In most countries, the well-being of employees is considered paramount in the publicsector (Gould- Williams, 2004). In Haiti, the public service seems to project quite a different image. It is synonymous with bureaucratic delays, lack of accountability and motivation. Moreover, officials appear to be barriers to skills development. The promotions seem to be based on relationships rather than competence. Noe (1999) showed that management of individual skills is an important aspect of doing business today and employee development will likely grow in the future. Classroom and on-the-job training can be used to develop employee skills. Without the knowledge and skills, employees cannot perform their jobs properly and it becomes difficult for them to become involved in decision-making processes (Galunic & Anderson, 2000; Dufour, 2008). Many authors suggested that training should be designed to achieve increased organizationalcommitment (Lang, 1992). Bartlett (2001) examined the relationship between employee attitudes toward training and feelings of organizationalcommitment. He found that variables related to training are highly correlated to organizationalcommitment. The availability of training, support for training, motivation to learn, training environment, and perceived benefits of training were all significantly correlated with affective commitment, normative commitment and overall organizationalcommitment (Ahmad & Bakar, 2003). Benson (2006) also revealed the importance of training on organizationalcommitment. According to Benson (2006), training not only affects education and skill levels, but it also has psychological effects that include increased levels of engagement and satisfaction. Benson (2006) also found that, in general, employees view skills development and training
This thesis aims at analyzing the impact of the culture of an organization on its employees’ motivation. Precisely, it is assessed how different Organizational Cultures (OC) in faculties of universities as public organizations influence the motivation of its academic staff. Motivation in this case refers to the Public Service Motivation (PSM) of academics at universities and universities of applied sciences in Germany and the Netherlands in 2016. Since the literature suggests that context, i.e. culture, has an impact on motivation but does not indicate which type of culture has what kind of impact on motivation in the publicsector the general research question is: In how far does OrganizationalCulture influence Public Service Motivation and how can this relationship be explained? Further, the research seeks to analyze whether the concept of Public Service Motivation applies to public universities as specific type of public organizations that find themselves increasingly as subject to New Public Management reforms which conflicts with the traditional values of academics. Data has been collected through-semi structured interviews with eight heads of faculties of both natural and social sciences at universities and universities of applied sciences in Germany and the Netherlands. According to the results of the study it is difficult to say whether there is a causal relationship between OC and PSM. Moreover, academic staff at universities appears as typically motivated by factors other than included in the classical concept of PSM. This thesis is interesting for anyone interested in the concepts of OrganizationalCulture and Public Service Motivation within the world of secondary higher education.
In this study, the researcher has tried to investigate the three types of organizationalculture and its impact on job satisfaction and employee commitment in Chemical Sector of Karachi. The core objective of the study is to identify the impact of organizationalculture on job satisfaction and employee commitment in Chemical Sector so as to improve the job satisfaction and commitment of the employees in their working environment. And research question is what is the impact of organizationalculture on job satisfaction and commitment of the employees? The study was originated by taking some previous literatures and tried to find out the research gap. The study was never studied in Chemical Sector in Karachi context and this was the main purpose and gap for the study. Quantitative research approach was used with 303 sample of respondents participated in the study. Data was then collected from the Chemical Sector working employees of the Karachi. Reliability was tested through reliability test, which shows 89.5% our sample data is reliable. This reliability allowed us to further analyze the data. Factor analysis has been used to shows the independent variables accuracy of the data. Further Regression analysis has been used to determine the relationship between supportive organizationalculture, innovative organizationalculture and bureaucratic organizationalculture with job satisfaction and employee commitment.
The term “Organizational Career Development” refers to opportunities provided to enhance an employee’s career development within the organization (King, 2003). Jan (2010) indicated that organizational career development practice helps in building employee’s loyalty towards the organization but also contributes in employees’ better job performance and ultimately bringing a competitive edge to the organization. The pertinent literature points out that “employee commitment of university teachers” is a neglected and under-researched area. Particularly, the publicsector institutions of higher learning in Pakistan have no study in this regard (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006; Malik, Nawab & Naeem, 2010). Our study has explored the organizationalcommitment of permanent faculty members of publicsector universities. Research Question
Researchers found a strong relationship between employee turnover and organizationalcommitment in the private sector (Abbott et al., 2005). However, little is known about the organizationalcommitment of employees in not-for-profit arts-and-culture organizations (for exceptions, see Townsend, 2000; DiMaggio, 1988). The majority of literature on arts-and-culture organizations focuses on aspects related to funding development, marketing, board development and strategic planning (Townsend, 2000). Here lies a specific contribution of this body of work: it attempts to examine the nature of organizationalcommitment of employees in these highly demanding, unpredictable environments in which staff tend to generally accept smaller financial returns, job insecurity and limited personal and career advancement opportunities. In light of the high employee turnover rates (Dullahide et al., 2000) and increased competition for attracting potential employees in such organizations (Rutowski et al., 2009), gaining insights into how to attract and retain their employees is of importance to ensure continued service delivery to the community. In this respect, the first goal of this study is to investigate organizationalcommitment of employees in these organizations, presupposing organizationalcommitment to be the dependent variable. Organizational characteristics and job characteristics are the antecedent variables examined in this study because of their relevance to employee attraction and retention, as well as their positive contribution to organizationalcommitment (Defourny et al., 2009; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). However, very few studies investigated both antecedents in conjunction; thus, it is not clear whether they produce comparable results when measured simultaneously. Furthermore, though there is a relatively large number of studies of the two variables in the context of the private-sector, few studies have paid attention to them in the context of the publicsector, especially that of arts-and-culture organizations. The present study addresses this gap by examining the combined effect of both variables on organizationalcommitment of employees in arts-and-culture organizations.
