The third Deaf participant, a recent college graduate, went to a deaf residential school in high school, which was four hours away from her home. She would stay at the residential school during the week and return home on the weekends. Her parents are not in the scientific field, and she graduated with a Criminal Justice Masters degree, therefore her studies are concentrated in the humanities field. Her experience at the residential school has been mainly positive when it came to science and math. She had one math teacher for all the classes, since her school was very small. Her class was around twenty-five students. If she needed to take classes her school did not offer, it would be at the public school across the street. From her experience, she believed there should be more staff well equipped with mathematics and science. At the dormitory, there was two staff for each floor of students, from elementary to high school. Only one person out of six staff was equipped to help with math and science assignments. “The other staff members were much older, so it has been many years since they’ve taken those courses”.
No two people with a hearing loss experience the loss in exactly the same way. There are several types of hearing loss and factors that determine the impact that the hearing loss has on language development. A person may be born with a hearing loss or may become hard of hearing due to an accident or illness later in life. If the age of onset occurs before the acquisition of language and the development of speech (roughly two years of age), the individual may have language-based deficiencies that interfere with language syntax and vocabulary that is auditory-based. Because the usual way of acquiring language through auditory means is affected by hearing loss, visual learning of language takes the place of auditory learning. People who are deaf or hard of hearing vary widely in their hearing and language abilities. Understanding the nature and extent of the hearing loss and how it affects the student is imperative in providing appropriate accommodations. Often the best source of learning what accommodations are needed is to ask the student.
The study utilized individual in-depth and focus group discussion interviews to collect data on the teaching and communication aspects with the deaf and hard- of- hearingstudents. Documents such as the teaching -learning syllabus and reference materials used by special needs education teachers were also reviewed on policies on teaching the deaf and hard-of-hearingstudents. The use of multiple data collection tools allowed for in-depth exploration of the phenomenon under study. Eleven (11) teacher participants took part in individual in-depth interviews while seven (7) participated in a focus group discussion interview. The individual in-depth interview semi-structured questions required the participants to explain their experiences in teaching the deaf and hard-of- hearing learners using the mainstream curriculum. Due to the nature of the phenomenon explored individual in-depth interviews were used as they enabled for eliciting of explanations on the teaching experiences by the teachers of deaf and hard- of- hearingstudents. They also allowed for more probing to get explanations and also guaranteed high response rate. The main probe for the focus group discussion interview asked participants for their views on the teaching and communication aspects of the deaf and hard-of-hearingstudents using the mainstream curriculum in the special needs high school for the deaf. The focus group discussion interview permitted for the collection of extensive and high quality data since there was consented effort from all group participants to discuss their experiences. This reflected the consensus of the group. Both the individual in-depth and focus group discussion interview guides were piloted for contextual relevance and question accessibility on a panel of two (2) deafeducation experts and two (2) teachers of deaf and hard- of- hearingstudents. The same panel for the pilot study forward translated both the individual in-depth and focus group discussion interview guides into Siswati for use by participants preferring to use the local language.
providing effective treatment (Hood & Johnson, 2002). Understanding the aspects associated with the long-term effects of bullying may strengthen the initial assessment phase of counseling by assisting college mental health professionals to identify former victims of bullying and determining if further assessment of associated consequences is needed. Retrospective studies of college students who experienced bullying during childhood and/or adolescence were more likely than non-bullied peers to experience depression (Roth et al. 2002; Storch et al., 2001), anxiety disorders (McCabe, et al., 2003; Roth, Cole, &Heimburg) and problems in interpersonal relationships (Ledley et al, 2006; Schafer et al., 2004). College students who recalled a history of bullying during school age years reported more symptoms of depression in comparison to adults who did not recall experiencing bullying during their primary and secondary school years (Hawker & Boulton; Jantzer et al.; Olweus, 1993). Additionally, college students who reported being former victims of school-aged bullying were more likely to endorse feeling that they had little control over outcomes in their lives (Dempsey & Storch, 2008) and lower self- esteem (Olweus). These factors also have been found to be associated with a greater risk for depression (Orth, Robins, Trzesniewski, Maes, & Schmitt, 2009; Robbins & Hayes, 1995).
Two hundred seventy-nine college students enrolled in entry-level psychology courses at GSU agreed to participate in this study. Of these 279 participants, seven did not complete the survey and were omitted from further analysis; therefore, 272 participants finished the survey. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 48 (M = 20.69, SD = 4.38) and were racially diverse (39% White, 30% Black, 10% Asian, 7% Latino, 7% Multiracial, and 5% Other). Just less than half of the sample (45%) identified as politically Middle Of The Road, 31% identified as Somewhat or Very Liberal, 20% as Somewhat or Very Conservative, and 4% as Other. About half (55%) of the sample identified as Christian, 15% as Spiritual But Not Religious, 13% as Atheist or Agnostic, 13% as Other, and 5% as Muslim. The majority of the sample (74%) identified as Women, which is higher than the university population (approximately 60% women) (GSU, 2009) but is
In addition to muscle stimulus of bone tissue, the mechanical loading imposed by specific sports activities is accompanied by site-specific enhancement of BMD (27). Skeletal tissue appears to be particularly responsive to dynamic loading as opposed to static loading (28). In order to elicit a significant osteogenic response, sports-related mechanical stimuli are most effective when the threshold intensity is exceeded. In addition, strain frequency is a factor, since the biological response of bone to mechanical stimulation is most effective during sports involving brief but intermittent patterns of exertion. As a result, sports involving high-impact and odd-impact motion, such as volleyball, hurdling and squash have a more pronounced effect on BMD than lower- impact sports such as running, swimming and diving (29).
