During the rest of year, when phytoplankton biomass is smaller because the loss rate, induced by numerous loss factors (zooplankton, viruses and benthic molluscs) is larger than the growth rate, phytoplank- ton biomass is reduced under climatechange. The reason is that temperature enhances the loss rate more than the growth rate. Phytoplankton is largely dominated in the Seine River network by siliceous algae, Diatoms, which take up dissolved silica as a nutrient. Therefore, the concentration of the lat- ter constitutes an integrated indicator of the upstream phyto- plankton growth, and the above two phases are clearly illus- trated by the dissolved silica concentrations. They are sepa- rated by the minimum of silica concentration, and display an opposite response to climatechange, with decreased concen- trations during the enhanced growth period, and increased concentration afterwards, when growth is inhibited by en- hanced loss factors. Dissolved silica concentrations also show that, during this latter phase, the overall decrease in phytoplankton biomass results from two opposed effects, the impact of warming on loss factors hiding a smaller growth increase related to discharge reduction (as revealed by the differences between simulations ACT and ACT+A2-Tw), by means of increased nutrient concentrations (as illustrated for ammonium), or increased residence time, or both.
The SUFI-2 algorithm maps all uncertainties (parameter, conceptual model, input, etc.) on the parameter ranges and tries to capture most of the measured data within the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU) calculated at the 2.5% and 97.5% levels of the cumulative distribution of an output variable obtained through Latin hypercube sampling. The goodness of fit and the degree to which the cali- brated model accounts for the uncertainties are assessed by two indices: R factor and P factor. The P factor is a fraction of measured data bracketed by the 95PPU band. The P factor varies from 0 to 1, where 1 is the highest value, that is, 100% bracketing of the measured data. The R factor is the average width of the 95PPU band divided by the standard deviation of the measured variable. A value less than 1 is reported to be desirable for this parameter . These two indices can be used to judge the strength of the calibration. A larger P factor can be achieved at the expense of a larger R factor. Hence, often a balance must be reached between the two. When acceptable values of R and P factors are reached, then the parameter uncertainties are the calibrated parameter ranges. SUFI-2 allows usage of differ- ent objective functions such as R2 or Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE) . In this study, we used NSE and PBIAS (Moriasi et al. 2007) for discharge and root mean square error for crop yield .
the quantity and timing of local and regional precipitation that will affect the water supply, water quality and flood management. These effects should be understood the maximum amount as potential for guiding future planning of water resource management. Major recent water-related disasters including both floods, landslides and extensive droughts are reminders of both the destructive power of water and the tragic consequences associated to the lack of it in many regions of the World. These extreme events are only the final consequences of changes in land use and management that are affecting the water resources, under very different climate conditions. In some cases these effects may be linked, at least partially, to global climate changes.
As shown in Fig.2, the relationship between rainfall and the mean temperature of Ras Al Khaimah is presented using the available 38 years data . Throughout of this period, the mean highest and the lowest temperature were recorded in 2010 and 1992 as 28.8 and 26.5 o C. The rainfall data exhibits more scattering than the mean temperature data. Even though data for about last 17 years indicated relatively balance of the mean average temperature around 28.3 o C, the rainfall data shows considerable decrement from 225.4 to 55.4 mm. In general, there is a trend that when the rainfall decreases the mean temperature increases except during the period of 1982, 1992 and 1995-1997, respectively. The highest and the lowest rainfall amount were measured 380.7 and 14.0 mm in 1982 and 1985. Even it is difficult to say that with a limited data analyses, if this trend continues for decades; in overall the study area will have less rainfall and will be much hotter in the future.
