Online predictive monitoring facilitates the creation of an asset register that hold comprehensive detail of each asset. Typical data to be stored would include asset number, department name, serial number, drawing number, purchasing price, location and unplanned maintenance history .This method is able to store proper record of time when leakage occurred for each period and maintenance periods. The model starts by receiving impeding failure from the equipment through the computer connected to the fault sensors on the water pipelines or the utility equipments. When the request is received, the maintenance personnel locate the water-pipeline shown on the computer and identify the type of task requiring maintenance work. The information on maintenance requirements is entered in the computer for the identified water pipe-line. Once data is entered in the computer, pending maintenance on the identified water-pipeline is checked and verified. Pending maintenance on the identified water pipe is not 100% accurate, the maintenance personnel will perform further diagnosis on the water pipe once assigned to the job. The maintenance personnel communicates with the personnel in charge of planning for the jobs with maintenance requests and after planning, the work is then scheduled for dates before failure occurs taking into consideration tools, spare parts, transport and maintenance personnel for the jobs to be performed. The scheduled jobs will also take into consideration priorities of the jobs in need of maintenance (day before failure occurs, lead times for spare parts). Once the task has been scheduled, the jobs are only ready for execution once the request for action is printed. The printed request for maintenance enables the maintenance personnel access to spare parts, tools, vehicles etc. The maintenance personnel records all the tasks performed on the job card and takes to the engineer to enter in the computer for completed task though the sensors would have stopped sending signals of impeding failure once the task is completed. The engineer verifies the completion of tasks on the jobs.
concept of excellence awards of quality, according to the awards models of criteria to assess the extent of the application of quality management systems. A group of awards adopted by international, regional and local organizations means, outstanding administrative systems to evaluate performance and follow-up measuring their self-performance to reach excellence. The quality awards standards are of the most important methods of measuring performance, it has been access to a set of standards to achieve them. According to the present research the General Company for Leather Industries determined as industrial organization working for the public sector. The present study population for this research focused on testing those common standards and the extent of its contribution to the achievement of excellence in Organizational performance. The important elements used are Leadership, Strategic planning 'Human Resources, Resource management, Relationship with Partners, Processes, Focusing on the beneficiary, Impact on workers, Impact on the community, Evaluate the results of performance, Information, and the availability of such standards. The present study relied on the analytical method and results, some conclusions are made. Notably that awarded quality and organizations excellence in the field of quality and helps to spread the culture of quality. It was the most important recommendations that the Organization select their targets according to company policy and follow-up to achieve them and review the senior management to check the level of performance and attention to the management of operations and human resources and encourage them to work as a team continued excellence.
According to Farley (2008), water loss occurs in all distribution systems, only the volume of loss varies. This depends on the characteristics of the pipe network and other local factors, the water company’s operational practice, and the level of technology and expertise applied to controlling it. The volume lost varies widely from country to country, and between regions of each country. The components of water loss, and their relative significance, also vary between countries. One of the cornerstones of a water loss strategy is therefore to understand the relative significance of each of the components, ensuring that each is measured or estimated as accurately as possible, so that priorities can be set via a series of action plans. The expressions ‘water loss’ and 'non-revenue water' (NRW) are now internationally accepted, and have replaced expressions such as ‘unaccounted-for water’ (UFW) which are less consistent and which make inter-country comparisons more difficult.
Current performance measurement systems in supply chain management have many drawbacks, such as the lack of a connection with strategy and the failure to provide integration between financial and non financial measures (Chan and Qi, 2003; and Chan et al., 2006). Presutti jr. and Mawhinney (2007) stated that about 70 percent of a manufacturing firm’s expenditures are on supply chain-related activities. Linking supply chain operations’ performance to the company's overall financial strategy represents an opportunity for companies to gain competitive advantages and develop strategies to better manage SC operations’ through linking such strategies to the focus areas for enhancing financial performance.
