Mobileedgecomputing is a recent architecture and standardization is an important step to bring in more takers and for widespread implementation. The heterogeneity of the end devices as well their means of connectivity is another challenge to develop and deploy MEC. MEC servers should be able to switch networks without compromising on the benefits like low latency, low bandwidth consumption and high response-time and high QoE. Security and scalability
Meals were another topic discussed by each of the participants. All participants noted there seemed to be a difference between how administrators planned meals for student-athletes on the road and post-game between HBCUs and PWIs. Theodore gave an example from his experience traveling with an HBCU football team, “We were eating Golden Coral or Little Caesars before the game and then Popeyes after the game. Plenty of times the football team would complain about it.” The discussion of HBCUs not having funds to give student-athletes a proper meal following games was highlighted by the majority of participants. Penelope made the comparison, “They (HBCUs) don’t have an after game meal where PWI schools would never consider that.” One important note regarding meals made by Theodore was the difference between a regular season game and the football team participating in a classic, “Just traveling with the team we never had a buffet for the team to eat from or use the hotel catering, so the student-athletes are not getting a real meal, unless it was a classic. Specifically, the Tuskegee Morehouse Classic was the only time where we are here. We are having a real dinner.”
Madelyn had a similar experience outside of school when she ran into a student that had once shown kindness towards her during the school day. Madelyn later passed the same student on the street outside of school and prepared to make eye contact with the student but the student, who clearly recognized Madelyn, looked away as if she had never known Madelyn. The White student’s behavior was no surprise to Madelyn, given the context of the time period. Regardless of other students and the choices they made about the role they would or would not play in seeking justice, Madelyn continued the journey, albeit alone. For she had learned from her parents that people can change for better or worse, but she could not allow the actions of others to determine her behavior. “Growing up, it was instilled within me by my mother and father, that regardless of what others said or did, I had to remember who I was and what I represented. Because of this, I may not have had the same struggles or insecurities as others. Also, I didn’t have the same expectations of others as a result of my upbringing. I knew the world didn’t owe me anything and that I would have to work hard for everything I got.” 151
signature components of CREST-Ed and Net-Q programs, such as the year-long residency and TIP-AAR, have a long-term impact on teacher quality. Results of the multilevel logistic regression and average treatment effect models confirmed that factors such as teacher age, teacher race/ethnicity, school socioeconomic composition, school performance and subject taught were significant predictors of teacher retention. However, teacher race/ethnicity was the only significant variable found in all average treatment effect models, suggesting that the factors influencing teacher retention are dynamic over time and change as teachers gain classroom experience. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge in the design of teacher residency programs and on factors associated with beginning teacher retention. The findings from this study may assist local education agencies and educator preparation providers in understanding ways to support pre-service and beginning teachers. Suggestions for future research and implications for policies addressing pre-service teacher support and teacher retention are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to understand the pre-service experiences of in-service Black urban band directors in order to provide insight on the types of experiences that they perceived as necessary for preparation to teach in an urban environment. Previous qualitative and mixed methods studies have explored context specific knowledge, skills to be successful, beliefs and attitudes about teaching in urban schools, challenges and rewards of teaching in urban schools (Fitzpatrick, 2008; Day, 2018) and the impact of undergraduate preparation (Fiese & DeCarbo, 1995). For the current study, a qualitative design was chosen to provide a space for the voices of Black urban band directors to be heard. However, this study differs from previous studies in the area of urban music teacher preparation (Day, 2018; Fiese & DeCarbo, 1995; Fitzpatrick, 2008) in that the primary focus is on the pre-service experiences of Black urban band directors. The focus on Black urban band directors is especially important because the dominant narrative accepted by many has positioned urban schooling through a Whiteness lens and does not celebrate the excellence of urban schools and Black and Latino students. Nor, do we hear from the voices of teachers of color. The deficit view often leaves the stories of Black urban band directors and students within narratives of assumptions, biases and stereotypes (Martignetti, Talbot, Clauhs, Hawkins & Niknafs, 2013). By studying the experiences of Black urban band directors and utilizing Critical Race Theory as a theoretical framework to frame and understand the data, I offer the participants’ stories to contribute to the invisibility that currently exist. The following research questions were used to guide my study:
Rhetorical network analysis in this study finds that an interesting theme recurring across periods of time: people complain that CCTV only focused on attacking Apple but neglected many serious quality issues, such as poisonous food, deadly medicine, polluted air and water, etc. all of which were vital to people’s livelihood yet overdue for long time. These people argue that compared with a back plate in iPhone—the subject of debate in the controversial “whole- phone” repair policy, the above issues are the real concerns for common people and also should be the target of investigation for a state media who claimed to serve the people. Thus, CCTV’s wrong focus on Apple’s service, a non-emergent issue, and its procrastination on reporting significant social problems prove that CCTV abused its power of speech. Here are some examples in which people attack CCTV for not paying attention to serious social problems:
Among more interactive uses of explanation, three studies were identified. Soundness of recommendations and completeness of explanations in recommendations was examined by Kulesza et al. (2013) in a music preference context. They tested the impact of completeness and soundness of explanations on user’s mental models, recommending that both completeness and soundness are required, but only if users believe their input is improving the intelligent agent. In Sklar and Azhar (2018) the researchers experimented with coordination of a robot that could provide an explanation in dialogue through argumentation. They found that subjective preference and objective performance criteria did not vary significantly between explanation and black box conditions. Holliday, Wilson, and Stumpf (2013) compared the effect of users being provided an explanation that they could then correct to a system that did not provide explanations. They found that participants in the condition where they were not providing explanations exhibited more control-exerting behaviors and reported such while “thinking aloud,” but there were no perceptual differences in control when the same concept was tested in a questionnaire. They deduced that there were differences between perception and behavior related to perception of control.
