a MAC commission, to conduct our own survey on attitudes to internationalstudents. The intention was that this would be sent to all current higher education students, potentially a very large sample. We wanted respondents to feel confident that their answers were anonymous so the survey did not use individualised links to access the survey. This design made it vulnerable to being undermined, though we had not anticipated that anyone would seek to do that and had hoped potential respondents would approach it in a responsible way – completing it truthfully and only once. However, once our survey was in the field, a social media campaign began to undermine it. As this campaign grew and compromised the potential survey results, we took the decision to withdraw the survey, deleting all responses we had already received. We thank the many respondents who took the time to answer the survey and provide genuine responses. The MAC has learned lessons from this about how to collect evidence in the future and are disappointed this important area, which lacks evidence, could not be improved upon for this MAC report.
The MAC has never undertaken a full assessment of the impact of internationalstudents, and given the new exit checks data, we would like to have an objective assessment of the impact of internationalstudents which includes consideration of both EU and non-EU students at all levels of education. This assessment should go beyond the direct impact of students in the form of tuition fees and spending, including consideration of their impact on the labour market and the provision and quality of education provided to domestic students. This should give the Government an improved evidence base for any future decisions whilst the ONS goes through the process of reviewing the contribution it thinks students are making to net migration. I trust this is helpful in outlining the Government’s position. I am grateful to the MAC for taking on this commission and would be grateful if the MAC could report by September2018. I shall be publishing this letter.
Internationalstudents, often a noteworthy group, constitute about 10 per cent of the student population on many campuses throughout the world (OECD, 2009). At any time, there are likely to be over a million students and scholars attending institutions of higher learning abroad, and recent estimates have set the figure at about 4.5 million (Çetinsaya, G.2014). A significant portion of the contemporary literature has dealt with the problems of internationalstudents. Owing to the importance of internationalstudents to culturally diverse blend of colleges and universities, higher education institutions must develop support services to assist internationalstudents with a series of special needs ranging from adjusting to the academic requirements, to dealing with cultural factors of being drown in new community settings (Cho & Yu, 2015). Leisure, in the meanwhile, is an important experience for university students since it is a functional tool to create socially accommodating environments for this population. However, how active leisure participation impact on social adjustment has not been studied extensively in qualitative studies. Therefore, this qualitative study intended to examine the benefits and impacts of active leisure participation on social adjustment of internationalstudents in a mid-size metropolitan university in Manisa, Turkey. Overall, students demonstrated gains in social adjustment and reported psychological and physical benefits when they actively participated in leisure time activities. Study showed that internationalstudents have demands and expectations from the university in terms of leisure time activities.
In this comic Hindi film, three best friends set off on an adventurous road trip/bachelor party. Along the way, they learn some lessons about themselves and each other that will change them forever. Introduction by current SCC Film School students from India. (2hrs, 30min)
institutions that charged fees at the high end of the distribution was London School of Economics. They charged £8,130 per full time post graduate home student, £4,065 to part time post graduate students and £11,958 to overseas students. In contrast, Wimbledon School of Art charged only £2,800 to full time post graduate home students and £9,500 to overseas students. In looking at fees an important distinction is that between students from European Union (EU) countries (as the analysis undertaken here is for academic year 2005/06, what is meant by the EU are the 25 countries that comprised its membership prior to the entry of Bulgaria and Romania in early 2007) and other internationalstudents who are liable for full overseas fees. We refer to these non-EU students here as overseas students, while by
and communities. However, for many, there are unforeseen challenges to their expectations of the host country (Hyams- Ssekasi, 2012). Having been taught to view England as “the mother country” and America as one of the richest and most developed nations, many African students have expressed surprise and disappointment with the old, dirty buildings, and at the cool reception that they receive from locals (Beoku-Betts, 2006; Carey, 1956). In addition, students must take on a new identity, of being a foreigner and a member of a minority for the first time, as well as adjusting to the culture of their new university and the demands of academic life. Fischer’s (2011) study found that students did anticipate the likelihood of an initial adjustment period, although a number of authors have found that the scale of the adjustment that they had to make was greater than expected (Irungu, 2013; Lee & Opio, 2011; Mwara, 2008). As we have seen, the majority of recent literature of the experience of Black- African internationalstudents comes from the United States. Maringe and Carter (2007) study is a notable exception, although this study is primarily concerned with the factors behind African students’ decisions to study in the United Kingdom. The aim of our study, therefore, is to explore the challenges of adjustment and incorporation that contempo- rary Black-African students experience once they arrive in the United Kingdom, and the impact this has on their educa- tion and well-being.