the most relevant information, like articles, news or Web pages, to the contents of long queries. Although long queries are more convenient to express complex and specific information needs than the keyword-based queries, current commercial search engines, in general, perform worse with long queries than with short ones. The major reason is that most search engines respond to a user’s query by using the Bag-of-Words model , which assumes queries and Web documents are composed of individual words neither related nor ordered. However, for long natural language queries, tokens are ordered words and phrases with underlying semantic relationships. Thus, a lack of sufficient natural language parsing causes search engines not to understand semantic queries . Also, since traditional search engines treat all terms from the users’ inputs equally, they lose focus on the key concepts that have the most impact on the retrieval results . Thus, noise or redundant terms will further degrade the effectiveness of long query Web searches if searching all query terms equally . Users may frequently experience the needs to convert their long natural language queries into a few adequate terms for retrieving precise search results, which increases users’ burdens.
The “constructivist” perspective on the other hand, portrays foreign aid as a social norm that emerges from the interaction between rich and poor nations. This view argues that foreign aid cannot be explained in terms of political or economic interests instead, foreign aid is predicated on the belief that long-term peace and prosperity is only possible in a generous and just world order (Lumsdaine 1993). Inherent in the current U.S. foreign aid policies are some of these constructivist notions. For instance, “the National Security Strategy introduced by President Bush in September 2002, underscores that, although poverty, poor health and lack of economic opportunity do not lead directly to unrest and terrorism; they can be their precursors” (Kerlin 2006a). The inherent security concerns however, may have reinforced the politicization of U.S. foreign aid, thus overriding the development-oriented purposes explicit in the constructivist perspective.
With this methodological issue in mind, the evaluation of the WHO-CIDI consisted of a modified test-retest design. Clinical interviewers were unblinded to the survey results and participants were forced to discuss each of the stem questions with a clinician. In order to further reduce the effect of interview fatigue, the order of the questions was changed between the test and retest. The result of this evaluation was to create a statistical model for judging the relative proportions of WHO-CIDI surveys needing additional structured clinical interviews for validity. This method was applied to the NCS-R and included 677 individuals from the NSAL. Each of these individuals received a structured clinical interview in addition to the WHO-CIDI survey which evaluated the prevalence of Major Depressive Episodes, Dysthymia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Drug and Alcohol Abuse-Dependence.
Program (Wilson, 2007; Wilson, Fox, & Pascoe, 2003; 2008). To increase language acquisition, LL is designed to teach students grammatical forms such as determiners, tense, and complementizers from Chomsky‟s functional category in developmental order (Wilson; Wilson et al., 2003; 2008). Determiners are the head of the sentence and dictate the grammar that follows in the sentence. Determiners modify nouns and cannot exist outside of a noun phrase (Moats, 2000; Wilson et al., 2003; 2008). For example, when starting a sentence with “the”, the next word can be “boy” but it can never be “he.” Tense is associated with verbs and also dictates the grammar of the entire sentence (Moats; Wilson). For example, when using the phrase “jumped”, the next word can be “high” or “over the fence” but it can never be “will”. Complementizers introduce and characterize complement clauses, which tell the audience more information about the proposition expressed in a clause (Adger, 2003; Wilson). For example, the complementizers “if” and “whether” can be used in both, “We asked whether the dinner was ready” and “We wondered if the dinner was ready” to let the audience know that both clauses are interrogative. The LL software program attempts to combine these forms of
ANOVA was used to compare dietary, exertion, and soreness data. To ensure that groups had adequate data to run ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests, it was necessary to place data into tertiles, though none of these tests proved significant. Dietary tertiles were created by first dividing food and supplement variables into plant- and fish-based types and then dividing the overall FFQ score range of each type by three. Dietary tertiles were also created for each individual food and supplement variable in the same manner. Exertion tertiles were derived from the combination of scores into the following groups: 0-2 (“nothing at all” to “light”), 3-6 (“moderate” to “more than hard”), and 7-10 (“very hard” to “very, very hard”). Soreness tertiles were derived from the combination of scores into the following groups: 1-2 (“no pain” to “dull vague ache”), 3-4 (“slight persistent pain” to “more than slight pain”), and 5-7 (“painful” to “unbearably painful”).