Sea level rise is not expected to be a significant issue for any of the treatment facilities owned by the City or County due to drainage from the sites and elevation. Access to piping systems may be impacted in low lying areas (most of the pipes are under the water table at present, but access (valves, manholes, etc are not). However, since the rate of sea level rise is uncertain, the casestudy team decided the best way to frame the responses was by using milestone intervals for sea level rise. For example, the rise of sea level by up to 1.0 ft will likely have limited impact except in very low lying areas (elevation < 5 ft). However once the sea level increases beyond this level, the potential for water to remain in streets at locations with elevation of 3.0-3.5 ft increases, although Pompano Beach is fortunately located where much of its land area is above 5 ft NAVD (see Figure 3.3 – LIDAR data for Broward County). By the time the water rises to 2 ft above current levels, there are streets in eastern areas that will be flooded most of the time unless pumping facilities are added. By the time water levels rise to 3 ft, the western area of Broward County will have very little soil storage capacity remaining, and canals from the west will no longer flow eastward by gravity, due to their low relative elevation. A solution to this problem will require many more pumping stations than currently exist, resulting in copious amount of water (on the order of billions of gallons per day) with nowhere to be stored or and permit limitations on discharge to the ocean or the Everglades.
shorter because of corrosion. On the other hand, this system uses ultrasonic sensor that can measure the water level without direct contact with water, which makes its life span longer. According to the World Bank report released in 2014, urban watersupply in India is faced with severe challenges including distribution inefficiency leading to higher operational costs with only 20% of the connections being metered, and in most cities about 40% watersupply not resulting in any revenue. Hence, the traditional water metering system employed in India needs both infrastructural improvements and a smart flow metering approach. The manual examination of water meters for billing purposes is prone to human error and manipulation. Many of the meters are placed in inaccessible locations. Apartments and commercial complexes use a common water meter and the bill amount is shared equally irrespective of an individual’s usage, providing little incentive for residents to conserve water. The water meter readings are manually fed into a computer to provide the bill, a method that is again prone to human error. Smart watersystems can serve as alternatives to overcome the shortcomings of manual metering systems. They are wireless sensor networks: water meters installed in thousands of households collect periodic measurements that are reported in real-time over a wireless network to a central database. This system will update water level related notifications to web servers using internet, which means that there is no need to come directly to the measurement site. Watersupply management will be done according to water level present in Dam. This system sends the data to the central office using web server for database maintenance. The data base is secured by providing a password protected access. The user will be notified to pay the bill according to the water usage. The incoming water is measured in volumetric rate like litres per minute. The volume of water is measured with a flow sensor interfaced to Arduino.
According to Farley (2008), detection and control of leakage varies from company to company, and the choice of methodology is largely dependent on local conditions, which may include financial constraints on equipment and other resources. Staffing resources are relevant, as a labour intensive methodology may be suitable if manpower is plentiful and cheap. The main factor governing choice of technology, however, it is whether a particular methodology is economic for the cost savings achieved. A low activity method, such as repair of visible leaks only, may be cost-effective in supply areas where water is plentifu1 and cheap to produce. On the other hand, countries which have a high cost of production and supply can justify a much higher level of activity, like leakage monitoring, or even telemetry systems, to warn of a burst or leakage occurring.
The electricity supply service in Pakistan, initially, was undertaken by different agencies, both in public and private sectors, in different areas. In order to provide for the unified and coordinated development of the water and power resources, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was created in 1958 through WAPDA Act, 1958. The local areas electricity distribution service was being performed by various Regions of WAPDA. Then the Area Electricity Board (AEB) on the eight AEBs in Pakistan, was established under the scheme of Area Electricity Boards in 1982, in order to provide more autonomy and representation to provincial government, elected representatives, industrialists, agriculturalists and other interest groups in functions of the AEBs. The environment and structure of the power industry throughout the world are undergoing dramatic change. The power sector is moving from monopoly to privatization and from integration to disintegration. To keep pace with this change, the Government of Pakistan approved a Strategic Plan in 1994 as a consequence of which the power wing of WAPDA has been unbundled into 12 Companies for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
As outlined in literature review Chapter 3, one of the most prevalent watersupply models is community based management where operation and minor maintenance (O&M) are the responsibility of WASH committees. Meanwhile, a lack of long-term sustainability is due to an emphasis on construction with inadequate post-construction support. Thus, in the post construction period, they started looking at what needs to be done to support and maintain water models addressing not only technical tasks, but also administrative, legal, training and other ‘software’ needs (Lockwood et al . 2010). In one of the core components of the software programme in the study sites in Zambia, JICA has trained Area Pump Menders (APMs) to have the skills to instruct on the operation and maintenance of non-functional handpumps. Their approach is to enable APMs to become one of the options for the maintenance of a watersupply model as a mechanism to support community-led maintenancesystems in remote areas where handpump distributors and construction companies are reluctant to go into the market. In fact, currently there were 12 APMs who were already trained under JICA Luapula Province groundwater development project in Nchelenge District (4 APMs in Milenge) and a further 12 members were newly trained under the Nchelenge District Council. Box 5.8 outlines an excerpt from a survey with a caretaker of a communal well.