This project was focused on assessing and identifying the external factors that contribute to disparities; the project also explored the effect of MHC utilization in the improvement of healthcare access and recipients’ participation in health services. As a true advocate for justice, Florence Nightingale created public awareness, and championed the cause of those suffering as a result of unjust policies (Hegge, 2013). The project also responds to Nightingale’s challenge for nurses to create environments where population health is a realistic expectation (Hegge, 2013). Using MHC as the means of reducing barriers to healthcare was one of the options the author used to address access barriers. Nightingale’s call for action requires commitment to correct unjust social policies that are detrimental to human health. She invites providers to be equipped with organizational and political skills, integrity, honesty, courage, sensitivity to suffering, and persistence to withstand opposition (Hegge, 2013). Nurses are in an ideal position to challenge unjust social policies and create meaningful reforms to shape a just world of universally
worked at the organization and expressed interest in participation in a mindfulness meditation class or the comparison group. The study was a quasi-experimental design with a total of 46 participants whom were all white and primarily females. Of the 46 participants, 23 were classified in the meditation group while the other 23 were in the comparison group which were chosen voluntarily by the participants. A community sample was used to evaluate the impact of mindfulness meditation on stress and hope. Participants in the meditation intervention took a class that consisted of seven sessions over a 6-week period and surveys were given to evaluate the effectiveness of the class. Hope and stress were measured by different scales (Adult Hope Scale and Perceived Stress Scale). To analyze results, a multivariate analysis of covariance was administered, and results portrayed that indeed mindfulness meditation was associated with lowered stress and increased hope within participants. The data indicated that the meditation group exhibited significantly higher hope and lower stress levels than the comparison group. The path analysis indicated that reductions in stress fully mediated the relationship between
Protection may come from adherence to biomedicalized, bipolitically-mediated scripts about responsible reproduction. This adherence engenders protection from blame for being irresponsible in reproductive decisions, at a time when reproductive and healthcare access are uncertain for many American birth-control users. As an IUD-user myself, and in the face of potential threats to my health insurance coverage and access to birth control, I wanted to be seen as blameless. I did not want to subject myself to the social ridicule that could result from any number of the birth control choices available to me. In weighing my options, between an unplanned pregnancy, abortion, expensive birth control methods or reliance on birth control methods that could be difficult to access in a post-Affordable Care Act world, I chose a method that best adhered to biomedical scripts about responsibility. I chose a method that would last a long time, was cost-effective, was among the most effective at preventing pregnancy, and would be very unlikely to leave me dealing with an unplanned pregnancy.
As inadequate as this method is in examining origins of African folklore, it remains a primary method for examining African remnants in New World African folklore. Thus, in establishing their arguments, scholars are reliant upon findings that derive from the usage of this method. In referring to the text ‘Stith Thompson: His Life and His Role in Folklore Scholarship’, Martin states that “the index was not meant to be an end in itself, but only the foundation for future research--particularly historic-geographic study” (Martin n.d.: 16). Furthermore, efforts should not cease to find authentic, reliable connections between Africa and New World African folklore. Other methods should be introduced into scholarship for the purpose of assessing cultural identity. If the aim of the historic-geographic method is to use the distribution of traits to identify the folklore’s cultural history (Schmidt 1939 in Goldberg 1984), this can be done
To understand the impact that the visual arts can have on young displaced children, we first need to have an understanding of the different theories of child development in art (Efland, 2002; Gardner, 2006; Kindler & Darras, 1997; Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1970); the role that the learning and making of art plays in child development cognitively (Eisner, 2002; Thompson 1995), linguistically (Chang & Cress, 2014; Duh, 2016), and socially-emotionally (Brown, 2013; Brown & Sax, 2013; National Endowment for the Arts, 2015; Upitis, 2011); in addition to the role the visual arts play with refugee children in particular (Cumming & Visser, 2009; Rousseau, Singh, Lacroix, Bagilishya, & Measham, 2004; Rousseau et al., 2005; Ugurlu et al., 2016; Wellman & Bey, 2015). The literature reviewed below looked at the process of storytelling through the visual arts (Agosto, 2013; Parsons, 2016) using puppetry as a medium of expression (Butler, Guterman, & Rudes, 2009; Dyson, 2018; Irwin, 2018). This approach was inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach to learning (Hong et al., 2017; Santìn & Torruella, 2017) based on developmentally appropriate practices (Colbert, 1995; Freedman, 1997; Griebling, 2011; National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2009) and the experiential learning process (Kolb et al., 1999; Wurdinger, 2005) in art making that guided the development of the guidebook.
