Top PDF Impact of forest plantation on methane emissions from tropical peatland

Impact of forest plantation on methane emissions from tropical peatland

Impact of forest plantation on methane emissions from tropical peatland

Abstract Tropical peatlands are a known source of methane (CH 4 ) to the atmosphere, but their contribution to atmospheric CH 4 is poorly constrained. Since the 1980s, extensive areas of the peatlands in Southeast Asia have experienced land-cover change to smallholder agriculture and forest plantations. This land-cover change generally involves lowering of groundwater level (GWL), as well as modification of vegetation type, both of which potentially influence CH 4 emissions. We measured CH 4 exchanges at the landscape scale using eddy covariance towers over two land-cover types in tropical peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia: (a) a natural forest and (b) an Acacia crassicarpa plantation. Annual CH 4 exchanges over the natural forest (9.1 ± 0.9 g CH 4 m −2 year −1 ) were around twice as high as those of the Acacia plantation (4.7 ± 1.5 g CH 4 m −2 year −1 ). Results highlight that tropical peatlands are significant CH 4 sources, and probably have a greater im- pact on global atmospheric CH 4 concentrations than previously thought. Observations showed a clear diurnal variation in CH 4 exchange over the natural forest where the GWL was higher than 40 cm below the ground surface. The diurnal variation in CH 4 exchanges was strongly correlated with associated changes in the canopy conduct- ance to water vapor, photosynthetic photon flux density, vapor pressure deficit, and air temperature. The absence of a comparable diurnal pattern in CH 4 exchange over the Acacia plantation may be the result of the GWL being consistently below the root zone. Our results, which are among the first eddy covariance CH 4 exchange data reported for any tropical peatland, should help to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of CH 4 emissions from a globally important ecosystem, provide a more complete estimate of the impact of land-cover change on tropical peat, and develop science-based peatland management practices that help to minimize greenhouse gas emissions.
Show more

19 Read more

From peat swamp forest to oil palm plantations: The stability of tropical peatland carbon

From peat swamp forest to oil palm plantations: The stability of tropical peatland carbon

Accurate assessment of tropical peatland carbon dynamics is important to (a) determine the size of the active car- bon pool, (b) estimate the scale of transfers of peat-derived greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere resulting from land use change, and (c) support carbon emissions reduction policies. To date, information on the quality of tropical peatland organic matter and its sensitivity to increases in global temperatures is limited, particularly in the context of land conversion. The aim of this work is therefore to determine peat quality and temperature response of potential GHG emissions under flooded conditions from tropical peatland sites. Whilst reflecting the process of conversion from forest to oil palm plantation. Four land use types that represent the stages of con- version from peat swamp forest to oil palm were chosen: (i) secondary ‘forest’, (ii) recently ‘drained’ but not cleared forest (iii) cleared and recently planted ‘young oil palm’ plantation and (iv) ‘mature oil palm’ plantation. Overall, surface peat carbon was more labile than deeper peats. The largest labile pool was measured at forest sites. In the later stages of land conversion, the labile carbon had been lost and the relative abundance of recal- citrant organic material increased. Potential GHG fluxes were greatest in surface peats compared to deeper peats and declined as labile carbon was depleted following land conversion. Higher temperatures resulted in higher potential GHG emissions at all stages of conversion, but the magnitude of the temperature response depended
Show more

10 Read more

Fluvial organic carbon fluxes from oil palm plantations on tropical peatland

Fluvial organic carbon fluxes from oil palm plantations on tropical peatland

The conversion of peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation involves a sequence of major disturbances, principally in the form of deforestation and drainage to optimise soil moisture conditions for cultivation (Hooijer et al., 2010; Page et al., 2011b; Schrier-Uijl et al., 2013). Prior to planting, peat sur- faces are typically compacted using caterpillar-tracked vehi- cles in order to improve the rooting stability of the palms and to help with subsequent machinery movement during harvesting (Melling and Henson, 2011). These processes al- ter the peat’s natural hydrological and biogeochemical func- tions, resulting in increased peat decomposition, loss of wa- ter storage and long-term subsidence (Hooijer et al., 2010; Tonks et al., 2017). This can give rise to oxidation of soil organic matter accumulated over millennia and to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Couwenberg et al., 2010; Hirano et al., 2012). The result is often a reversal of the peat- land carbon balance: from a net sink for atmospheric car- bon to a net source (Miettinen et al., 2017). Managed land- use types now contribute to approximately 78 % of South- east Asia’s total GHG emissions related to peat oxidation (146 Mt C yr −1 ; Miettinen et al., 2017).
Show more

