The formalization also affects the employees’ creativity at workplace and is negatively associated to it. Thus if the organization will prefer more formalized systems and procedures there will be less chances of workplace creativity. Thus, the higher the formalization in an organization the lesser the employee creativity. The work specialization also has a negative relationship with the employees’ creativity but it has a relatively less significant impact as compared to the other two variable but it is very obvious from the present study that work specialization and division of work among the employees increases the efficiency at workplace but it ultimately leads to a certain reduction in employees’ creativity. Thus, the more the specialization of work in an organization, the lesser the creativity management at workplace. In a nutshell, we can say that the organizationalstructure strongly affects the creativity at workplace but in a negative direction. The centralization and formalization must be suppressed in an organizationalstructure to develop employees’ creativity. The organizations must develop a decentralized and less formal structure to promote the employee creativity.
Employee job satisfaction is tremendously crucial not only for the employees but also organization as a whole Ostroff (1992). Mitchell, Holtom, & Lee (2001) has been perceived that top-level management must need to realize how an employee will be happy to their job. Because being satisfied employees are usually happy and motivated to their job, as a result, organization can gain amazing performance from them, alternatively, those employees are dissatisfied with their job will now not encouraged and concern towards the routine of work and even they're within job however escaping the responsibilities, furthermore, they might be high level of absence from their work Judge et al (2001). Whilst even they're present in the job however they've much less concern to the issues of organization, which is honestly affect the organization performance negatively. This is because based on employee performance organization made anticipated goal towards following terms.
H3: There is a relationship exist between participative leadership and organizational commitment.
The philosophical foundation of this study is positivism and the approach that this study has adopted is that of deductive reasoning. Survey research design has been used for the undertaking of this study. The research strategy that has been used here was quantitative in nature. The data collection strategy used here was based on self-administered questionnaire. Random sampling technique was used in the sampling of the respondents. The unit of analyses for this study were the faculty members of different colleges and universities in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed of which 170 questionnaires were received and qualified for validity. 85% response rate was achieved as part of the data collection activity. SPSS 21 software tool was used for the data analyses and the questionnaire was divided into two sections them being demographics and subjective section which is based on 5-pont Likert scale. The data was collected from various educational institutes of Lahore, Pakistan.
Stress exists in every organization either big or small the work places and organizations have become so much complex due to which it exists, work place stress has significant effects over the employees job performance, and the organizations in Uk are trying to cope with this scenario, (R. Anderson, 2003). Eleven forces are used as an antecedents of stress by researches (Overload, Role vagueness, Role conflict, Responsibility for people, Participation, Lack of feedback, Keeping up with quick technological change, Being in an innovative role, Career growth, Organizationalstructure and environment, and Recent episodic events.,) Overload :excessive work or work that is outside one's capability(Franch and Caplan ,1972; Margolis et al, 1974 ; Russek and Zohman, 1958) Role Ambiguity : Role insufficient information concerning powers, authority and duties to perform one's role (French and Caplan, 1972; Kahn, et al, 1964 ), Role Conflict: Supervisors or subordinates place contradictory demands on the individual(Beehr et al, 1976; Caplan and Jones, 1975; Caplan, et al, 1975; Hall and Gordon, 1973; Kahn et al, 1964) Responsibility for people: Responsibility for people, well-being works, job security, and professional development (French and Caplan, 1972; Pincherle, 1972) Participation: Extent to which one has influence over decisions relevant to one's job (Kasl, 1973) Margolis et al, 1974). Lack of Feedback: Lack of information about job performance (Adams, 1980 Cassel, 1974) Keeping up with rapid technological change: Keeping up with rapid changes in the information processing field (Ginzburg, 1967) Being in an innovative role: Having to bring about change in the organization (Kahn, et al.1964) Lawrence and Lorsch 1970. Career development: Impact of status dissimilarity, lack of job security, let down ambition (Brook 1973) Erikson and Gunderson 1972; Kahn, et al. 1964) Recent episodic events: Certain life events, such as divorce and bereavement, that are highly stressful (Adams 1980 ; Cobb, 1977 Holmes and Rahe 1975).