This study serves to look closely at the relationship between the art classroom and art museum as collaborative educational experiences and examines the art museum field trips as a method of assessing intellectual growth and provide information to art educators as to what that might look like As they engage in a student centered, aesthetic learning environment, I use different methods of instruction and assessment to reach them on levels that are too often overlooked by a traditional, standardized pedagogy. As we enter the realm of inclusive art museum education, we encounter a field of study that has opportunity for advancement and further research. As our students’ cultural environment grows, we educators need to keep pace in order to provide a meaningful and rich education to the future or our world. In consideration of evaluating learning, a balance must be made between the traditional and the new. Educators need to value the approaches to assessment that have proven effective and also recent developments that have the potential to be just as successful. This balance is constantly changing with society. When we consider advancement in science and technology as academic applications towards the differentiated assessment of our students, we can truly embrace an evolution of education. By practicing artful thinking in education I hope to encourage our student’s independence, critical thinking, and deep understanding of the curriculum content.
The European began to develop a sense of the self in which there was supposedly a primal, mythical exemplification of wisdom itself, and the place that became the epitome of this sense of self became Hellenic civilization, a place whose foundational role took racialized form in nineteenth-century scholarship on the history of philosophy (pg. 5) Gordon presents historical context on early workings of race, dating back to the sixteenth century. He notes, in his academic journal article “Africana Philosophy under the Weight of Misguided Reason” (2012), the enslavement and near genocide of native populations in the Americas, with eventual scholars such as Bartolomé Las Casas debating with Gines de Sepúlveda regarding native populations suitability for enslavement, gave way to the Atlantic Slave Trade. The debate concerned the treatment of American Indians in the New World after the colonization of the Americas; Sepulveda argued that American Indians were “natural slaves,” whereas Las Casas, a Dominican theologian, believed all were human (2012). This is deemed as one of the earliest moral debates concerning colonialism and the human rights of colonized peoples. A mutual agreement sufficed, and although Native Indians were not enslaved, it lead to the justification for other groups to be subjugated to such incivilities.
From their earliest origins, eukaryotic cells have had a symbiotic relationship with microbes, which in multicellular organisms cover nearly every surface exposed to the environment, supporting critical aspects of host metabolism and physiology (Franco- Obregon and Gilbert, 2017). In humans, an estimated ∼1:1 to 10:1 ratio of microbial cells for every human cell resides within the body, with the greatest reservoir being in the digestive tract (Sender et al., 2016). This microbial community is not only large by absolute number, but by complexity as well, and consists of myriad bacterial, fungal, viral, and protozoal species. Bacteria outnumber all other members, and of these, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla predominate (Rosenbaum et al., 2015). However, broad generalizations about their impact on the host cannot easily be made as different species, and even strains within a specific phylum can differ markedly in physiology and metabolic output (Geva-Zatorsky et al., 2017). In addition, less abundant and even rare taxa may regulate overall community structure and function and play important roles in host physiology (Jousset et al., 2017; Enaud et al., 2018).
Sonia Shahzadi received her BS and MS degrees from University of Gujrat, Pakistan, in 2013 and 2016 respectively. She is currently associated with Swan Mesh Networks Ltd., Research and Development, London, UK. Her research interests include Cloud Computing and MobileEdgeComputing. Muddesar Iqbal is Senior Lecturer in MobileComputing in the Division of Computer Science and Informatics, School of Engineering. He won an EPSRC Doctoral Training Award in 2007 and completed his PhD from Kingston University in 2010 with a dissertation titled “ Design, development, and implementation of a high-performance wireless mesh network for application in emergency and disaster recovery ” . He has been a principal investigator, co-investigator, project manager, coordinator and focal person of more than 10 internationally teamed research and development, capacity building and training projects. He is an established researcher and expert in the fields of: mobile cloud computing and open-based networking for applications in Education, disaster management and healthcare; community networks; and smart cities. His research interests include 5G networking technologies, multimedia cloud computing, mobileedgecomputing, fog computing, Internet of Things, software-defined networking, network function virtualization, quality of experience, and cloud infrastructures and services. Tasos Dagiuklas is a leading researcher and expert in the fields of Internet and multimedia technologies for smart cities, ambient assisted living, healthcare and smart agriculture. He is the leader of the SuITE research group at the London South Bank University where he also acts as the Head of Division in Computer Science. Tasos Dagiuklas received the Engineering Degree from the University of Patras-Greece in 1989, the M.Sc. from the University of Manchester-UK in 1991 and the Ph.D. from the University of Essex-UK in 1995, all in Electrical Engineering. He has been a principle investigator, co-investigator, project and technical manager, coordinator and focal person of more than 20 internationally R&D and Capacity training projects with total funding of approximately £ 5 . 0 m from different international organizations. His research interests include Smart Internet Technologies, Media Optimization across heterogeneous networks, QoE, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and cloud infrastructures and services.