behaviour, open-minded talks, no weak excuses, communication and trust are stressed as key indicators. Apart from the relationship factors some other factors were mentioned as important such as flexibility, capacity, adherence to schedule and delivery dates, co-working on the product for improvements, good job preparation, reputation, machinery, certifications, solvency, quality, service, location, competencies, knowledge, cooperativeness, benefits, price negotiations and the price itself. When some of these variables are given and surpass the expectations also in comparison to the competition then the customer awards the supplier with the preferred supplier status which can lead to preferential treatment such as more work, co-working also with innovations, preferred payments, preferred work assignment and more tolerant behaviour. Especially in the operative business to satisfy the norms and regulations is important. Additionally, the company structure influences the operative business, but what happens inside the company is not relevant for the customer, moreover the end product with its quality is crucial. The risks that can arise from such a relationship are quite low. The customers ensure against risks with limited first order, checking for bank guarantee, beforehand clarifications, no prepayment, controls and limited receivables. Checking for the variables to fit with the expectations is mostly done by gut feeling, but also with talks. Only in bigger companies with quality ensuring systems the pros and cons of a supplier are written down and the system provides pre-given variables to check and then to rank the suppliers.
People in rural areas of Zimbabwe traditionally obtained water from unprotected sources such as from sand wells in rivers for generations before the introduction of alternative sources like hand pumped boreholes and dams (Hussey, 1999). Soil erosion in many cases leads to large quantities of sand deposits into waterways and rivers. These unconsolidated sediments in rivers retain water in the pore spaces. In long stretches of a river where the sand builds up to two metres or more, large volumes of water are retained. This water retained within sand riverbeds has traditionally been utilized by arid-land dwellers and has been an established and accepted practice, probably throughout history. Temporary sand wells are dug in the riverbeds and are regularly deepened as the water level drops. This water abstraction method is low cost, practical and easily constructed which makes it popular with resource-poor communities. However the sand wells last only for one season and also causes environmental degradation. This occurs when branches, leaves, seeds and other organic matter from bush wood fences used to protect the sand wells were buried in the sand during rains. The seeds would germinate forming islands of vegetation on river beds in the process, thereby threatening the river lifespan. The community members had to continuously shift the position of the sand wells on a yearly basis looking for a river section holding water. The present technology of sand-abstraction is the result of a progression from the traditional open sand well to the installation of sub-surface abstraction equipment that effectively separate water from sand (Nyoni, 2009).
The long-term regional watersupply (i.e. water resources management) problem is formulated here as a multi- objective optimization problem under uncertainty. The objectives are as follows: (a) the minimisation of the average present value (PV) of intervention costs; (b) the minimisation of the average present value (PV) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and (c) the maximisation of supply robustness. The uncertain variables are rainfall, per capita water consumption, population growth and discount rate Supply robustness is defined as the probability that watersupply reliability (i.e. likelihood of water being fully supplied) and vulnerability (measured by supply/demand deficit) are simultaneously above and below pre-specified thresholds, respectively. The decision variables are the implementation stages and the sizes of some of the intervention options. The above problem is solved by using the NSGA-II optimisation method linked to a WaterCress (Water-Community Resource Evaluation and Simulation System)simulation model . Uncertain variables are sampled using the Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) method. Computational efficiency is increased by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) surrogate or metamodels, trained to calculate values of the objectives mentioned above. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN architecture is used here.