Internationalstudents are one type of migrant in the UK visa system, although some voices disagree with this classification. This assertion is supported by the United Nation‘s definition of a ‗long-term‘ migrant, as it writes, ―a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence‖ (UN, 1998: 18). Based on this definition, internationalstudents who study in the UK for more than 12 months may be classified as long-term migrants. Mavroudi and Warren state that classifying students as migrants ―has proved problematic‖ (2013: 7). In 2011 the Home Affairs Committee of the House of Commons reported that the Committee was ―not persuaded that students are in fact migrants‖ (House of Commons, 2011a: 40, cited in Mavroudi and Warren, 2013: 7), only if the student had sought settlement or had stayed an excessively long time in the host country. Since students are counted in migration statistics, this has an impact on the statistical analysis on net migration to the UK. The figure of net migration to the UK was pledged to be reduced in the 2010 election manifesto by the Conservative Party (Conservative Party, 2010). Nevertheless the UK government disagreed with such a statement and reasserted that its definition regarding students follows UN guidance (House of Commons, 2011c). Therefore this thesis regards internationalstudents as migrants.
The college believes that to date it has been able to limit the impact of Tier 4 changes through ensuring compliance and using trusted agents, and the strong relationships they have developed with international partners and the type of courses they offer. ‘Partnerships. It’s about a strategy that doesn’t rely exclusively on one to one student recruitment through agency recruitment fairs or whatever. It’s about building long lasting partnerships with education providers overseas. If they are high quality private providers and you’ve done your due diligence and all the rest of it, then fine, but it’s about building partnerships, building relationships and that’s how we will overcome some of the challenges that Tier 4 poses for us.‘
Despite the impact of perceptions of permeability on individual preferences for a particular strategy in coping with a devalued social identity, perceptions of permeability can also affect the extent to which one identifies with different group memberships. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, perceived permeability of group boundaries affects minority group identification (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). Findings from Ellemers’ (1993) study with experimentally created groups suggested that when individual social mobility was impossible, low-status group members tended to identify more with their own group compared with when mobility between groups was possible. Consistent with these findings, research has demonstrated that minority group identification is more likely to increase when group boundaries between the majority and minority groups are perceived as impermeable rather than permeable (Ellemers et al., 1988; Ellemers et al., 1990; Ellemers et al., 1993). Thus, while one may intuitively expect that individuals facing group-based discrimination will distance themselves from the minority group that is the cause of their negative treatment empirical evidence has found support for the opposite. Because discrimination can be such a strong barrier to individual mobility between minority and majority, individuals tend to respond to perceived discrimination with increased identification with the devalued minority group (Branscombe et al., 1999; Jetten, Branscombe, Schmitt, & Spears, 2001; Schmitt & Branscombe, 2002; Schmitt, Branscombe, Kobrynowicz, & Owen, 2002; Schmitt, Spears, & Branscombe, 2003).
effect on the association between acculturative stress and psychosocial health (i.e., depression), that is to say acculturative stress has an impact on psychological health partially through their social connectedness. Social connectedness with Americans has a moderating effect on the association between adherences to the home culture and psychological health (e.g. depression). The finding highlighted the importance of social support and social connectedness in maintaining the health and well-being of internationalstudents and reducing negative emotions as well as acquiring sociocultural communication skills. Through the moderation model, this study’s innovative finding is the positive and protective role of adherence to home culture, especially for the group of Chinese internationalstudents who have limited interaction with Americans. Another significant contribution of this study is that internationalstudents who simultaneously detached the home culture of Chinese and host culture of US reported the highest level of depression. This has not been reported in the previous literature (Cemalcilar, Falbo, 2008; Wang & Mallinckrodt, 2006). This lends support to Berry’s model of acculturation on the “marginalization” attitudes of rejecting both the host and native cultures in the new environment, which has been associated with most difficulty in the acculturation (Birma & Simon, 2014; Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2005). It was believed that these differences could not be captured with a unilinear model (Berry, 1997). Their findings indicated that “social connectedness with Americans holds potential as an important factor in the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese internationalstudents and deserves further careful study” (Zhang & Goodson, 2011 a, p. 614).