Formalization refers to “the amount of written documentation in the organization” (Daft, 1995: 16). It indicates the extent to which job tasks are defined by formal regulations and procedures (Michaels et al., 1988). These rules and procedures are written to standardize operations in organizations. Standardization is the extent to which employees work according to standard procedures and rules in an organization (Hsieh and Hsieh, 2001). It ensures employees complete their duties and tasks in the required manner, and therefore, ensures that an employee's actions and behaviors are routine and predictable (Jones, 2013), and that similar work activities are performed in a uniform manner at all locations (Daft, 1995). Formalization and standardization are control mechanisms which seek to ensure that employee behaviors contribute to the achievement of goals in organizations. Price (1997) stated that formalization and standardization often coincide; however rules and procedures may not embodied in written document in small organization. When formalization and standardization are extensive in an organization; employees are accountable for their actions, and have no authority to break rules (Jones, 2013).
Government is facing the wave of change in ensuring the best possible service can be provided to the public. The unification of a number of employees have bring together various of people and perceptions, and therefore a specialty of organizational cultures are combined. The organizationalculture of an organization has an effect on the change management. A fit between the organizationalculture and the employees will increase the effectiveness of change management towards improved the delivery of service. The objectives of this study is to examine the relationship between organizationalculture and change management in publicsector organization. This study also will identify the impact between organizationalculture and change management in publicsector organization. A total of 400 sets of questionnaires have been distributed by hand to employees who work at Ministry Of Home Affairs, Prime Minister’s Department and Ministry Of Education in Malaysia as a representatives of employees in publicsector organization and 390 questionnaires were returned for analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Research findings revealed there was a change management existed among the respondents. Significant values for each element in independent variable which the items of communication, training and development, shared values and teamwork were reliable which the reliability value for independent variables are Communication; 0.785, Training and Development; 0.843, Shared Values; 0.890 and Teamwork; 0.820. It can be concluded that organizationalculture has a significant effect on the change management of publicsector organization in Malaysia. For the future research, it is better for researcher to explore more on shared values and training and development to get the best result. Besides, other elements such as corporate vision, entrepreneurial, bureaucratic and leadership can be included.
Ho Chi Minh is one of the important cities which contribute greatly to the country. In the process of integration and development, Ho Chi Minh City has always affirmed its role as a center of economy, finance, trade and services of the country; the core of the southern economy, one of the three largest and most important economic areas. According to the strategy of industrialization and modernization, the city is also the motivational region for economic-socio development in Southern areas and the whole country in general. Therefore, it is quite common for both of the publicsector and the private sector in Ho Chi Minh City to compete with each other for attracting more qualified staff. Public organizations have been encountered difficulties in retaining talented employees. As indicated in the study of Vo Quoc Hung and Cao Hao Thi (2010), the number of publicemployees leaving their jobs for foreign and private companies in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi accounted for two-thirds of people who had resigned from work. It appears that one of the major reasons which lead to the decline is the lack of organizationalcommitment (Nguyen Xuan Tung, 2010). Also, it is said that policies related to salary, promotion opportunities and work environment in public
Probably, what appears to be a comprehensive conceptualization of HRD was given by Rodrigues and Chincholkar (2005, pp. 6-20) as the process of improving, moulding and changing skills, knowledge, creative abilities, aptitude, attitude, values, commitment, based on present and future job and organizational requirements for improved productivity in the workplace. In the same vein, the HRD-SA (2009), describes HRD “as the formal and explic- it activities that will enhance the ability of all individuals to reach their full potential” (cited in Moorhouse and Cunningham, 2010, pp. 587-597). Emphasizing the importance of HRD on employees‟ improved performance; Riordan el at (2005, pp. 471-488), argue that appro- priate, ongoing training enables employees to develop the knowledge required for effective performance in an organization for higher productivity. On their part, Paprock et al, (2006, pp. 46-61), posit that evidences abound from the public and private sectors about the unique role of HRD in bringing about the availability in an organization of competent employees for improved performance.
