Jatropha oil (JCO) is derived from the Jatropha curcas plant, they can be grown in unfarmable lands and can endure adverse weather conditions. Non-edible oils are the most appropriate feedstock for biodiesel production as they do not put a strain on global food demand [ 35 ]. However, the concern with non-edible feed stocks is that some crops have a high Free Fatty Acid value (FFA). The FFA value determines whether or not the oil needs to undergo an additional process (ie. esterification) before transesterification. The esterification process or ‘pre-treatment’ makes biodiesel production a two-step process capable of producing a high yield of fuel in a relatively short amount of time [ 36 ]. Jatropha carcus trees are grown in many parts of India and in Africa. Use of 100% biodiesel (B100) would provide much more emission reduction benefits than using biodiesel-diesel blends. Most studies found in the literature reported effects of nanoparticles on jatrophabiodiesel-diesel blends. The aim of the current study is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated with nanoparticles—100% jatrophabiodiesel fuel mixture. Initial findings of the study have been presented at the 13th SDEWES conference [ 37 ]. Two nanoparticles cerium oxide and aluminium oxides will be used in this study. Jatrophabiodiesel will be produced in the lab using two stages, i.e., esterification and transesterification. Nanoadditives-J100 fuel blends will be tested in a multi-cylinder engine. The specific objectives of this study are:
Abstract: In the present energy scenario of increased energy demand, rapid depletion of petroleum resources and increased environmental problems, the search for new renewable and alternative fuels have gained momentum. This study represents an experimental investigation to examine the effect of nano additives on single cylinder DI diesel engine performance at variable operating conditions. In this work alumina nanoparticles having average size of ~10 nm were dispersed in a mixture of jatropha methyl ester and conventional diesel fuel (20% jatrophabiodiesel and 80% diesel fuel) at proportion of 20, 30 and 40 parts per million. The obtained results were compared with neat diesel and B20 as base fuels. It is found that, the appropriate nano- additives dose corresponding to optimal engine performance is about 40 ppm of alumina nanoparticle. At this dose, the overall BSFC is reduced by about 12.5%, engine thermal efficiency is increased up to 12%, and exhaust gas temperature is reduced by 13%. Along with percentage reduction of smoke opacity by 20 %, unburned hydrocarbon by 10 %, carbon monoxide by 29 % and nitrogen oxides by 13% compared with the corresponding values obtained when only a blended fuel of 20% biodiesel is used. Such type of biofuel based Nano fluids having improved performancecharacteristics can be utilized directly as an alternate fuel for diesel engines.
ABSTRACT: In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustioncharacteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100) were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustioncharacteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.
A lot of research work has been carried out to use vegetable oil both in its neat form and modified form. Since India is net importer of vegetable oils, edible oils cannot be used for production of biodiesel. India has the potential to be a leading roducer of biodiesel, as biodiesel can be harvested and sourced from nonedible oils like jatropha curcas, pongamia pinnata, neem, mahua, castor, linseed, etc. Some of these oils produced even now are not being properly utilized. Out of is focusing on jatropha curcas and pongamia pinnata, which can grow in arid and wastelands. Implementation of biodiesel in India will lead to many advantages like green cover to wasteland, support to agriculture and rural economy and reduction in dependence on imported crude oil and reduction in air pollution (Venkatraman and In the modern society having much advancement in technology there is also some issues relating to an alternate source of fuel to sustain the transportation sector or the future generation. However our dependence is on diesel and petroleum for fueling the transportation sector and if this continues then this could threaten our energy resource, affect our economy and even affect our environment so badly that it en take hundreds of years for a seed to sprout. Thus we are in search of alternate source of fuel to have a sustainable INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
Increasing the consumption and price hike of petroleum fuel day to day is problematic for developing countries that are dependent on foreign suppliers and pay huge amounts on import bills. In the last ten years, researchers have given more attention to alternative fuels. Due to the lower availability of petroleum-based fuels in the future, the need for alternative fuels has been raised, and research is in progress for alternative fuels. (Verhelst and Sierens, 2001). Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, with simple production technology, low handling hazards, low pollutant emissions, and can be used in engines without substantial modifications (Demirbas, 2007; Lang et al., 2001). The main source of