http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- email@example.com Page 77 (Bambacas & Bordia, 2009) with the advent of career self- management. It is significantly important to highlight and investigate the relationship between career self-management and organizational commitment because it is expected by the organizations that employees manage their own career but have been unsure of possible negative consequences (Sturges et al., 2000). This study provides an extension to the literature by investigating the impact of career self-management on organizational commitment. Lavalee and Campbell (1995) defined career self-management as taking the responsibility for your own career development. It is expected that employees monitor and evaluate their own progress towards their career goals instead of the case in which organization takes career of development of an employee’s career goals. Literature indicates that researches on career self-management and it effect on employees attitudes towards the organization, has gained momentum (Sturges et al., 2000; Sturges et al., 2002).However, consequences such as commitment are frequently overlooked (Sturges &Guest, 1999).Based on pertinent literature, the researchers proposed the following hypothesis:
Survey method will be used to collect data. Both the primary and secondary data have been used in the proposed study. Questionnaire will be constructed by formulating closed ended so that there is a maximum margin to know about the impact of organizational factors leadership style, organization culture, organization structure, workplace environment, job stress, and financial rewards on the employees’ performance in the banking sector of Nagapattinam Town. There are 21 private and public sector banks are located in Nagapattinam town. The research has adopted systematic random sampling procedures. There are 335 participants was taken for the study of which 200 employees from public sector banks and 135 employees from private sector banks. The 335 employees were split and randomly assigned to two lists, ‘1’ and ‘2’. When the target persons on list 2 could not be found, owing to a move or incorrect archival information, a person on list 1 was then substituted. The duration of the study took nearly two months from 20th December’ 2015 to 21th February’ 2016.
explained that they hypothesized the conceptual core of the approach of JCM from motivational theory of expectancy [11-16], and included concepts such as core job characteristics (e. g., skill variety, task identity, task significant, autonomy, and feedback), psychological states (meaningfulness of the work, responsibility for the outcomes of the work, and knowledge the actual results of the work), and attitudinal and behavioral outcomes (e. g., growth satisfaction, general satisfaction, internal work motivation, efficiency, and absenteeism). The new insights of Oldham and Hackman (2010) put greater emphasis on job characteristics and team building in workplaces, whereas they had originally argued that the characteristics of skill variety, task identity and task significance lead to the psychological state of meaningfulness of work and increase responsibility for the outcomes of work through the feature of autonomy. On the other hand, the same studies indicate that job characteristics cannot have direct effects on their own and should result in favorable outcomes through psychological mechanisms . Hence, investigating research revealed that highly valuable job attitudes such as organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement, etc achieved through the main characteristics of job among which, job attitude and job involvement are the most valuable elements because they are more internal and more permanent than other job attitudes . By investigating this research and the nature of university’s physical education unit, this study designed to explain organizationalcreativity through the main characteristics of job including the skill diversity, task importance, task identity, autonomy, job feedback, information processing, problem solving and expertise. But the main point is that this impact will not be identified directly and the mediator role of job involvement will be analyzed. Therefore, the present study designed for the purpose of designing an organizationalcreativity model through the main characteristics of job and job
The state at which an employee is emotionally committed to his organizations’ goals resulting in the use of discretionary effort characterized by vigour, absorption and dedication in ones tasks is work engagement(Kahn 1990); it is a positive work performance culture that influence individual employees’ and organizational performance ( Truss, Soane, Delbridge, Alfes, Shantz, & Petrov 2014). According to Kenexa Institute, a consultancy body tracking global work performance trends, in their 2011 report, employee engagement was declining globally, a scenario which has been worrying governments as well as corporate. According to Kowalski, (2003); Bate (2004) and Johnson, (2004) USA economy loses a whopping $300 billion annually in productivity resulting from disengaged employees. In 2012, a Scottish government commissioned study showed work engagement was low globally. Individual researchers have also reported low work engagement among public sectoremployees compared to their private sector counterparts (Agyemang and Ofei, 2013); besides Quantum consultancy firm reported work engagement levels in the private sector stood at 65% and 45% in the public sector in the United States of America for 2013. Alarmed by low employee work engagement levels in the public sector, Canada much earlier in 2004 developed an employee engagement model and implemented an employee engagement survey program across the governments’ jurisdictions (Kosuta, 2010).
To answer this question informal interview was conducted for the female’s employees of the organization and also observation technique was used to determine the facts. At the end, it was found that female employees are satisfied with the environment of the software houses. Workplace is very cooperative, neat & clean and excellent for the career growth. Most of the female’s employee’s comments that they are very pleased with their job and reason for not joining the software houses are non-technical aptitude and low interest of the female in software developing. Most of the females like teaching and wants to join the banking sector for their own convinces, after getting the degree in information technology. The other reason was the nature of this industry, due to that turnover rate of employees is very high. Software houses in Pakistan are working based on projects. An organization hire software developer on the temporary basis, when the specific project is finished the job is closed. Most of the time employees rapidly switch the organization for getting maximum job security. However, switching the organizations is not a very easy task for female’s employees so that why they prefer to join that organization where they stay for long time.
This study investigated the impact of organizationalstructure dimensions on organizational commitment in selected private and public firms in Amman. Specifically, it predicted that these structural dimensions would positively affect organizational commitment. The results supported these predictions with regard to formalization, standardization, and participation. These findings are consistent with previous research (Subramaniam et al, (2002; Auh and Menguc, 2007; Nahm et al., 2003). A possible explanation to the findings of this research is that the employees in Jordan, in both private and public firms prefers organizations characterized by written rules and documents. Furthermore, it seems that employees prefer to follow standard operating procedures that tell them how to fulfil their duties, and to participate in decision making.
