the earth, to the creatures of the earth and future generations which implies that food insecurity in the future will be a result of present day practices.
Modern agriculture has been criticized for being unable to assure long-term security of food supply given the level of corporate control. Multinational corporations already control seed supply through hybridization and patenting; which eliminates competition from household and community level seed banks. According to RAFI (1999), “the technology spells disaster for farmers and global foodsecurity because over three quarters of the world’s farmers – mainly poor farmers – depend on farm saved seed. The complete removal of farmers from the age-old process of plant breeding through sterilized seed could also signify a disastrous narrowing of the gene pool on which everyone depends for foodsecurity”. In addition, corporate domination in agriculture has negative repercussions for farmers in the world’s poorer countries as it may have influence on government policies which may force farmers off the land, promoting corporate production processes over subsistence food production. Populist undertones in the sustainable agriculture movement promote the agenda of ‘saving the family farm’ (Strange, 1988) which resonates well with issues of justice and equitable opportunities. However, my criticism of this view is that sustainability cannot only be measured through environmental parameters alone. I agree with Clancy (1994) that sustainability concerns should also include social justice for third world producers and farm workers, equal opportunity for women and minorities, and equity of access for low-income consumers. Furthermore, whilst the intentions to prevent over-exploitation of the environment are commendable, communities should be allowed to define and apply their local understanding of sustainability. Sustainability concerns should incorporate population growth considerations, as it has been observed that the dilemma confronting the world is how to increase and maintain consumptions levels in an environment which is finite.
In examining the extent of householdfood insecurity, there is need to answer critical questions; how food insecure are the rural poor and what determines foodsecurity at micro-level analysis? Despite comprehensive approaches to combat the challenges of food insecurity in Zimbabwe, the problem is structural, pervasive and an interplay of multiple contextual factors. Therefore, this study endeavoured to identify household determinants and dimensions of food insecurity, in order to design appropriate, feasible and effective strategies and also coping and adaptive capabilities within their livelihood approaches. To achieve these objectives, multiple sampling procedures were used to randomly select 300 households in three distinct wards. The study applied the Foster Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) quantitative poverty indices, which is also compatible to examine the incidence, depth, and severity of food insecurity. The overall results demonstrated that the concentration of food insecurity was relatively high among female- headed households. The absolute cause was inequitable control and access to key productive resources to enhance their livelihoods. This is an indication that household level food insecurity has to be critically and adequately targeted on gender dynamics. A binary logit model was used to estimate the determinants of householdfoodsecurity. Household daily calorie availability per adult equivalence was adopted as the dependent variable to measure foodsecurity. The regression results showed that dependency ratio, per capita monthly income, the value of assets, total livestock units and maize yield per hectare were significant determinants of rural householdfoodsecurity. Hence, interventions aimed at improving rural food consumption has to focus on household demographic characteristics, livelihooddiversification, own production and acquiring key resources.
Consumption (calorie intake) approach was employed to measure the foodsecurity status of the households . It conducted based on the data obtained from households own food production, purchased and aided from others by asking the kind and amounts of food which they consumed (served) for limited periods in this case one week before interviewing date for the purpose of recall. In converting the physical food quantities consumed by a household into food calories adjusted for household age and sex composition we followed four steps. First, local measurement units were converted into a common unit of measurement for each food item consumed. Second, each of the food items consumed was converted into calories using the recommended conversion factor. Third, all food calories consumed were then added-up and converted into daily amounts. Finally, the aggregate food calories were adjusted in an adult equivalent unit per household.
Even though many factors have contributed to the food insecurity situation in Zimbabwe, one of them was poor maize production (FAO 2013). Maize, which used to be a government- controlled commodity as far as its marketing was concerned, has faced a constant decline in production since 2009. The GMB sets the base price. For example, for 2013-2014 the price per tonne was US$379/tonne, which the Farmers Union of Zimbabwe felt was far much below farmers’ expectations of $450/tonne. Furthermore, the GMB paid farmers four months later, making it difficult for maize farmers to purchase inputs for the next farming season (FAO 2015). This could have contributed to a decrease in total area cultivated under maize as more farmers opted for crops such as tobacco where farmers receive payment upon delivery (Zimstats 2013). There has been an increase in the number of new smallholder farmers joining the tobacco-growing sector in Zimbabwe. For instance, in comparison with the 2012 growing season, the number of tobacco growers registered in the 2013 growing season increased by 22,000 from 42 570 to 64,775 (TIMB 2013). Studies have revealed that there are many socio- economic benefits associated with cash cropping. One major benefit being an increase in income. The increase in income helps to provide cash so that food becomes economically accessible to those households not directly producing their own food (De Schutter 2011). There is limited empirical evidence on the direct effect of the shift from food to cash cropping on foodsecurity. According to Devereux et al. (2003), it is not always the case that an increase in income inevitably results in an increase in foodsecurity as there are many other uses of income at the household level, besides purchasing food (Brown and Kennedy 2003).