16 Read more

Visualizing the Spatiotemporal Trends of Thermal Characteristics in a Peatland Plantation Forest in Indonesia: Pilot Test Using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

Visualizing the Spatiotemporal Trends of Thermal Characteristics in a Peatland Plantation Forest in Indonesia: Pilot Test Using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

Abstract: The high demand for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) reflects the notable impact that these systems have had on the remote sensing field in recent years. Such systems can be used to discover new findings and develop strategic plans in related scientific fields. In this work, a case study is performed to describe a novel approach that uses a UAS with two different sensors and assesses the possibility of monitoring peatland in a small area of a plantation forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. First, a multicopter drone with an onboard camera was used to collect aerial images of the study area. The structure from motion (SfM) method was implemented to generate a mosaic image. A digital surface model (DSM) and digital terrain model (DTM) were used to compute a canopy height model (CHM) and explore the vegetation height. Second, a multicopter drone combined with a thermal infrared camera (Zenmuse-XT) was utilized to collect both spatial and temporal thermal data from the study area. The temperature is an important factor that controls the oxidation of tropical peats by microorganisms, root respiration, the soil water content, and so forth. In turn, these processes can alter the greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in the area. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the thermal data were processed to visualize the thermal characteristics of the study site, and the PCA successfully extracted different feature areas. The trends in the thermal information clearly show the differences among land cover types, and the heating and cooling of the peat varies throughout the study area. This study shows the potential for using UAS thermal remote sensing to interpret the characteristics of thermal trends in peatland environments, and the proposed method can be used to guide strategical approaches for monitoring the peatlands in Indonesia.
Show more

16 Read more

Impact of land use change on greenhouse gases emissions in peatland: a review

Impact of land use change on greenhouse gases emissions in peatland: a review

among regions. Northern boreal and temperate peatland is usually covered by small vegetation, sphagnum (bog) and carex and shrub (fen). On the other hand, tropical peatland is covered by trees (peat swamp forest). Northern boreal and temperate peat profile is composed of fine fibric vege- tation materials, it makes fine pore system. On the other hand, tropical peat profile contains woody materials, it makes macropore system. Therefore, natural tropical peat- land has high water permeability (Melling, 2016).

7 Read more

Fluvial organic carbon fluxes from oil palm plantations on tropical peatland

Fluvial organic carbon fluxes from oil palm plantations on tropical peatland

The conversion of peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation involves a sequence of major disturbances, principally in the form of deforestation and drainage to optimise soil moisture conditions for cultivation (Hooijer et al., 2010; Page et al., 2011b; Schrier-Uijl et al., 2013). Prior to planting, peat sur- faces are typically compacted using caterpillar-tracked vehi- cles in order to improve the rooting stability of the palms and to help with subsequent machinery movement during harvesting (Melling and Henson, 2011). These processes al- ter the peat’s natural hydrological and biogeochemical func- tions, resulting in increased peat decomposition, loss of wa- ter storage and long-term subsidence (Hooijer et al., 2010; Tonks et al., 2017). This can give rise to oxidation of soil organic matter accumulated over millennia and to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Couwenberg et al., 2010; Hirano et al., 2012). The result is often a reversal of the peat- land carbon balance: from a net sink for atmospheric car- bon to a net source (Miettinen et al., 2017). Managed land- use types now contribute to approximately 78 % of South- east Asia’s total GHG emissions related to peat oxidation (146 Mt C yr −1 ; Miettinen et al., 2017).
Show more