Productivity is a wide concept that is used widely by economists, politicians, managers, businessmen, and workers and employees. Productivity term means "profitability" (Moin, 2006). There are different notions on factors affecting productivity, and every scholar determines some factors as effective ones on it. The common factors are continuous job training of employees and managers, motivation toward better doing work, creating appropriate context to innovation and creativity, setting up an appropriate performance –based compensation system, reward system, work consciousness and social discipline, organizational systems and methods, organizational policies, and economy as a national function.
Women of the early centuries were mostly confined to their kitchens and those who were employed worked in factories, farms or shop works. Very few women had the access to higher education and they were forced to be at the mercy of their fathers’ or husbands’ attitudes towards women and work. The fast developing knowledge economy has given place for more number of women to be enlightened by higher education. Education has not only empowered them but also has given them robust careers. With brain power being the requisite skill in this knowledge era, rather than endurance or physical strength, the women workers seem to flood into every industry on par with men. But this has indeed become a tough challenge for women as they have to perform a lot of duties in home and office as well. As working women get married, they have additional responsibilities and when they become mothers, they have to manage the primary care of children and extended family and are thus, under greater pressure to continue on a career path. Working mothers of today’s generation fulfill family responsibilities and also try to remain fully involved in their careers coping up with the competing demands of their multiple roles. The caring responsibilities that working mothers have lays a heavy stress on them when it is combined with their professional duties. The attempt of working women to integrate, organize and balance the various problems and activities in their different roles simultaneously puts them under tremendous pressure. As a result, the family becomes an organizational stakeholder and this powerful social trend marked the beginning of the work/life balance paradigm shift This paper focuses on the tough life of married working women of Coimbatore District in their battle to strike a balance between work and family life.
Organizations are considered as social and human units besides economic aspects. Inside these entities, managers and decision-makers should reorient their subordinates according to these considerations: fairness, equality; they shouldn’t tend to focus on the productive or economic aspect, and neglect the social and human aspect. A lot of psychologists, sociologists and managers discussed the manner to reach balance between entities actors within the organizations; or rather focused on achieving competitive advantages without losing the sight of human aspect. Therefore, we find that the modern approach of human resources management is based on considering human resource as a real partner who must be dealt with a manner taking into account the achievement of all parties’ objectives.
in the organization’s specialization level. Differentiation of managerial activities determines who decides on what, and results in a certain level of centralization or decentralization of authority within the organization. Integration is realized in unit grouping and coordination. Unit grouping, or departmentalization, implies structuring of activities and tasks into organizational units, and it can be based on input (functional), output (market or project), or a combination of the two (matrix). Individual and group activities and tasks in an organization are harmonized by coordination, in order for it to function as a unified whole. Coordination can be achieved through five basic mechanisms: direct supervision, mutual communication, process standardization, output standardization, and knowledge standardization (Mintzberg, 1979). Differentiation and integration in organizational structuring therefore imply four essential dimensions of organizationalstructure: job design, delegation of authority, unit grouping, and coordination. These dimensions of organizationalstructure are congruent, which means that there is harmony or concordance between them. Presumption of congruency is fundamental for the concept of organizational structuring (Miller, 1990; Mintzberg, Miller, 1984; Mintzberg, 1979). It assumes that congruency or harmony as dimensions of the organizationalstructure leads to better performance of the organization. In order for an organization to be successful it has to provide mutual congruency of the dimensions of its own organizational structures. This, then, leads to the formation of configurations of congruent structural dimensions, which is just a different name for models of organizationalstructure. An organizational model is actually a unique configuration of congruent structural dimensions: a certain level of specialization and (de)centralization levels, a certain unit grouping mode, and a certain coordination mechanism. The most prominent classification of models of organizationalstructure as configurations of structural dimensions has been provided by Mintzberg, (Mintzberg, 1979), and it will be used in this paper.
Organizational commitment is an important dimension of the work attitudes of the employees. It can be described as the psychological identification that has been felt by an individual towards his or her organizing (Mowday, 1982). Organizational commitment means a relationship between organization and employee and he decided to keep up this relation (J. P. a. N. J. A. Meyer, 1997). An Individual joins an organization with some needs and hopes towards organization, seeks opportunities to implement his skills and abilities. He expects to work in good working environment, feels safety, find recognition of his work and other factors which satisfies his needs. If an organization fulfills such needs of the individual, it enhances his organizational commitment level (Vakola, 2005). Brammer et al. (2007) conducted a study in which a sample of 4712 employees from financial services companies was taken in order to find out the relationship between CSR and job satisfaction. Both internal and external CSR were measured. For the measurement of internal CSR 6 items were used to measure procedural justice and 3 items were used to measure provision of training opportunities. To measure external CSR 1 item was used to measure community involvement. Job satisfaction was measured by using 28 items taken from Spector’s (1997) “Job Satisfaction survey”. The results showed a positive relationship between internal CSR (justice perceptions and training provision), external CSR (community involvement) and job satisfaction. (Imran Ali, 2010). In 2007 the research of (S. Brammer, Millington, A., & Rayton, B, 2007) identified that there is a positive relationship between organizational commitment and CSR practices as perceived by employees.