food requirements over a longer continual period of time (FAO, 2008a; Vogel & Smith, 2002). The saddest part of hunger is that it is a painful killer, a holocaust of our time. The concept of “being hungry” has been changed to the phenomenon of “food insecurity”. So many people around the world go to bed without food and this is immoral, unethical and unacceptable as people are deprived of their basic human needs and rights. The challenge is to secure food for the current global population of 6.9 billion and to double the production to feed the projected population of 9.2 billion by 2050 (Ash, et al., 2010; FAO, 2009b; Godfray, et al., 2010). Paradoxically, enough food is being produced to feed the growing population. However, structural changes in the livestock and agricultural sectors as well as access to adequate, nutritional and dietary diversified foods have a detrimental impact on foodsecurity (FAO, 2009b; Godfray, et al., 2010). Scholarly studies on foodsecurity highlight factors like population growth, the rising food prices, diversification of crops, and the changes in the eating habits of people to influence foodsecurity (Singh, 2009; Von Braun, 2007). Subsequently, the phenomenon of foodsecurity was included in many academic debates, evaluated through different lenses (e.g. nutrition; mortality; urban agriculture; sustainable livelihoods) and triggered various initiatives and policy discussions. It is imperative that solutions be found to improve the level of foodsecurity and to reduce the number of deaths as a result of hunger, starvation and malnutrition. The FAO’s definition of foodsecurity is generally accepted and forms the foundation of all other subsequent definitions (Koc et al., 1999: 1-2),
In 2007, 33 million people were estimated to be living with HIV in the whole world. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 67 percent of people with HIV and for 75 percent of AIDS related deaths. Countries especially affected include: South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Women account for nearly 60 percent of HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS, 2008). HIV infection rates in rural areas are hard to measure and likely to go unreported. While early outbreaks of the disease occurred predominantly in urban areas, the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS are now in rural areas, as a result of many male migrant workers with AIDS symptoms returning to their villages (FAO, 2004; ODI, 2005). HIV/AIDS affects rural households and rural employment in multiple ways. Many rural households appear to experience labour shortages for farm work, with serious implications for agricultural production and foodsecurity. The extent to which HIV/AIDS-affected households may diversify into non-farm jobs is not known. HIV/AIDS also has significant indirect effects on rural employment through restrictions on female labour availability, as women‘s productive time is diverted to taking care of the sick. All these changes appear to be markedly gender-differentiated. Adult men may often be the first to be affected in a household and the first to die (UNAIDS, 2008; Rugalema, 1999).
The researcher used mixed methods approach were both qualitative and quantitative data were collected (Terell, 2012). Thus the research used both qualitative and quantitative in research, quantitative research methodologies helped to quantify yields and tonnes obtained before and after people were resettled so as to assess the contribution of resettlement to foodsecurity to resettled households in the area under the study. Qualitative methodologies gave the researcher an insight on livelihood strategies employed by resettled farmers, the challenges resettled people faces that increases their vulnerability to foodsecurity and what they think can be done to improve their foodsecurity in that resettled areas. The researcher saw the need of using these methods because of its reliability and credibility (Nachmias and Nachmias, 1996). The study population consisted of 527 people (ZIMstat 2012). However the research was carried at household level and 100 households made up the study population (MoLRR, 2013). A sample of 50 households was randomly selected using random number tables. The sample was further stratified according to proportional to gender since 76 household were male headed, the sample proportional to gender were 38 males and 12 females (Masvongo, 2013). Research instruments have their limitations thus the researcher used 50 researcher administered questionnaires, 2 FGDs, 3 key informant interviews and observations in order to increase validity. Secondary sources were also used for cross referencing. For the purpose of collecting data, the researcher sought authority from the Ministry of lands and Rural Resettlement, Seke District Administrator, Seke District Councillor and Seke traditional leaders. The researcher used SPSS V16 and Microsoft Excell 2013 to analyse and present data in the form of tables and figures.