17 Read more

How To Calculate Methane Emissions From Oil And Gas

How To Calculate Methane Emissions From Oil And Gas

A proper understanding of current and future methane emissions is necessary for enhancing the effectiveness of efforts to manage emissions across the sector. Unfortunately existing estimates are severally lacking both in quality and coverage. As demonstrated in this report, there is a wide variation in effective national methane leakage rates and insufficient information to diagnose the extent to which these differences stem from variation in resource type (e.g. onshore versus offshore oil and gas), production practices, policy and technology, or are the result of poor or incomplete measurement. Many countries report only aggregate methane emissions numbers and at infrequent intervals. Some countries don’t report GHG emissions at all. This report highlights some of the most significant shortcomings in currently available data in the interest of raising awareness and helping to guide efforts to improve measurement and reporting systems to ultimately enhance the effectiveness of GHG mitigation strategies.
Show more

29 Read more

The effects of peatland restoration on methane and carbon dioxide fluxes

The effects of peatland restoration on methane and carbon dioxide fluxes

A raised water-table position as a peatland restoration technique, should alter CO 2 and CH 4 dynamics, as shown in Figure 2.1b in the following ways. The anoxic zone increases in size, which increases the carbon storage potential. A larger anoxic zone will be able to store greater amounts of dead organic matter, slowing down the decomposition process and therefore storing the carbon within; however, a larger anoxic zone also increases the potential for methanogenesis. Greater amounts of dead organic matter will provide a larger energy source for methanogens to consume and produce CH 4 , which suggests more CH 4 will be produced. A raised water-table position also results in a smaller oxic zone, which should lead to a reduction in CO 2 emissions, through less dead organic matter subjected to oxic conditions where decomposition can occur. Soil respiration rates should also be reduced through a smaller oxic zone, leading to further reductions in CO 2 emissions. Methanotrophs will have a smaller habitat within a thinner oxic zones, which will increase the amount of CH 4 that can escape through the oxic zone via diffusion or ebullition from the deeper anoxic layers into the atmosphere. The existence of these processes are generally agreed upon in a number of peatland carbon cycling reviews (Blodau, 2002; Lai, 2009; Le Mer and Roger, 2001; Limpens et al., 2008).
Show more

274 Read more

Methane emissions from dairy lagoons in western U.S.

Methane emissions from dairy lagoons in western U.S.

At D6, we noted spikes in emissions during the spring peaking on d 104 as well as spikes in the fall and winter centered on d 304 and 345. In the spring at D6, several factors that, when combined, likely caused high emis- sion rates. We observed a large number of windy days between d 77 and 105, with several days of wind speeds that were above 5 m/s. In addition, some rain fell dur- ing this time period, which would cause perturbation of the lagoon surface. In addition, during this time period we found a 60% increase in COD (compared with previ- ous sampling date) with a concomitant 56% decrease in DO (Figure 3). These changes in chemical charac- teristics of the lagoon suggest that not only was there greater substrate present, but there were greater reduc- ing conditions as well, which combined would enhance
Show more

19 Read more

Methane Emissions From Wetland Trees: Controls and Variability

Methane Emissions From Wetland Trees: Controls and Variability

5.2b). Multiple regression analysis indicates that stem diameter, wood specific density and pore-water CH 4 concentrations explain up to 80% (R2 = 0.808; P < 0.0001) of stem-CFL* flux variations (Table 5.2). These relationships were observed for fluxes measured at all stem heights (20-50, 60-90 and 100-130 cm above the soil surface). Stem diameter and wood specific density were inversely related to stem-CFLi flux, whereas pore-water CFL* concentrations were positively related to stem-CKU emission rates (Table 5.2). The latter relationship is consistent with findings from previous studies (Rusch & Rennenberg, 1998; Terazawa et al., 2007), but the observation of an inverse relationship between stem-CFLi flux and diameter and wood specific density has not been reported to date. Notably, wood specific density is a well-known indicator of the functional traits and properties o f wood, including porosity and anatomical composition, and varies within individual trees and between trees, commonly being influenced by ecophysiological factors such as flooding (Parolin & Worbes, 2000; Wittmann et al., 2006a, b). Therefore, the lack o f any measurable CH 4 emissions from Cratoxylum arborescens was probably a result of stem
Show more