Diesel fuels have an essential function in the industrial economy of a country with applications in heavy trucks, city transport buses, locomotives, electric generators, farm equipment, earthmoving and underground mining equipments . Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats . Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages . A wider flammability limit, significant fuel oxygen content, lower viscosity, higher specific heat and higher latent heat of vaporization of methanol remains an advantage in terms of faster combustion, lower smoke and nitric oxide emissions as reported in literature [4-9]. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were the most commonly used alkali catalysts but higher yield was reported with KOH . Methanol and ethanol are the alcohols employed frequently in the transesterification process; but methanol is preferred owing to its low cost and higher reactivity when
Figure 6.22 to Figure 6.25 depicts the temporal variations of the flame diameter and the flame / droplet diameter ratio. The axis on the left represents the droplet flame diameter D f and the axis on the right represents the droplet flame diameter / droplet diameter ratio D /D . The droplet flame diameter is defined as the maximum edge length of the flame perpendicular to the falling direction as illustrated in Figure 5.5. From Figure 6.22 to Figure 6.25, it can be seen that the droplet flame diameter first increases then displays a gradual descent until flame extinction occurs. This observation is readily apparent in droplet combustion for conventional hydrocarbons as mentioned by Makino . Law  stated that the droplet flame diameter / droplet diameter ratio exhibits a progressive exponential increase until the droplet fully combusts which conforms well to the results obtained in this thesis. This progressive exponential increase in D /D is a common occurrence for combustion in an air environment where the oxygen concentration is 21 %. What is of particular interest is when combustion occurs under high oxygen concentration where the oxygen mass fraction is 0.33. In this scenario, D /D will display a similar trend to Df (a concave downwards function). A low oxygen atmosphere occurs when the oxygen mass fraction is 0.11. In this environment, D /D will also display a similar trend to D f (a concave downwards function) however D /D will steadily converge towards Df
In the last few decades, industrial growth, maintenance of quality of life, and diminishing fossil fuel reserves has lead to exploration for alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Vegetable oils such as soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, rice bran oil, raspberry oil, mahua oil and sunflower oil can be directly used in diesel engines as biofuel , because these oils have comparable performance to that of diesel fuel with less exhaust emissions [2, 3]. Usage of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is not new as Rudolf Diesel first demonstrated his new diesel engine at the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris by using peanut oil. However, there are a few concerns on the usage of edible oil in biodiesel production, because this may affect food security and may inflate the food product prices [4-6] especially in heavily populated developing countries. Hence, this cause persuade to shift the search for alternative renewable energy sources towards usage of non-edible oils such as cottonseed, jatropha curcas, castrol, mustard, rubber seed, pongamia and neem oils etc. as biodiesel feedstock [7,8]. These renewable energy resources support the growth of rural employment, reduce the dependency on fuel imports and also reduce environmental pollution. The past research has revealed that with increase in volume fraction of n-butanol in biodiesel, there is reduction in exhaust emissions of the diesel engine when fueled with methyl ester of jatropha oil . Some reviews have shown that the diesel engine delivers slightly lower brake thermal efficiency with less exhaust emissions when jatropha oil methyl ester was used as biodiesel in single cylinder DI engine [10, 11]. The increase in brake thermal efficiency and reduction in emission was noticed when diesel additive such as Multi-DM-32 added to jatrophabiodiesel . In this present research work, jatropha curcas oil which is non-edible oil is selected for the study of performance evaluation.
Karanja based bio-diesel is a non-edible, biodegradable fuel suitable for diesel engines. Karanja biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification method. Biodiesel-diesel blends have been prepared on volume basis. Physical properties of Karanja biodiesel, diesel and its blends have been determined. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze combustioncharacteristics of a single cylinder, VCR diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends (10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 75%) with neat diesel. A series of engine tests, with CR 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 have been conducted using each of the above blends for comparative evaluation. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, peak pressure development, heat release rate analysis of engine have been studied. The results of the experiment in each case have been compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Ignition delays of bio-diesel blends are lower than that of diesel; peak pressure takes place definitely after TDC for safe and efficient operation. Comparable rate of pressure rise obtained is indicative of stable and noise free operation of CI engines with karanja biodiesel blends. B10 is suitable alternative fuel for diesel at slightly higher CR can be used without any engine modifications.