This study was commenced to examine the determinants of householdfoodsecurity in the agro- pastoral kebeles of Yabello woreda. The analysis was based on household survey data gathered from 168 randomly selected household heads in three agro-pastoral kebeles following probability proportional to population size sampling approach (PPS).Descriptive statistics, independent sample t- test, chi-squire tests and binary logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The results of the analysis show that from the total surveyed households 39.9% were found to be food secured while the remaining 60.1% were food insecure. Five variables which include livestock ownership, household size, size of cultivated land, use of chemical fertilizer and distance to the market were found to be significant factors affecting household status of foodsecurity in the logistic regression model output. The findings suggest the need to improve the provision of services that improve livestock and agricultural production and microfinance to encourage the adoption of agricultural technologies. More training is important to encourage diversified crop production by the household. It is also important to improve the provision of basic infrastructural services such as rural roads and markets (especially livestock market centers) to facilitate livelihooddiversification.
99 households who were found to be food insecure, about 96 percent are resident in rural areas; higher than the national figure of 70 percent (WFP, 2009a). A sub-district analysis further revealed that food insecurity levels were high for Bonbontey and Kedenso communities (17.5% each), followed by Carpenter (15.8%), Latiegberi (12.3%) and Chache (12.3%). Interestingly, all sampled farm households (19) in Ntereso, a rural community, were found to be food secure. In finding out what might have accounted for the zero food insecurity incidence for the Ntereso community, it was revealed that all 19 households were engaged in multiple livelihoods (see Appendix 9). This goes to emphasis the fact that rural households with high level of livelihooddiversification tend to be food secure. It is however important to point out that the small number of urban households within the sample as used in the comparative analysis above might not be a sufficient representation of food insecurity patterns in the case study district. Nevertheless, it is an undisputed fact that majority of the hungry in the Bole district is found in the rural areas as revealed by other studies (for instance WFP, 2012), requiring that efforts towards rural enterprises development be mainstreamed.
It is observed from Table-9 that the major problems faced by the beneficiaries are inadequate works, political interference, lack of proper knowledge, lack of unity among the villagers for grievance redresses, lack of transparency in the local implementing agency, delayed wage payment, inconvenient mode of payment, inadequate worksite facilities especially first aids and undue wage cuts. Each registered household is rightfully entitled to get 100 days of employment in a particular financial year but none of the respondents have got it. The reason when surveyed was found out to be lack of the detail knowledge of the Act, inadequate works allotment and lack of harmony and unity among the participants for jointly addressing their demands which was due to some political elements involved.
Scholars like Chimhowu and Woodhouse (2006) have also contested de Soto’s view by claiming that if land under customary tenure were to be considered extra-legal property, in the sense that individual land user’s rights are recognised by customary authority but not in the statutory legal system, then it is not clear how in Africa formalising of property rights would generate capital in the manner de Soto foresees. Their argument is founded to the Shipton’s (1992) work in rural areas of Kenya where it was found that under risky dry land farming conditions, land is rarely used to secure loans even if it is held under freehold. The farmers fear that credit can lead to debt which may result in loss of land. Hence, as Johnson and Rogaly (1997) argue, lending can harm as well as enable poor people. Financial relationships, especially those of debt, are one way in which the powerlessness of groups of poor people is rooted. Therefore, the poorest are likely to need to build up a degree of security before investment and growth becomes possible.
This study analyzed the determinants of major determinants of foodsecurity in farm household in drought prone area of Oromia Region taking evidence from rural kebele of Doddota wereda. In order to achieve these objectives demographic and socio-economic data were collected from 200 randomly selected households in Dodota District of Arsi Zone Oromia Regional State. The sample households were classified into food secure and food insecure groups based on estimated food expenditure value of meeting Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of 2200 kcal.The summary was made using STATA 11 software. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The descriptive analysis of the study revealed that only 23% of the sample households were food secured and about 77% are food insecure. Binary logistic regression model has been employed to identify the major determinants of Food security.Therefore, policy needs to focus on supporting households in delivering services in the area of the determinants of householdfoodsecurity in the study area. Specially, focus should be given to the significant variables which determinate the foodsecurity in farm households of the study area.
In general, the impact of the DMP programme on the villages was positive. The level of poverty in each village has been significantly reduced by 8-40% after the introduction of the programme. The poverty rate in these villages (34.53% to 56.46%) is relatively higher than the national average in rural Central Java (14.32% as compared to 15.99%) (CBS, 2013). This is the justification for selecting the four villages to be the sites of the DMP programme. Thus the expectation is that the national and provincial governments should introduce programmes of this nature in areas or villages where the gap between the poverty level at the grassroots and the national average is high. The programme introduced should be focused on empowering rural communities to enable them to carry out their economic activities. Such empowerment should be complemented by other cross- sectoral programmes that should be widely practiced throughout the entire country.