The samples of the soil were collected from the dumping ground (Landfill) of the SahibzadaAjit Singh Nagar. For the purpose of the study soil samples of 100 grams each from the surface and at the depth of 10, 20 and 30 cms from the five different locations located at least ten meters apart from each other. The samples of the soil were collected from the specified depth using soil angular. The samples of sil were firstly air dried and then kept in thepolythene bags for further analysis. The samples of the soil were analysed for pH, organic content (OC) further the levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), cyanide (Cn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), silver (Ag) and mercury (Hg) were also examined from the samples. The samples were examined in the National Soil Testing Laboratory located at Sector 22, Chandigarhusing the Bureau of Indian Standard‘s guidelines in Methods of soil test. The examined results were then compared with the standards of Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations.
Operationally, the Board is decentralised into three operational zones with the aim of bringing the service closer to the customers. These zone offices are managed as profit centres and fully responsible for all customer service delivery operations. LWB outsourced all non-core functions like security, cleaning and landscaping services in an effort to concentrate on the core business of providing potable water to customers and cut some operational costs (LWB Functional Review Report, September 2008). As part of its strategic planning, the Board has a five year strategic plan which is formulated in line with the Malawi Government’s strategic papers: The Malawi Development and Growth Strategy and the Millennium Development Goals. The Strategic Plan also forms the basis for its Performance Management System. From the Strategic Plan, the Board formulates its annual Business Plan every year.
The utility completed its vulnerability assessment (VA) in 2003, in response to the 2002 Bioterrorism Act. In 2005, after updating its VA, the utility consolidated all plans and associated documents in a single functional emergency response plan called the Utility Integrated Contingency Plan (UICP). The UICP also included all documents necessary for compliance with various regulations and utility needs. The UICP is a comprehensive guide on the utility’s approach for planning, mitigation, response, and recovery from different types of incidents that threaten its water and wastewater infrastructure. The utility’s pre-planning and preparedness for Disclaimer
the problem is obtained by using the non-traditional techniques such as genetic algorithm. Chen et al.  describedan analytical model is formulated for the location and allocation of facilities of four-echelon supply chain network for the optimal facility location and capacity allocation decisions. Fixed location and variable material cost, production, inventory and transportation costs are considered while making strategic decisions. Two objective functions of minimizing total SC cost and maximizing fill rate are considered. Lopes et al.  describe the application of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) to the optimization of a simplified supply chain in an integrated production-inventory- distribution system. The paper presented a comparative study of EAs for the optimization of a supply chain. The supply chain was modeled as a mixed-integer programming problem, encompassing the optimization of costs related to stocking, manufacturing, transportation and shortage. Kalayanmoy Deb  described in his book on “Multi objective optimization using Evolutionary Algorithm” Proposed that Evolutionary multi objective optimization (EMO) principle of handling multi-objective optimization problems is to and representative set of Pareto-optimal solutions. Since an Evolutionary Algorithm (EO) uses a population of solutions in each iteration, EO procedures are potentially viable techniques to capture a number of trade of near-optimal solutions in a single simulation run. And described a number of popular EMO methodologies, presented some simulation studies on test problems, and discussed how EMO principles can be useful in solving real-world multi-objective optimization problems through a casestudy of spacecraft trajectory optimization. Reddy et al.  explain supply chain two stage distribution inventory optimization model for a distribution network with multiple ware houses supplying multiple retailers, who in turn serve a large number of customers. This model has taken the distribution and inventory carrying costs into account in the supply chain network at each period. With the validation of casestudy using the confectionery industry data, it is clear that the results obtained are encouraging and reduced overall system costs. By making retailers to interact and taking a decision on lateral transshipment, the inventory level of different locations at the same echelon is balanced.
As the volatility cost model developed in this research shows, additional process steps, additional logistics and additional inventory influence the volatility costs. The three scenarios described in the previous sections minimise process steps and logistics, however the risk of obsolete stock will remain. The risk on out of stock situations will remain as well, although the risk will be less as it is in the current situation. Therefore, Casecompany has to improve the ability to adapt to volatility by developing the repack process as described in the previous sections on the short term. On the long term Casecompany can further minimise the risk on obsolete stock or out of stock situations by developing a partnership with the organisation contracted for the warehousing and repack activities. When implementing the three scenarios the repack process is still forecast driven and fully controlled by Casecompany. Organisations that operate in forecast driven environments need to determine what time fence should be associated with each possible outcome of a product differentiation activity, how often the master production schedule should be re- planned and at what time the demand for each product differentiation should be forecasted 157 . Since the decision has been made by Casecompany head quarter not to