I think that aspect was the fact that we, kind of, came from the student perspective and, of course, their entire life, funnily enough, it’s not on campus, it’s also in town. And, hence, one of the areas where they were really reporting issues, were in nightclubs in town. So, it was, okay, although that isn't in the scope of this project, as such, I think we, underneath the Student Community Partnership, which is a partnership we have with both universities in [town] and the council, and both Students’ Unions. […] We’re even working with the police, who have been prepared to put their logo on our posters, so that’s quite powerful, as well. I mean, that part of the initiative, whilst it’s not remotely, kind of, part of that scope initially, I think it will have quite a big impact.
Deutschemark from appreciating. However, the EMS was only temporarily able to prevent the massive capital inflows (Sinn, 1996). The contingent Bundesbank’s decision to raise interest rates to contain pressure on German price levels exacerbated the asymmetry of the shock, especially as Europe was entering a recession (Velis, 1995). For Germany's ERM partners not sharing this need, the appropriate strategy would have been to devalue, but within the ERM this was not straightforward. The system began to fall apart as markets speculated against each of the deficit countries, in turn, forcing them out of the system. As explained by Mundell (1994), “a Europe-wide monetary policy would have cushioned the impact of the German unification shock over the EMS part of the continent. It would have led to more inflation than the Bundesbank wanted, and more deflation than her partners wanted, but a more balanced equilibrium for the fixed exchange rate mechanism”. Speculation escalated with the pound sterling being first dismissed from the ERM (“Black Wednesday”, 16 September 1992), followed by Italy one day later. Spain, Portugal, and Ireland although forced to devalue, continued in the ERM. France, Denmark, and Belgium remained facing severe market pressure. In 1993, under continued speculation, the permitted fluctuation bands were broadened to ±15%, or largely enough to cope with the misalignment and alleviate market stress.
ABSTRACT The triennial International Double-Stranded RNA Virus Symposium, this year organized by J. Matthijnssens, J. S. L. Parker, P. Danthi, and P. Van Damme in Belgium, gathered over 200 scientists to discuss novel observations and hypotheses in the ﬁeld. The keynote lecture on functional interactions of bacteria and viruses in the gut microbiome was presented by Julie Pfeiffer. Workshops were held on viral diversity, molecular epidemiology, molecular virology, immunity and pathogenesis, virus structure, the viral use and abuse of cellular pathways, and applied double- stranded RNA (dsRNA) virology. The establishment of a plasmid only-based reverse genetics system for rotaviruses by several Japanese research groups in 2017 has now been reproduced by various other research groups and was discussed in detail. The visualization of dsRNA virus replication steps in living cells received much atten- tion. Mechanisms of the cellular innate immune response to virus infection and of viral pathogenesis were explored. Knowledge of the gut microbiome’s inﬂuence on speciﬁc immune responses has increased rapidly, also due to the availability of rele- vant animal models of virus infection. The method of cryo-electron microscopic (cryo-EM) tomography has elucidated various asymmetric structures in viral particles. The use of orthoreoviruses for oncolytic virotherapy was critically assessed. The ap- plication of llama-derived single chain nanobodies for passive immunotherapy was considered attractive. In a satellite symposium the introduction, impact and further developments of rotavirus vaccines were reviewed. The Jean Cohen Lecturer of this meeting was Harry B. Greenberg, who presented aspects of his research on rotavi- ruses over a period of more than 40 years. He was also interviewed at the meeting by Vincent Racaniello for the 513th session of This Week in Virology.
In order to know the influence of working hours on employees ’ satisfaction, Sarah and Alwine (2012) used large panel data from German households. They found that high working hours and overtime do not lead to decreased satisfaction. Instead increasing working hours have positive effects on life and job satisfaction, but the desire to reduce working hours has a negative impact on satisfaction. They also got to know that the overall number of working hours by which employees want to reduce their work time is driven mainly by overtime compensation. Ahmed and Skitmore (2001) explained the nature of that conflict and its effects on managers. Through their survey, they found that the respondents would trade some earnings for family time, job related issues invoking security, flexible working hours and high profile all valued ahead of leisure activities, but at a cost of behavior based, time based, strain-based conflicts in that order. The suggestions they gave are clear separation of work and family role and activities, not bringing office work home, and somehow creating family time needed.