Two Stage Least Square provides a number of useful tests that can help in deciding whether IV estimation is necessary, and whether the instruments chosen are valid. The assertion for endogeneity test and instrument relevance test is as follows. Always test for instrument relevance first: are the instruments sufficiently strongly correlated with the potentially endogenous variable? Then deal with endogeneity concerns by ensuring that the instrument only influences the dependent variable through the potentially endogenous independent variable. In the case of just one endogenous regressor, there are no over identifying restrictions and we cannot use this test, Hausman Specification Test and Hansen J test to assess the extent to which endogenity is really a problem rather present the First Stage F-statistics to reject weak identification of endogenous variable. In addition, always test the “strength” of your instrument by reporting the F-test on the instrument in the First Stage regression. Following Staiger and Stock (1997), a rule of thumb to identify the strength of instruments is suggested that the F-statistics of instrumental variables should be larger than 10 to ensure that the maximum bias in IV estimators to be less than 10%. If you are willing to accept the maximum bias in IV estimators to be less than 20%, the threshold is F- statistics being larger than 5. If the number of instrumental variable is one, the F-statistics should be replaced by the t-statistics.
In order to combat the challenge of deficit in food availability, the Government of India launched National FoodSecurity Mission (NFSM) in 2007-08. The main objective is to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains production to improve livelihood of the people. Rice, wheat and pulses are given high priority in the process of production by the Union and State Governments. In Tamil Nadu, only 25 per cent of the districts (8 districts) where rice cultivation is predominant have implemented the scheme. After the implementation of the NFSM scheme, there has been significant improvement in the farmer’s life. NFSM beneficiaries are in a better position with improved performance in terms of input use, production, productivity in comparison with that of the Non-NFSM farmers. Further, many of the selected villages in the study area are yet to satisfy the existing coverage norms. The farmers are not well equipped with adequate farm materials like cono weeder, multiple planters, power weeder, pump sets, sprayers and power tillers as they have not been provided with them under the scheme. They have been given only a limited support like the provision of seeds and inputs. Besides, there is widespread intra-district disparity in terms of subsidy and benefits distributed.
polyandrous family structure and the associated household de- mographics, with more working age members than monogamous families, not only offered motivation but also some necessity for the Lama households to become involved in different activities (see Ross, 1981 ). Their cultural similarity with the Tibetan communities in terms of religion and language also facilitated their mobility and trade networks. The Hindu caste system has strong concepts for purity and untouchability which pose strict sanctions on mobility, interaction and dietary conducts for both the high and low castes. Fürer-Haimendorf (1975 , pp. 286 e305) argues that freedom for commensality facilitated Lamas' mobility and interaction with other communities also in the southern regions which made strong trade networks possible for them. Trade performance is strongly determined by social capital in the form of trade network ( Fafchamps and Minten, 2002 ), and arguably Lama has bene ﬁted as successful trader from the strong network which they have his- torically built and maintained (see also Nagoda and Eriksen, 2014 ). The determinants of salaried job, another high return off-farm activity, are also related to human and social capitals. The pros- pects for salaried jobs are meagre for the majority of people with low education and the opportunity skews heavily toward house- holds with better educated members. In addition, NGOs which provide the biggest job niche in Humla are embedded into a highly politicized structure of local power relations. The NGOs at all levels have evidently remained major instruments for the political parties to strengthen their patronage network ( Hachhethu, 2007; UNRCHCO, 2013 ). For more than the last ﬁfteen years, an absence of elected local institutions has led to the political patronage to transcend NGOs and dominate the resource mobilization and functioning of all government institutions ( Harris et al., 2013; Sharrock, 2013 ). In this context, the access to the local institution for job is processed through the channel of party politics which makes it dif ﬁcult for the people who are subordinate in local power relations and disassociated from party politics to negotiate and claim their access. Our ﬁndings are consistent with other studies ( Jones and Boyd, 2011; Nagoda and Eriksen, 2014 ) that highlight an unequal distribution of resources of all kinds favoring the high caste by virtue of their historical social and political dominance whereas making it dif ﬁcult for the low caste Dalits who have the lowest level of education and social and political power to claim access to various development and humanitarian institutions and to ﬁnd salaried jobs.