196 Read more

Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

Dietary strategies to reduce methane emissions from ruminants

Chapter 4 - NITRATE AND SULFATE: METHANE MITIGATION IN SHEEP 72 Effects of Nitrate and Sulfate on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Populations The thermodynamically favorable reduction of nitrate preferentially directs hydrogen away from methanogenesis, but could also draw hydrogen away from other processes such as propionogenesis. Farra and Satter (1971) observed a shift in the VFA profile from propionate to acetate when diets high in nitrate were fed to dairy cows. The butyrate concentration was also significantly reduced. The same phenomenon was observed by Allison and Reddy (1984) when sheep were fed nitrates. No differences in concentrations of these VFA were observed in the present study. A major difference between the current experiment and that of Farra and Satter (1971) is the time of rumen fluid sampling. Farra and Satter (1971), using fistulated cows, sampled 1 h after feeding, whereas our samples were obtained approximately 24 h after feeding. The methane-lowering effect was only apparent in the 12-h period after feeding (Figure 1) and the same may be true for any effects on VFA production, Because both are dependent on the competition for hydrogen in nitrate reduction. In sheep, a shift in VFA proportions from butyrate to acetate was reported when nitrate was included in the diet (Alaboudi and Jones, 1985). However, this shift was only observed up to 1.5 h after feeding. The addition of nitrate to the diets invoked a decrease in the proportion of BCVFA in this experiment. This may reflect a lower level of dietary proteolysis or reduced microbial lysis on this treatment. Rumen fluid of sheep with added sulfate in their diet contained a higher proportion of BCVFA, which may be related to the higher microbial activity on this treatment. Dietary addition of nitrate decreased the number of methanogens in the rumen fluid of these sheep, which may be attributed to a lower electron pool available to the methanogens or to the toxicity of the intermediately formed nitrite during nitrate reduction (Allison et al., 1981). Methanogens are dependent on hydrogen availability and depletion of hydrogen through uptake by nitrate-reducing bacteria may explain the declining population density of methanogens. The lower number of methanogens observed on the nitrate treatment might be an alternative explanation for the reduced methane production observed for this treatment.
Show more

144 Read more

Methane Emissions From Lakes In Northeast Siberia And Alaska

Methane Emissions From Lakes In Northeast Siberia And Alaska

Recent results from two inverse modeling studies using CFI4 isotopes suggested that, compared with bottom-up estimates o f current atmospheric C H 4 sources, the inverse estimates required larger tropical C H 4 fluxes from both bacterial and biomass burning sources with a simultaneous reduction of northern sources. The source-process inversion (M ikaloff Fletcher 2004a) attributed the decrease in northern hemisphere sources to a reduction in fossil-fuel and landfill emissions; while the regional inversion approach (M ikaloff Fletcher 2004b) assigned the largest CFLt-source decrease to boreal Eurasian wetlands (comparing bottom-up estimates o f fluxes v.s\ prediction o f the inverse model). Output from the inversion scenarios predicted emissions o f 9-24 Tg C H 4 yr "1 from boreal Eurasia as a sum o f all sources, which were grouped into three categories: bacterial C H 4, biomass burning, and fossil fuels. Our results from Siberia raise questions about the findings o f M ikaloff Fletcher (2004b) because instead o f a reduction o f northern CH 4 sources, which is required by the inversions, we observed increased C H 4 emissions from Siberian thaw lakes (Chapter 1) and isofluxes from Siberian lakes that are more 13 C- depleted than values assumed by M ikaloff Fletcher (2004b). Inverse modeling must reconcile this additional source o f high-latitude atmospheric C F I4 (lake bubbles), in particular from northern Eurasian yedoma lakes, which has now been characterized and whose 8 13 C c h 4 is depleted (-70.3 %o) relative to the typical value used for northern wetland emissions (-58 %o) and the annual mean value o f atmospheric C H 4 (-47.3% o).
Show more