U, 232 Th, 40 K and 222 Rn) in different types of water samples at Al-Hurrah City in Najaf province/Iraq using NaI (Tl) and RAD-7 detector. Materials and Methods: Samples have been collected from three major sources of water, CityWater (Drinking Water), River Water and Underground Water. The daily consumption of these three sources by humans in construction materials determines the standards used to measure the Radiological Contamination in these sources such as Annual Effective Dose, Radium Equivalent, Absorbed Dose rate, External Hazard Indexes, Internal Hazard Indexes and Activity Concentration Index Due to Gamma Ray of long-live Radioisotopes. Results: The results show that the average of Radioactivity Concentration for Radium-232 were 1.84±0.39Bq/L, 2.31±0.43Bq/Land 7.15±1.88Bq/L, for Thorium-232 were 1.31±0.33Bq/L, 0.98±0.13Bq/Land 2.19±0.44Bq/L, for Potasium-40 were 9.07±1.32Bq/L, 22.29±2.93Bq/Land 40.89±8.93Bq/L and for Radon-222 were 35.5±0.00 mBq/L, 355.50±30.33 mBq/L and 712.00±97.20 mBq/L. Based on Gamma Radionuclides measurement, the mean annual effective doses of citywater and river water are lower than the reference level of the effective dose recommended by the ICRP, while the mean annual effective doses of underground water were higher than the reference level of the effective dose recommended by the ICRP. Conclusion: Finally, the researcher found that all the radiological parameters such as Ra eq ,
The combination of natural and induced land subsidence, sea level rise and other effects of climatechange, such as extended periods of drought, greatly affects agriculture and water supply. It aggravates and accelerates sea water intrusion further inland and reduces the availability of fresh water as a source for public water supply. The salinity of the groundwater that is used for public water supply in the city of Soc Trang in the Mekong Delta is locally very high. A surface water treatment plant will be constructed to dilute or substitute the groundwater with a chloride content exceeding the Vietnamese standard of 250 mg/l for clean water. Ho Chi Minh City relies largely on rivers for its public water supply. Raw water is taken from the Dong Nai and Sai Gon rivers. The salinity of the water of these rivers varies substantially with the tides and with the season. During the dry season with limited natural discharge salinity can exceed the Vietnamese standard for chloride. Construction of impounding reservoirs would allow selective intake of river water when salinity is relatively low.
Iraq is one of the most affected countries in the Middle East concerning the occurrences of sand and dust storms. The frequency of the occur- rence has increased drastically in the last dec- ade and it is increasing continuously. The events of sand and dust storms are either regional or local. The former, however, is more frequent than the latter. The regional event, generally extends outside the Iraqi territory, into different direc- tions, but usually covers part of Syria, crossing the Iraqi territory towards Kuwait and Saudi Ara- bia, and/or towards the Arabian Gulf, and less frequently extends to Iran. The main causes in the development of sand and dust storms, in Iraq are discussed. The causes are also either regional or local. The former, however, causes more economic losses and harsh effect on the human’s health, as compared with the latter. One of the main reasons behind the development of sand and dust storms is the climatic changes within the region, especially the drastic decrease in the annual rate of rain fall, besides environ- mental changes, such as drying of the marshes, land degradation, and desertification. From the local causes, the most effective reason is the ha- phazard driving and military operations, espe- cially in the Iraqi Southern Desert. Prudent man- agement of water resources by using non-con- ventional resources and adapting suitable irriga- tion methods can greatly help to overcome this phenomenon and minimize the number of dust storm.
Were used the data for monthly averages of temperature from The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for a period of thirty one years (1982-2012) . Were calculated Temperature values of three different stations Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah representing the northern, central and southern regions of Iraq respectively, these stations different in terms of climatechange, terrain and altitude from sea surface level (see “Fig. 2” and “Table 1”).
Abstract: The operation of hydraulic structures needs the presence of a number of specialists to make decisions to instantaneous takes actions at an appropriate time through controlling, monitoring, and giving a suitable warning for any undesirable cases like increasing water level higher than the normal level, stopping of any device. One of the monitoring tool is SCADA system which can allow the water manager to continuously compare the actual hydraulic state of the system with its optimal hydraulic state, and to take appropriate corrective steps as required .The proper application of the system in irrigation districts, can lead to improved water delivery service to farm, more effective operations, and in some cases a reduction in costs (less labor, less energy). In order to demonstrate the suitability of monitoring system such as the SCADA system, it was applied at Shatt Al-Hilla situates in Hilla city, 100 Km south of Baghdad city in Iraq. It is the main channel that is branched from the left side of Euphrates River, just upstream the Hindiya Barrage. The system was applied at a33 Km reach from station (0+000) to station (33+000) and simulating the controlling of the head regulator at station (0+000). SCADA system components consisted of a computer server as a master station, interface field data devices usually RTUs, or PLCs to allow interface between field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and gate actuators, communication system to transfer collected data and appropriate standards and or custom software. The hardware architecture of SCADA system was established for this reach and the controlling of the head regulator of Shatt Al-Hilla at sta. (0+000) is simulated. The head regulator of Shatt Al-Hillawas run for three cases with six scenarios. The first case is for the daily discharges supplied to the head regulator for the year 2011, the second case is for the monthly water demanded to the head regulator (2011), and the third case is for the daily discharges that can be supplied to the head regulator for 2012 summer season .All cases and scenarios simulation produced good results except scenario (6) for the three cases because there are deficits in supplying the discharges in many days through the year, Also for case (2) there are deficits of 1.57%, 16.67%, 18.46%, and 14.04% of the total demanded discharges for Mar., Apr., June, and July respectively.
ranging from decades to millions of years. Climatechange has been defined by many in many ways. While some define it as an offshoot of Earth’s natural processes, others define it as a result of human activities. Striking a balance between these two varying perspectives, climatechange is defined as “a change which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. Truly, the present changes in the Earth’s climate cannot be explained alone by the natural processes that explain Earth’s previous warm periods. There is a broad scientific consensus that most of the warming in the recent decades can be attributed to human activities.4 If humanity is, in large part, responsible for this change, then whatever choices we make today, will have a significant bearing on the climate of the future. This makes climatechange a formidable concern.