The motorsport industry had been less open to adoption of these alternative fuels and powertrains, instead developing the internal combustion engines which have been used for more than a century to unprecedented levels of ef ﬁ ciency, which in the motorsport environment is translated into greater power output. However, the use of compression ignition engines powered by diesel fuel for competitive motorsport has become a familiar concept since 2006 when Audi announced it would enter the 24 Heures Du Mans endurance race with a diesel car. The Audi R10s were powered by V12 turbodiesel engines and ﬁ nished one of the world's most famous motor races in 1st and 3rd place. Diesel- powered cars have won the race every year since 2006 with diesel-electric hybrids being the most recent winners in 2012 and 2013. Such is the success of the diesel powered cars at Le Mans that it has been suggested that the regulations are biased in their favour (Bamsey, 2008). This is due to the power and fuel ef ﬁ ciency advantage that they are able to achieve, allowing faster lap times but also fewer pit stops. For endurance racing, this combination is dif ﬁ cult to beat with a gasoline-fuelled car.
Figure 6 shows the variations of NOx emissions with respected to engine loads. There are mainly three factors, oxygen concentration, combustion temperature and time, affecting the NOx emissions. NOx emissions of biodiesel and its blends are slightly higher than those of diesel fuel. The difference of NOx emission between diesel fuel and biodiesel and its blends is no more than 75 ppm. The higher temperature of combustion and the presence of oxygen with biodiesel cause higher NOx emissions, especially at high engine loads. In the same way, Nabi et al.  has reported NOx emissions were found to increase due to the presence of extra oxygen in the molecules of biodiesel blends. Approximately 4% increase in NOx emission was realized with 25% biodiesel blends. It has also been reported by Zheng et al.  that the biodiesel with a cetane number similar to the diesel fuel produced higher NOx emissions than the diesel fuel. However, the biodiesel with a higher cetane number had comparable NOx emissions with the diesel fuel. A higher cetane number would result in a shortened ignition delay period thereby allowing less time for the air/fuel mixing before the premixed burning phase. Consequently, a weaker mixture would be generated and burnt during the premixed burning phase resulting in relatively reduced NOx formation. Reduction of NOx with biodiesel may be possible with the proper adjustment of injection timing and introducing to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or Selective catalytic reduction technology (SCR).
The increase of CME content inside the blends with CDF increases the density and surface tension of the biodiesel blends but reduces the kinematic viscosity and calorific value of the fuels, as shown in Table 1. The increase in density is related to the high content of saturated fatty acid in coconut oil. Lauric acid and mystric acid are saturated fatty acid that make up the majority composition of the coconut oil. It has a single bond between its carbon chain atoms and hydrogen atoms. Such a configuration allows more hydrogen atoms to bond with carbon chain atoms and makes it heavier and denser than unsaturated fatty acid . Thus, the increase of CME content contributes to the increase in biodiesel density. The increase of CME biodiesel surface tension is due to the presence of alkyl ester in biodiesel blends. It increases the intermolecular forces between fuel molecules, strengthening the weak intermolecular forces between hydrocarbon chains in diesel fuel . Lower viscosity of CME biodiesel blends is related to the fuel carbon size and chain length of fatty acid, as explained in [27,28]. A long chain fatty acid leads to a bigger carbon size and also longer carbon chains (14 and above), which will increase fuel viscosity. The coconut oil composition is primarily made up of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA), which has around 6 to 12 carbon atoms in a single chain. This reduces the viscosity of CME biodiesel. The calorific value of CME biodiesel was reduced due to the high oxygen content in biodiesel . It improves the cetane number (an indication of combustion speed) of the fuel blend by reducing the ignition delay period and enhances faster fuel vaporization; thus combustion can take place at a lower temperature with low NO x formation .