In self-administration initiative, pioneers are facilitators, not saints, and they "find a way to scout for the correct blend of abilities and mentor each colleague… they urge colleagues to enhance their characteristic, and fundamentally particular, gifts",  i.e. 'creative blessings'. Moreover, the reason of creative organization is to propel a positive air much the same as thought and transformational specialist. In any case, Manz and Sims' (1987) scales contain certain subjects, for example, inspiration, trust and regard for individuals' thoughts and sentiments regular to those deliberate by, thought administration measurements and Bass' (1985) change initiative measurements. Encourage, showed that a pioneer with various leveled states of mind (i.e. oppositely inverse to imaginative pioneer) will make an inflexible formal structure which pieces discourse and consequently inventiveness. It is consequently sensible to guess that the variables speaking to the "stimulant" parts of the innovative workplace will be all the more unequivocally, and all the more emphatically
The results of a study on employee commitment and organizational performance in Eravurpatru Divisional Secretariat in the district of Batticaloa, Sri Lanka reveal that there is a strong correlation between the three commitments (affective, normative and continuance) and organizational performance . Irefin & Mechanic  conduct a study on the effect of employee commitment on organizational performance in Coca Cola Nigeria Limited Maiduguri, Borno State. The study reveals that there is a relatively high relationship between employee commitment and organizational performance in the company. Dinku  performs a cross-sectional study on 261 employees of Arjo Didessa Sugar Factory to examine the connection between employee commitment and organizational performance. The study depicted that affective commitment has a moderate correlation with the organizational performance while normative and continuance commitments have a strong correlation with organizational performance. Shore, Barksdale, & Shore  perform a study on 231 managers and 339 subordinates in multinational organizations in the United States and discover that affective commitment is positively related to job performance. However, they also discover that normative commitment and continuance commitment are negatively related to job performance. Therefore, as there are mixed results in previous studies of the relationship between the three models of employee commitments and organizational performance, this study attempts to examine the effect of the commitment models on organizational performance in the paper manufacturing industry.
The analyses have proven a positive association between digital marketing and organizational performance, it is also highlighted that the use of digital marketing offers the firms with the competitive edge over their rival firms. The analysis has also proven that the use of email marketing and display advertising are being used by the Australian retailers for staying ahead of their competitors. In addition to it is also concluded that the adoption of advanced technology is now an increased need of the retailers as the number of retailers are increasing and thus the competition as well which means the environment is becoming extremely competitive. The digital marketing is the concept every other company is opting for and thus is bringing a positive influence on the organizational performance. Overall, emails, mobile App development, display advertisements, social media including Face Book, Twitter and Instargram are the determinants of digital marketing which highlights the firm’s use of digital marketing.
The success of organizations demands various contributing factors/elements from the employees among which the Empowerment, Participation and Socialization come at the helm. In the literature, the theoretical foundations of the employee’s empowerment were examined thus providing a sound framework about the subject. The related literature on the empowerment has been primarily through the relational or motivational approach. The relational approach, based on management practices, focuses on the decision making authority and delegation of power. The cognizance of the employees’ participation advantages in refining working environment is so strong among the circles and institutions recognized to support the work quality that is suggested as a crucial part of a professional health and safety. For the newcomer, new employment is a challenge, because they faces new situations and is in need of obtaining skills and knowledge. For the organization, new employment is also a challenge as there is a liability headed for the improved mobility among the employees. The organizational socialization is critical in facilitating the new employees to get up to speed and to contribute.
Kim & Mauborgne (1998) authors’ said about procedural justice had impact on strategic decision making, they explain when people perceived fair strategic decision making process ,employees were show high level of voluntary corporation based on their attitudes of trust and commitment towards organization .when they perceived unfair process they refuse to corporate with organization. Lee(2000) Procedural justice has direct positive influence job satisfaction, that employee perception for fair procedure are related with different facet of job satisfaction, people are more willing to accept decisions that made in result of fair procedure than in result of unfair procedure, procedural justice is negatively related to organizational commitment and positive impact on turnover intentions. Deconinck & stilwell (2001) procedural justice also indirectly related to organizational commitment through by having a supervisor who makes employees more satisfied, supervisor acts as a mediator between employee and procedural justice and their organizational commitment, it’s important to understand for management that how supervisors behavior made employee more committed towards organization.