The National Water Act (NWA) serves as a key component of water-related legislation and places an onus of responsibility for the management of water resources on the local authority. In addition, section 19(1) of this Act places an obligation on the landowner, or person in control of land on which pollution occurs, to take action in preventing such occurrence (South Africa, 1998a: 32). The NWA definition of pollution is broad, and in the context of urban stormwater includes alteration to organic load, chemistry, sediment load, temperature, peak flow, total run-off and rate of change of flow. Post- development urban stormwater run-off has the potential to affect every one of the abovementioned pollution characteristics if not adequately addressed. Further legislation in the form of The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) places a responsibility on all persons, including the local authority, to minimise disturbance to the ecosystem and avoid pollution and degradation of the environment (South Africa, 1998b: 11). The regulatory backdrop provides a clear responsibility for the control of stormwater, placing this responsibility in the hands of the local authority. This, in turn, forms the basis of the stormwater attenuation regulations currently implemented, and those proposed in the CoJ CMP.
Portland, Oregon i USA har satsat på att införa öppen dagvattenhantering i staden och speciellt på att införa något de kallar för Green streets (Church, 2014). Här får delar av trottoarer och gator ge plats för småskalig dagvattenhantering som ser ut som en nedsänkt plantering i gatan med större gräs, perenner, buskar och träd (Dunnet & Clayden, 2007, s.116, 108). Dill et al. (2010) och Church (2014) har undersökt vad allmänheten tycker om dessa dagvattensplanteringar i gatumiljön. Dill et al. (s.23-26) jämförde områden med och utan Green streets. De kunde se att de som bodde i områden med Green streets till viss del var ute och promenerade oftare i sitt kvarter. De boende här upplevde att fler rörde sig i området och att barn i större grad var ute och lekte. De som bodde nära Green streets uppskattade sin utemiljö betydligt mer än de som bodde i områden utan Green streets, och de upplevde även att kvarteret blivit mer levande och attraktivt efter att den öppna dagvattenhanteringen anlagts (ibid.). I de båda undersökningarna (Church, 2014; Dill et al., 2010, s.23-26) upplevde de flesta den öppna dagvattenhanteringen som ett estetiskt inslag i staden som ökade attraktiviteten i området genom att addera dynamisk vegetation istället för enbart asfalterad mark. Däremot uttrycktes det i Churchs (2014) undersökning att planteringarna till viss del var monotona och inte så fantasifullt designade. Andra fördelar som allmänheten såg med Greens streets var minskad risk för översvämning, att de saktade ner trafiken (Church, 2014) och att det hade blivit trevligare att promenera i området (Dill, 2010, s.23-26). Church (2014) insåg efter att ha gjort sin undersökning att få förstod deras värde för ökad biodiversitet i staden. Dessa fördelar verkade överskuggas av deras funktion att hantera dagvatten. De negativa åsikterna var liknande i Churchs (2014) och Dill et al. (2010, s.23-26) undersökningar, men vägdes i båda fallen upp av de positiva åsikterna. Några få uttryckte en oro över minskade parkeringsplatser och att det blivit skräpigare på grund av att skräp blåste ner i de nedsänkta planteringarna och fastnade. Church (2014) såg även en oro över säkerhetsrisker kring dem. Däremot visar både dessa och enligt Church (2014) även flera tidigare studier att Green streets överlag är ett uppskattat inslag i staden.
In 1959, a six-character postcode system was attempted in Norwich in the east of England. The letters NOR were meant to represent the city with a further three characters to represent a street. The current United Kingdom postcode system was rolled out across the UK, including the re-numbering of Norwich in 1974. The UK postcode consists of two sections separated by a space. It is an alphanumeric system that combines letters and number using six different formats. The UK postcode format is more geographically detailed than other countries. The symbol of a major city or town can be seen at the beginning of the first part of the code, and the district number at the end of the first section. In the second part of the postcode, a specific geographic location can be seen .