Organisational Commitment has turn out to be vital for the business organisations, due to developments in technology and increase in global competition also there is a rapid growth of services sector in all parts of the world. In the service sector organisations, the employee plays a vital role to complete the objectives, targets and tasks, to accomplish determination in the global competitive world. It is necessary for the organisations that their employees show committed and continue in the organisation. Organisational commitment is defined as a warm desire to stay as an employee of a particular organisation and trust in, and accept the measures and objectives of his/her organisation. Organisational commitment represents employees’ positive attitude in the direction of their organisation and committed employees has a significant impact on development in the performance of their organisation. The current article has been done to evaluate the organisational commitment of male & female employees and married & single employees working in banks. A sample of employees working in publicsector and private sector banks in Visakhapatnam has been selected for the present study. Stratified Random Sampling was used for this study. The findings of the study recommends that the publicsector and private sector banks have to adopt the strategies to improve the Organisational Commitment for the single employees so that they get more motivated and attached to their organisation.
In the area of human resource, employee’s satisfaction, creativity and innovation mostly depend on organizationalcommitment. Most of the earlier studies discussed the psychological empowerment, organizational learning culture, supportive leadership and organizationalcommitment separately but very little researches are conducted on this variable with supportive leadership as a moderator variable. There is no research identify the effects of psychological empowerment as a individual characteristic and influence of supportive leadership as a organizational factor on organizationalcommitment. After study we found that this is very serious gap. With the passage of time the organizations become global and multinational very quickly the organization face very difficulties due to technology and environmental variation. Further most research on this topic has focused on the employees of private sector. Psychological empowerment, organizational learning culture, leadership and organizationalcommitment are also critical for the employees in publicsector. We can try to fill the research gap main focusing on the effects of the supportive leadership as moderating variable and the relationship of the psychological empowerment and organizationalcommitment.
In Saudi Arabia, public organizations have been associated with poor management and performance. Little is understood about the reasons behind such poor performance. Therefore, this study examined the effect of organizationalculture and leadership styles on the performance of Saudi Arabia’s public organizations, through the mediating factors of organizationalcommitment and job satisfaction. In this quantitative research, cross-sectional data of 400 employees working in 16 ministries of the Saudi Arabia government were obtained. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied to test the hypotheses. The validity and reliability of the measurement and the structural models were confirmed. Findings showed a full mediation effect of organizationalcommitment on the relationship between organizationalculture and organizational performance, but organizationalcommitment was found to partially mediate the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance. No mediation of job satisfaction was found on the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance and on the relationship between organizationalculture and organizational performance. The findings add to the existing literature by integrating the factors that could enhance organizational performance. Based on the findings, the study recommends that public organizations in Saudi Arabia improve their organizationalculture and appoint managers who have transactional and transformational qualities. By doing so, employee commitment is enhanced, which leads to a positive and significant impact on organizational performance. The implications for practice and for future research are also discussed.
The fundamental objective of the study is to find the impact of organizationalculture and emotional intelligence on performance of education sectors of Pakistan. Educational performance may enhance if personnel of institutions are more motivated and committed to their work. Findings of the study indicated that organizationalculture and emotional intelligence a plays a significant role in employee’s motivation and organizationalcommitment in education sector of Pakistan because every institutions has its own culture for the purpose of getting desirable performance in educational institutions they need to develop good culture which should be relevant strategically. And it should be strong than employees adopt the changing circumstances and enhance their organizations performance. Culture understands clearly an important ingredient of effective institutional performance. There is a close relationship between an organization’s culture and its performance. Emotional intelligent also create significant impact of performance in education sector of Pakistan. Because its ability of a person to understand their own feelings and also the feelings of other person. Intelligent people can handle the situation in best way and adopt the new changes quickly that why emotional intelligent create a significant influence in enhancing educational sector performance of Pakistan because Pakistani nation is strongly follow their culture and perform responsibilities in effective way.
which power is defined as the ability to equip human and material resources to achieve organizational achievement. Success over personality traits Cantor says empowerment is largely influenced by structural factors within the organization, and an empowering work environment ensures that employees have access to information, resources, support and learning opportunities. Other factors that facilitate access include specific job characteristics and relationships. The model tested in this study examined structural empowerment along with areas of work life, conflict, burnout, and organizationalcommitment. , Was able to achieve effective performance that led to a better understanding of the job in the area above, so that empowered employees feel more in control of the workplace and in this context they are more involved in the job activity. It was the kind of predictive and inexperienced one that included 496 newly graduated nurses studying in Ontario. Of these, only 226 returned the questionnaires in a usable manner. But the sample was sufficiently representative to conform to the research criteria. The majority of sample members (93.4%) were women and more than half (52.2%) were married or had a formal or informal life together. Their mean age was 27 years and had 20 months of nursing experience.