The major transportation of goods depends upon diesel engine. The cars, busses, trucks, rail engine etc are having multi-cylinder in nature. These passenger and goods transport vehicles generally operates on part load due to continuous variation of speed and load. On the other hand due to the rapid depletion of conventional of diesel oil an alternative fuels that to liquid in nature is to be evolved. It is also observed in literature review that a very few work has been done on use of biodiesel on multi cylinder diesel engines. For designing of practical engine running purely on biodiesel needs a huge amount of data for analysis and decision making and there is a need of such data on multi cylinder diesel engine. An attempt is made in this project to evaluate performance, emission and combustion of multi- cylinder diesel engine using Mahua biodiesel.
Simulation code was programmed using MATLAB software and the various equations of thermodynamic model were solved numerically. The computer code is developed to be suitable for any hydrocarbon fuel versus diesel, biodiesel and its blends. The engine geometrical parameters, molecular weight of gaseousproducts and the various constants used in the modeling are defined. The input parameters used in the modeling are the compression ratio, relative air-fuel ratio and the molecular formula of the fuel. From the geometry of the engine, the combustion chamber volume at every crank angle degree is
Over the past decade, CFD modeling was improved to simulate 3D flows, mixture formation, burning and pollutant formation for direct injection engines. In the engine development process, CFD modeling of direct injection engine is used to analyze the interaction between the fuel and the motion of the intake air inside the combustion chamber. In the last years, due to an intense world request, a lot of simulation models have been developed using CFD code. Combustion is described by a single step global chemical reaction. Combustion research is more extensive, diverse and interdisciplinary due to powerful modeling tool like CFD. In CI engine the incylinder multiphase fluid dynamics like fuel spray, chemical reaction kinetics influences the combustion. In past, the diesel ignition and combustion process has been modeled with several diverse models: The eddy dissipation model and its derivatives, extensions of the coherent flame model like PDF time scale models, the RIF model. Recent investigations reported the development of new and trustworthy models for combustion. The combustion model needs to consider scale fluctuations, inhomogeneities in the flow field, wall effects and turbulence level. Amongst, kε, RNG kε and twoscale models of different version were compared. To take account of flow features that are relevant to compressibility and turbulence, the RNG kε demonstrates considerable accuracy, when compared with experimental data. The recognized submodels for CI DI diesel combustion includes spray, droplet break up and collision, combustion and wall interaction. The combustion model gives the quantity of fuel atomized, vaporized and burned. Several studies performed with different CFD codes and methods to investigate spray pattern details of diesel injection and its effects on combustion process. Further, microscale phenomena of spray break up and collision having impact on overall modeling of combustion. The different break up models considering wave instabilities KH and RT mechanism predicted realistic spray.