Voice assistants and internal video cameras can be extremely intrusive as they listen and see everything. Once these are translated to real emotions, multiple aspects could be targeted at people based on their emotions. In the current work, the voice assistant has been simulated with a program that listens to all conversations, translates them to plain text and converts them to a sentiment, optimistic, negative or anxious. Correlation with additional indicators like facial expression detection, eating habits, etc. help in accurately assessing the emotional state of a person. A person being bored or thoughtful is detected by patterns of pacing around or watching videos, and the emotional dimensional analysis done using voice data. As the activities increase and our interactions with the external world increases, multiple domains like financial transactions or social interactions have a huge impact on the emotional state of a person. This work aims to drive a deeper understanding of the privacy intrusion into the emotional state of a person through a dimensional analysis of the emotional state.
plications. On the one hand, wireless communication as an essential component of mobilecomputing has quite low energy efficiency since the energy required for transmission of a single bit has been measured to be over 1000 times greater than that for a single 32-bit computation . Therefore, this idea can significantly reduce the energy consumption in wireless communication systems. On the other hand, some existing works, such as the adaptive multimedia streaming over wireless networks [24, 25], are effective by promoting communication via computation. In the adaptive streaming applications, the multimedia contents are encoded at multiple bit-rates and layered video chunks in remote clouds. The cross- layer optimizer selects the optimal values of the media bit- rate, the time slot allocation, and the modulation scheme to maximize the video quality perceived by users. To reduce the access delay, P2P communications instead of current content distribution network (CDN) techniques  will be widely adopted in the future intelligent video applications, such as real-time VR and AR applications [27, 28]. Since the P2P data streams do not go through the centralized clouds, conventional adaptive data streaming approaches will not be available.
In this era of advanced digital technologies, everything changes rapidly. New technologies are introduced, developed, and become outdated in the blink of an eye. Social media including Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook enable people all over the world to connect and interact. Computers, especially portable laptops, serve as a medium that makes it possible for people across the globe to connect to each other over the Internet. The computer and online technology world continue to evolve rapidly with vast improvements in new devices such as smartphones, iPads, and other tablet PCs. Social media, which was once predominantly a computer-mediated communication tool, has now moved into the realm of mobile device (and particularly mobile phone-mediated) communication (Godwin-Jones, 2008). With this change, scholarly attention to computer-mediated online learning and social interaction has now moved towards the domain of mobile phone learning (Godwin-Jones, 2008). Educators have become very interested in the learning benefits that mobile devices can bring to students in classrooms through various features (Banister, 2010; Chen & Huang, 2010). While the early development of mobile-assisted learning tended to focus on either 1) mobile devices as a tool for language learning or 2) technological perspectives using a behaviorist approach, the current focus is on its various implications for personal learning needs (Todd & Tepsuriwong, 2008). Kukulska-Hulme and Shield (2007) argued that nowadays “publications reporting mobile-assisted language
Mobileedgecomputing (MEC), as the key technology to improve user experience in a 5G network, can effectively reduce network transmission delay. Task migration can migrate complex tasks to remote edge servers through wireless networks, solving the problems of insufficient computing capacity and limited battery capacity of mobile terminals. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of “ how to realize low-energy migration of complex dependent applications, ” a subtask partitioning model with minimum energy consumption is constructed based on the relationship between the subtasks. Aiming at the problem of execution time constraints, the genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal solution, and the migration decision results of each subtask are obtained. In addition, an improved algorithm based on a genetic algorithm is proposed to dynamically adjust the optimal solution obtained by genetic algorithm by determining the proportion of task energy consumption and mobile phone residual power. According to the experimental results, it can be concluded that the fine-grained task migration strategy combines the advantages of mobileedgecomputing, not only satisfies the smooth execution of tasks, but also reduces the energy consumption of terminal mobile devices. In addition, experiments show that the improved algorithm is more in line with users ’ expectations. When the residual power of mobile devices is reduced to a certain value, tasks are migrated to MEC server to prolong standby time.