158 Read more

Quantification of nutrient content in the aboveground biomass of teak plantation in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Udaipur, India

Quantification of nutrient content in the aboveground biomass of teak plantation in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Udaipur, India

The site was located between 23°3'–30°12'N lon- gitude and 69°30'–78°17'E latitude in a tropical dry deciduous forest in the Aravally range of Rajasthan, India. There are three seasons per year: winter (No- vember to February), summer (April to mid-June), and a rainy season (mid-June to mid-September). The months of October and March are transitional periods and are known as autumn and spring, re- spectively. The climate of Rajasthan is tropical with a maximum of 46.3°C and a minimum of 28.8°C during summers. Winters are a little cold with the maximum temperature rising to 26.8°C and the minimum dropping to 2.5°C. The average annual rainfall of the area is 610 mm. Approximately 90% of the rainfall is received from June to September. The average maximum temperature ranges from 42.3 to 46°C and a minimum of 28.8°C during summers and minimum dipping to 26 to 2.5°C, respectively. The soil is alluvial, yellowish brown to deep medium black and loamy with rocky beds. According to the classification of Champion and Seth (1968), the present forest area is categorized under group 5A/(1b) as ‘tropical dry deciduous forest’.
Show more

6 Read more

ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

The first approach is based on the EPA Reference Method 21. [39] The EPA protocol involves screening components using a portable instrument to detect total hydrocarbon (THC) leaks. The corresponding screening value for a component, which is a concentration measurement, is then converted to an emission rate by using a correlation equation developed from data collected using an enclosure measurement method. The enclosure method allows the actual leakage rate to be measured as the product of the flow rate of inert gas through the enclosure and the THC concentration. The correlation equation is developed by correlating the screening or concentration data with the emission rate data measured using the enclosure method. The correlation equation can then be applied to the same component type in similar service within the gas industry to estimate emissions using only screening data. The EPA protocol was used to quantify emissions from equipment leaks in onshore production (except for facilities in the Atlantic and Great Lakes regions), offshore production, and gas processing.
Show more

29 Read more

Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture on a Regional Scale

Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture on a Regional Scale

The methane and nitrous emissions from ag- riculture differ in 16 voivodeships in Poland. The highest fluxes were calculated for 3 voivodeships (Mazowieckie, Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie) which were responsible for 39% of national methane and 34% of national nitrous oxide emissions from ag- riculture in 1999 and for 51% and 37% CH 4 and N 2 O national emissions in 2015, respectively. These high amounts of methane and nitrous oxide released from agriculture to the atmosphere are the result of traditionally intensive dairy and beef production in the Mazowieckie and Podlaskie voivodeships, while in the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, high GHG emissions are the effect of both intensive animal and crop production. However, the mitigation should be adapted with caution as there are many interesting possibilities which can reduce the GHG emissions from agriculture. Good management practices may also jointly reduce the environmental burden and costs of animal and crop production. The choice of method should be based on precise calculations and provide both ecological and economic benefits. Mit- igation practices may also substantially affect the es- timations of GHG emissions in national inventory; however, in this case, further studies on national or even regional EFs are needed.
Show more

12 Read more

Biochar effects on methane emissions from soils: a meta-analysis

Biochar effects on methane emissions from soils: a meta-analysis

Al 3+ availability strongly decreases, provides further evidence for this explanation (Fig. Biochar applied to soils with a pH <5 showed a significant increase in sink strength 355.[r]