Vegetable oils are important substitutes for diesel fuel, as their properties are comparable to diesel fuel and also they are renewable in nature. However, drawbacks associated with vegetable oils of high viscosity and low volatility need to be converted into biodiesel. These biodiesels derived from vegetable oils present a very promising alternative for diesel fuel, since they have numerous advantages compared to fossil fuels. They are renewable, biodegradable, provide energy security and foreign exchange savings besides addressing environmental concerns and socio–economic issues. However drawbacks associated with biodiesel of high viscosity and low volatilitywhich cause combustionproblems in CI engines, call for engine with hot combustion chamber. They have significant characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, and ability to handle lowcalorific value fuel. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance and combustioncharacteristics with low heat rejection combustion chamber with cotton seed biodiesel. It consisted of an air gap insulated piston,an air gap insulated liner and ceramic coated cylinder head with different operating conditions of cotton seed biodiesel. Combustioncharacteristics were determined by means of Piezo electric pressure transducer, TDC (top dead center) and special pressure- crank angle software package at full load operation. Comparative studies were made for engine with LHR combustion chamber and CE at manufacturer’s recommended injection timing (27 o bTDC) with biodiesel operation.Engine with LHR combustion chamber with biodiesel showed
Castor bean or Ricinus Communis is the castor oil plant which is an species of flowering plant in the surge family called as Euphorbiaceae. It generally reproduces with mixed pollination system which favour selfing by geitonogamy but at the same time can be an out-crosser by anemophily. It contains normally about 40% to 60% oil which has a rich mixture of triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. The seed contain a water soluble toxin called ricin, which is also present in lower concentrations in the plant. Vegetable oils and animal fats are synthesised to form alkyl monoesters of fatty acids which are used as an alternative fuel which is called as “Biodiesel”. These reduce the pollution from the vehicle and have been a major area of focus research applied in this kind of research. Rapeseed oil based esters are mostly used in European countries as an alternative fuel. A number of researchers have investigated vegetable oil based fuels. Most have concluded that vegetable oils can be safely burned for a short period of time in a diesel engine 1 . However, using raw vegetable oil in a diesel engine for extended periods of time may result in severe engine deposits, injector coking and thickening of lubricating oil. The high viscosity of raw vegetable oil reduces fuel atomization and increases fuel spray penetration. A higher spray penetration is thought to be partly responsible for the difficulties experienced with engine deposits and thickening of lubricating oil 1 . But, these effects are reduced or eliminated through transesterification process which removes glycerol from the triglycerides and it has been replaced with radicals from it respectively. Rudolf Diesel, who invented the diesel engine, presented the concept of bio-fuels at the world exhibition held at Paris exposition in the year 1900. Engine is the basic concept need for economic development of any country. The single largest source of energy in India after coal is petroleum, about 2/3 rd of which is imported from OPEC (Oil and Petroleum Exporting Countries).
Jatropha has already been make known and its use for biodiesel has been studied extensively, the significance for this study to add more information in its field of study toward how the various blend of Jathropha oil and how will it affect the result of combustion system interrelationship of its physical properties and fuel flow rate.
The amount (202.00 cm 3 ) of the biodiesel collected from a solution mixture used was presented in Table 1. The result indicated that Jatropha curcas seed could be used for large scale biodiesel production since appreciable quantity (202.00 cm 3 ) was collected from 400.00 cm 3 solution mixture of Jatropha curcas oil and methanol. The appreciable production of biodiesel observed may be connected to the suitable volume ratio (1:9) of Jatropha curcas oil to methanol, the reaction temperature (65 0 C) and the optimum concentration of KOH used during base catalysed transesterification. This is in accordance with the findings of Garba et al (2012). The result of the energy analyses carried out on the biodiesel using experiments and estimations are presented in Table 2. From the result it could be seen that the percentage combustion and calorific value of the biodiesel generated are 86.00% and 714.00J/75 cm 3 , respectively. The high combustibility and calorific
Internal combustion (IC) engines are widely used to convert chemical energy of fuel into mechanical power in many engineering applications, e.g. road and off-road vehicles, locomotives, marine vehicles, airplanes, and in stationary applications such as electric power generation and gas pipelines . One of the sources is the use of a biodieselcombustion system that introduced in the industrial emissions [2-4]. The diesel engine has undergone continues improvements through the developments of engines technologies especially in controlling the combustion process. Although, it is very important to control the ignition process in order to reduce the NOx and PM levels . CFD results are directly analogous to wind tunnel results obtained in a laboratory. Many studies showed that 20% or less biodiesel blends with petroleum diesel is the optimum blend to gather better effect of emissions reduction and does not require any special adjustments on engine operating conditions and modifications to the engine fuel lines . Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with petroleum in any percentage but the standard storage and handling procedures used for biodiesel are the main issue due to the biodiesel fuel specifications. Diesel gives the lowest number of acid value. However, all studies show an increasing rate of acid with long duration of storage time . It is expected that a good fuel should have a low auto-ignition temperature, especially in a diesel engine, since it has no extra mechanism to ignite the fuel in combustion chamber. Cherng-Yuan Lin and Chu-Chiang Chiu  has found that the flash point of storage biodiesel is higher for biodiesel storage which has antioxidant.