Obesity-related diseases impose billions of dollars in medical expenditures on state and local governments each year (Wolf and Colditz 1998; Finkelstein et al. 2003). Because of the diseases’ preventable perception, governments at all levels are enacting policies aimed towards reducing obesity rates while simultaneously seeking to understand underlying causes. A substantial literature now exists researching the economic causes of obesity (Finkelstein et al. 2005). One category of studies identifies strong spatial patterns of obesity, such as higher incidence in economically disadvantaged areas net of individual characteristics (Robert and Reither 2004). Within this vein there is an established positive association between urban sprawl and obesity (Ewing et al. 2003; Giles-Corti et al. 2003; Saelens et al. 2003; Frank et al. 2004; Lopez 2004; Rashad and Eriksen 2005; Zhao and Kaestner 2009). Still only a correlation, the most commonly asserted explanation is that suburbia imposes an automobile-dependent and sedentary lifestyle (Plantiga and Bernell 2005).
The development of these standards was a multi-faceted process. An initial set of standards were drafted based on recommendations from academic journals, national organizations, government agencies at the state and federal levels, and publications from specialized providers with experience working with deaf and hard of hearing clients. Extensive reviews of the standards were conducted by the Daylight Project's Standards Work Group, composed of members of the deaf and hard of hearing communities, representatives of advocacy organizations, mental health and substance abuse clinicians, and administrators of mental health and substance abuse programs. The Standards Work Group provided insight on existing Colorado standards, practices, and needs, and additional information was provided through consultation with experts outside of Colorado.
The ideal physical education environment is the one where physical education teachers help students to enjoy physical activity, promoting a healthy life style and fitness. For many students the physical education classes are the only mo- ment of physical activity during the day (Stewart & Ellis, 1999; Zaccagnini, 2005). In case of deafstudents, the benefits from physical education could be improved with some adaptations. The strategies for teaching deafstudents should also consider the instruction of the activities and communication with the deafstudents. In some cases the teacher should change the rules of the activ- ity to avoid the exclusion of these students (Lieberman & Cowart, 1996). Ac- cording to Fiorini & Manzini (2018) the better estrategies to promote the par- ticipation of the deafstudents in the same activities as the others are those sim- ple activities with a teaching purpose and that respected the characteristics, needs and potentialities of these students.
Darren Newbury (1997) also indicated his concerns with traditional photography teaching and how teachers had a propensity to disregard the visual content and impact that photographs can have; “the project briefs that students are set rarely ask them to question the meanings implicit in the dominant imagery they produce in their own work, nor are they asked to consider the social context in which images are used and given value” (p. 426). Most of the Web-based photography assignments described in Abrahmov and Ronen’s study asked students to select a photo from the World Wide Web using certain criteria for each assignment. They were to analyze the photograph according to various factors such as, composition, lighting, or the statement that the photograph makes. There were usually also asked to include a personal response to the photograph selected. In many assignments, students were required to respond to another student’s post in order to critique it and give feedback. This is a great way to incorporate critique and visual literacy into a photography class; in my own classes, I could see using these types of assignments as part of a weekly blog for student responses. Another way that teachers could incorporate this type of lesson would be for them have students upload their own
difficulty was also not supported in the analyses. Prior research indicates that Blacks are more likely than Whites to prefer prison over other sanctions (Crouch, 1993; May et al., 2005; Wood & May, 2003). Therefore, the hypothesis in the current study tested if Blacks are less likely than Whites to perceive prison as difficult due to the findings regarding the preference of sanctions. However, the racial findings in the current study were not significant. Therefore, race does not seem to play a role in the perceptions of the difficulty of prison life (at least not after controlling for education and other important variables). In fact, previous research indicates that observed racial differences in prison adaptation may be more correlated with economic marginality than race (Wright, 1989); however, this idea could not be tested in the current study, as the Nebraska Inmate Survey does not include information that would allow economic marginality to be measured.
Public school systems continue to eliminate technical programs from high schools, particularly in light of the failing economy (Brewer 2004). Programs that had previously been mainstays, such as woodshop, cosmetology, graphic design, printing, and horticulture, are now unavailable. The reasons for their removal can be attributed to budgetary problems and a shift in thinking from work force preparation of students to a more college preparatory route. However, not every graduate plans to attend college, especially low income, disadvantaged teens. Having only received instruction in high school based on college entry, they are now without entry-level skills to earn valuable and sufficient employment. These subjects and trades could be
Act successfully transformed drug users from a medical population in need of treatment to a criminal population in need of imprisonment. The view that crack by its very nature called for a penal rather than a medical response justified mandatory sentencing policies that targeted racialized groups. The media panic surrounding the “crack addict” and the “gangster” served as justification for the heightened surveillance of Black men and women in inner-city communities of color. These policies also created a criminalized Black womanhood that constructs Black women’s involvement in the drug culture. This criminalized subject is seen in the way that the Black woman has been stereotyped in the War on Drugs as the “crack-mother” incapable of taking care of herself and her baby and deserving of punishment for placing the fetus’s life at risk; the “crack-whore” morally depraved prostitute selling her body for crack; and the “drug dealer’s girlfriend” all-knowing conspirator with the freedom to choose to stay or leave a