45 Read more

The Cost and Productivity of Tree Harvesting in a Peatland Forest

The Cost and Productivity of Tree Harvesting in a Peatland Forest

This case study represents a novel complete wood biomass harvesting method for woody peatlands, which are to be prepared for peat production for energy use. The productiv- ity and cost-efficiency of complete tree harvesting in a peatland forest dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was examined in this study. In complete tree harvesting, a single-grip harvester lifts a whole tree with its roots from the ground and divides the tree into stump and stem part sections by cross-cutting. This work method was com- pared to the conventional harvesting method, wherein the stem wood and stump wood are harvested in separate operations with different machines. The work study was con- ducted for complete tree cutting and conventional tree cutting by a single-grip harvester. In total there were 97.6 solid cubic metres (m³) of wood harvested in the study. The harvesting cost of the extracted wood (stump section, stem wood and crown mass) to the road side landing was calculated for both harvesting methods by using time study models of cutting obtained from this study and the separate stump lifting and biomass forwarding models acquired from the literature. According to the results, the complete tree harvesting was cost-competitive to conventional harvesting (including stem wood, crown mass and stump extraction) when the breast height diameter of the trees to be removed was below the range of 16–20 cm.
Show more

20 Read more

METHANE EMISSIONS. ECOPETROL-EPA COLLABORATION Global Methane Initiative

METHANE EMISSIONS. ECOPETROL-EPA COLLABORATION Global Methane Initiative

– Santos Field Facilities and Compressor Station – Suerte Field Facilities and Compressor Station – Bonanza Field Facilities and Compressor Station – Provincia Procces Plant. • Meth[r]

16 Read more

The Impacts of Forest Plantation on Household’s Income

The Impacts of Forest Plantation on Household’s Income

Our study also shows that household size has a strong impact on the living standards of households in the study area. On the one hand, there was a negative correlation between farm household’s income and the size of the household. As the size increased by one member, the profits were seen to reduce corresponding with regression coefficient on the regression model about 3.183 million VND. This situation can be explained that the increased in the family size will put higher pressure to earn more to money for members for cover their basic needs cause increase in expenditure for food, clothes, health and in some case is edu- cate because a larger number of children may need to go to school, thence li- mited funds for total households expenditures and lead to farm households with more member will have lower per capita income than other farm households. This results opposite with finding from Yemen of Safa [33], from and from Ban- gladesh by Rahman [34] because these results indicate that large size of house- hold will supply more productive in term of labor force and has better oppor- tunities to diversify their income from farm and off-farm activities. However, it also supported by finding from Vietnam by Nghi and Trinh [35], from Zambia by Banda [36], and from Kenya by Wanjiku [37] because these studies agree that households who have large-scale may be able to only bring a high per capita in- come if the dependency ratio in the household is small. In contrary, large house- hold size will lead to low per capita income if the dependency ratio in house- holds is high.
Show more

17 Read more

Crop Improvement strategies for Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Rice

Crop Improvement strategies for Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Rice

Breeding rice varieties for reduced methane emission Climate-adaptive breeding and replacement of obsolete cultivars with climate resilient varieties are key mechanisms to mitigate the impact of climate change (Altin et al., 2017). Identifying genotypic variation through field screening for CH 4 emissions, high temperature, ozone tolerance and nitrogen use efficiency, is required for initiating a successful breeding programme to develop rice cultivars capable of higher yields for climate resilience (Serrano- Silva et al., 2014). The variation available for the CH 4 emission contributing traits among germplasm, opens the opportunity for breeding low methane emitting cultivars. High root oxidizing potential and high harvest index, with less number of unproductive tillers, are the breeding targets to develop an ideal rice cultivar with low CH 4 emission (Wang et al., 1999). Varieties with reduced respiration losses will provide twin benefits of food security and GHG mitigations (Chauhan and Mahajan, 2013). Jiang et al., (2017) reported that breeding high-yielding rice cultivars with higher biomass and increased root porosity is a key strategy to reduce emissions while sustaining rice production by screening 33 rice cultivars. Development of new cultivars with minimum number of unproductive tillers and reduced root permeability can decrease methane emission and it will be promising and are economical way to mitigate methane emissions. A schematic outline of feasible crop improvement steps, to develop improved genotypes with lower methane emission, is given in the Fig. 1. Breeding can be targeted to achieve reduced CH 4 emissions
Show more

12 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...