Over the last decade a number of universities have opened branch campuses. A very well known example for the UK has been the University of Nottingham campus in Ningbo, China and in Semenyih. Malaysia. Manchester Business School and Middlesex University are other notable players, as well as Lancaster and Strathclyde universities that signed agreements in May 2009 to establish campuses in Pakistan. Aberystwyth University followed Middlesex University in opening a campus in Mauritius in 2014. The University of Liverpool and Xi’an Jiaotong University in China formed a partnership for setting up Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU), an independent university based in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. The UK’s existing and currently planned branch campuses are concentrated quite heavily in the UAE, China, Malaysia and Singapore, though single campuses have been established in less well known locations such as Uzbekistan (Westminster). 8
As set out in a previous statement dated June 2016, EU nationals or their family members, currently in higher or further education, and who are eligible to receive loans and/or grants from SFE will continue to remain eligible for these loans and grants until they finish their course. This applies to all student finance provided to eligible EU students by SFE. This includes loans to cover tuition fees (for those resident in the EEA for at least three years), loans and grants for maintenance (for those resident in the UK for at least three years if they started a course before 1st August 2016, and at least five years if they started or will start a course after 1st August 2016, or who are EEA migrant workers), and some other grants and allowances. These students are also entitled to home fee status. This also applies to students who have not yet started their course, but who will do so before the end of the 16/17 Academic Year.
E. Mubarak Ali & S.Abdul Aameed (2016) did a study on Human Resource Management issues and challenges in health care are the most critical one that makes a vast difference in performance of an organisation. Effective Human Resources Management practices are essential for retaining sound professionals in hospitals. He concluded that the impact of effective human resource management on healthcare quality and in the improvement of performance of employees.
a lecture and workshop setting it was believed would promote active engagement and foster active learning, (Cavanagh, 2011; Jacobson and Xu, 2004; Jones, 2007). As explained by Gunn and Miree (2012, p 22), “In library research sessions rich in active learning, delivery of explanatory content and demonstrations of research tools are minimized to allow maximum opportunity for students to learn from their own experiences.” It was also believed that active learning would help counter delivery via a lecture; a teaching format which library staff felt was not conducive to information literacy skills development, (Cavanagh, 2011; Jones, 2007; Keyser, 2000). Due to large module numbers (100+), it was necessary to use a lecture at the start of the module. “How good is the web? Critically analyzing, selecting and using business information” lecture was jointly delivered by library staff and the module leader. The collaborative approach to this lecture gave context and validity to library staff. Examples used in the lecture were linked into international business and globalization issues throughout to improve relevancy for students, and web demos and a video clip incorporated to add variety to the learning experience. The range of activities and subsequent student feedback is analyzed in detail in an earlier article by the authors (2012). It included: paired exercise identifying business sources already used by students and identifying new sources; group work evaluating three different sources (newspapers, peer reviewed journal, Wikipedia); website evaluation checklist provided to support an activity where students evaluated Google results for a search on GATT (General agreement on tariffs and trade). As in the work of Corbett (2010), the authors hoped such an approach would make both internet and library research more approachable .The interactive nature of the session was welcomed by students evidenced by their written feedback at the end of the lecture: “Highly active and it kept me interested”; “Well presented! Good pace, tone and good activities to keep us interested”;"Informative, interactive, light and witty".
As for students studying in the 16/17 Academic Year, the eligibility rules regarding student support and home fee status applying to EU nationals, or their family members, who wish to enter the UK to study a course in England which starts in either the 2017/18 or the 2018/19 Academic Year and which attracts student support, are also unchanged. SFE will assess these applications against existing eligibility criteria, and will provide loans and/or grants in the normal way. EU nationals, or their family members, who are assessed as eligible to receive grants and/or loans by SFE will then be eligible for this support and for home fee status for the duration of their course. These eligibility criteria set out that for students beginning study any time after August 2016, EU nationals must have been resident in the UK for at least five years or be EEA migrant workers in order to apply for a maintenance loan.
Our faculty members are prominent scholars and researchers, among them Guggenheim Fellows, Fulbright recipients and winners of other important honors. But at Cal State Northridge, your professors’ first priority will be you—the student. We have small classes, averaging about 30 students, and a low student-faculty ratio of 20 to 1. Your professors will know you by name and give you the personal attention you need to make your experience here as rich and rewarding as it can possibly be.