2.3.2 Strategic grain reserve
Before 1991, Zimbabwe maintained a strategic physical grain reserve aimed at covering six- month maize supply in the event of production shortfall. At its peak in 1986, the strategic grain reserve stood at close to 2 million metric tonnes. This was enough to cover at least nine consumption months. The strategic grain reserve policy and its size were partly responsible for the massive fiscal deficit as the government was responsible for financing the reserve. It is because of this cost and the attendant downstream problems such as inflation, high government borrowing in the domestic market, etc. that led to the change in the strategic grain policy. It was unsustainable. The strategic grain reserve (SGR) since 1990 has been maintained at around 500 000 metric tonnes. The desirable level is considered to be 700 000 metric tonnes (SADC Regional Early Warning, 2002). The strategic grain reserve was also eroded by the fall in production as farmers switched from maize production. It was also reduced through withdrawals for drought recovery and other social protection strategies. This erosion can be partly blamed for the current situation in which the country did not have adequate grain reserves to counter the 2002 drought induced deficit.
Diversification can be of the whole rural economy or for individual households. Rural economy diversification means a total sectoral shift from farm economy, that is primary agricultural production to the non-farm economy which is income generating activities other than agriculture, for example; mining, commerce, and transport. Householddiversification is when households increase their number of income-generating activities from different sectors and locations. It can be farm or non-farm activities, on-farm or off-farm activities and wage employment or self-employment (Babatunde and Qaim, 2009; Loison, 2015; Loison and Bignebat, 2017). Reardon (2001) define non-farm activities as activities which are undertaken outside agriculture including own-farming and wage employment in agriculture. The on- farm/off-farm distinction reflects the spatial distribution while the farm/non-farm reflects the sectoral classification derived from national accounting practices (Barrett et al., 2001).
The FIVIMS pilot was assessed by means of simple descriptive statistics and a more detailed data analysis of the survey was to be subcontracted to a panel of South African academics and experts. However, this process was never completed (S. Drimie, personal comm. Nov 2007). As a result, the FIVIMS data has yet to be subject to advanced statistical analysis which could probe for, among other things, the association of household factors commonly associated with HIV and AIDS (referred to as HIV and AIDS proxies) with householdfood acquisition strategies. Perhaps because of this, the latest published reports from the South African FIIVIMS project propose that the quantitative survey format of the original FIVIMS pilot be deemphasized in favour of community based food insecurity monitoring systems (CBFMSs) (Banda and NoviAfrica 2007; Banda 2007). CBFSMs are systems based at sentinel sites where community participants monitor and report monthly on an agreed set of indicators. Because these indicators are identified by community-based monitors without formalised household survey instruments, they would be purposely simple in nature: relying on proxy indicators of food insecurity, such as the sole reliance of a household on state-welfare grants for income, or, as is becoming increasingly popular, factors indicating the presence of HIV and AIDS in the household (Banda and NoviAfrica 2007; Department of Agriculture 2007). In order for this method to be reliable, these simple proxy indicators would presumably have to be verified against foodsecurity indicators used in national and other household surveys. These survey indicators would in themselves, be understood to be reliable indicators of the true foodsecurity status of the household. Given these verification criteria, two important questions arise: first, how reliable are these household survey indicators of the foodsecurity status of the household? And second, is there evidence to suggest that simple proxy indicators of, for example, household HIV and AIDS affliction, are associated with specific householdfoodsecurity states?
Das and Pradhan (2007) found that in a financial year, the material to wages ratio was shockingly 54 to 46 in Odisha state. In the last three months of the financial year however, things have improved and the material to wage ratio has come down to 26 per cent from 74 per cent. The rates for work on ordinary soil went up from Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 for 100 cubic feet of earth dug up, from Rs. 67 to Rs. 135 for 100 cubic ft. of hard soil and from Rs. 105 to Rs. 210 for every 100 cubic ft. of stony soil. The government also increased the daily wage from Rs. 55 per day to Rs. 70 per day from May 1, 2007 onwards. Orissa was the first state to place the name, age, job card numbers, and other details of each job card holder on the net, and enable access to online records of muster rolls, works undertaken with costs and bill numbers, etc. The state has also being projected as the first state in implementation of the NREGS showing a total expenditure of more than Rs. 700 crores, a fund utilization of 82.39 per cent, surpassing all the major states in percentage of expenditure against available funds. The state claims to have issued job cards to 23.30 lakh households, and provided employment to 11.19 lakh households. On an average, reports say, each household has been provided with 31 days of employment, but no household have completed 100 days of employment.