These tensions and demands exist for a variety of reasons. Nonprofit organizations have a rich tradition based in grassroots efforts, volunteerism and social movements. The sector has historically addressed adaptive challenges – that is, complex civic challenges that are not easily solvable (Heifetz, 2010). This requires a level of external focus as well as flexible and adaptable thinking. But as the community needs, funding sources, and regulations change, the sector has had to adapt (Salamon 2012). For example, there are changes related to regulations demanded by various funding sources, such as Medicaid and commercial insurance. This has led to need for organizations to respond with and create some value for internal controls and bureaucracy in order to survive. There is more competition from both for-profit and nonprofit human service providers, leading to a market-based or commercialism impulse. These internal and external demands, in some ways, mirror the internal and external tensions that Cameron and Quinn suggest is central to the competing values framework (2006).
The Indian banking industry has its foundations in the 18th century, and has had a varied evolutionary experience since then. . Major strides towards public ownership and accountability were made with nationalization in 1969 and 1980 which transformed the face of banking in India. The industry in recent times has recognized the importance of private and foreign players in a competitive scenario and has moved towards greater liberalization
performance and behavioral outcomes such as lower absenteeism (Angle and Perry 1981), lower turnover (Mowday et al. 1982), and improved productivity and performance (Meyer et al. 2002; Vandenabeele 2009). Understanding how organizationalcommitment can be enhanced through servant leadership is particularly important given the limited success that pay-for-performance programs had in China in the past to increase commitment among civil servants. The Civil Service Law that took effect in 2006, replacing the 1993 Provisional Regulations on State Civil Servants, sought to encourage high performance by increasing the percentage of civil servants who can obtain an “excellent” rating in the annual appraisals from 10 per cent to 20 per cent (Liu and Dong 2012). The new law also added a fourth category (almost competent) to the previous three-level assessment (excellent, competent, and incompetent). In the past, supervisors had hardly ever used the “incompetent” category. While the revised appraisal system was intended to better determine merit-based rewards, in practice it has had little impact. Chinese supervisors often continue to periodically rotate additional funds among their subordinates to maintain equality – reducing any pay differential and extrinsic incentive for high performance in the long run (Liu and Tang 2011). Therefore, a leadership style that nurtures the potential of subordinates may be more appropriate to increase commitment.
Organizations struggle for eternal success which depends on many external and internal factors (Alvesson & Karreman, 2016). Out of these factors, human resource is considered to be the most valuable, strategic and crucial internal factor that leads an organization towards victory and run it competently, effectively and efficiently (Brewster, 2017). Human resource, capital, technology and quality processes are the core pillars of any organization; and can be a source of competitive advantage due to their uniqueness (Obeidat et al., 2018). Human resource is an asset that operates the processes and deal with the technology usage. That’s why the attention of organizations has moved to “people” i.e. employees of an organization (Stone et al., 2015). Employees play a crucial role in organization. Their high level of involvement and commitment is a source of increase in the performance and productivity of any type of organization (Kaplan & Kaplan, 2018). Organizationalcommitment is of the key parameters for any organization in order to keep satisfying the employees and expecting them to perform better for the organization in return (Yousef, 2017).
Early researchers on organizational behavior Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H., (1982) found a clear relationship between culture and organizational performance. This cultural value is consistent with the organization's chosen strategy that leads to a successful organization. Meanwhile, Schein, (2004) defines organizationalculture as a dynamic force within an organization that is revolving, engaging and interactive and shaped by employee and management cues and behaviors. Preliminary studies show that there is a relationship between organizationalculture and performance. An organization's culture allows employees to become familiar with both the company's history and current operating methods and this special detection gives employees guidance on expected and acceptable future organizational behavior and organizational norms (Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. M., 2007). Strong organizationalculture supports adaptation and develops the performance of organizationalemployees by motivating employees toward common goals and goals (Uddin M.J, et al, 2013).
could evaluate organizational identification as a moderating variable in relation to employees’ involvement, engagement, or citizenship in both public and private companies, as suggested in the study by Tavares et al. (2016). Still reflecting on the perspective of public management, a proposal for a future study would be to evaluate how the sense of justice and specific human resource policies in public companies influence organizational identification – elements already pointed out in the literature as potential factors in the strengthening and weakening of bonds and belongingness within these companies. The evaluation of how these phenomena unfold over time and throughout the interactions and experiences lived by employees in these organizations also deserves to be emphasized, to allow a more global and dynamic understanding of the connections between Brazilian employees and public companies, and to advance knowledge about the identification phenomenon and its impact in the organizational context. Finally, we recommend that complementary investigations be carried out to explore the implications of organizational disidentification and misalignment of values in public settings governed by more or less rigid norms, and with varied levels of bureaucracy and employee participation in decision-making.