Top PDF The impact of recent government policies on early years provision

The impact of recent government policies on early years provision

The impact of recent government policies on early years provision

The government has reformed the early years sector through various policy changes, resulting in a number of intended and unintended consequences. This analysis points to a possible trade-off between provision for disadvantaged two-year olds and provision for three- and four- year olds on the 30 hours entitlement. Also, we do not find a clear relationship between the 30 hours entitlement take-up and changes in the supply of places, signifying that the 30 hours policy does not stimulate new capacity. Moreover, we found no evidence of changes in funding rates having an impact on take-up in the short run. In sum, recent policy changes to the early years sector may be
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A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF EARLY YEARS PROVISION ON YOUNG CHILDREN, WITH EMPHASIS GIVEN TO CHILDREN FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS

A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF EARLY YEARS PROVISION ON YOUNG CHILDREN, WITH EMPHASIS GIVEN TO CHILDREN FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS

The Consortium of Longitudinal Studies (Lazar et al., 1982) considered eleven studies, which included centre-based, home-based and centre/home based programmes, with children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Quasi-experimental and approximately randomised designs were used to assess a variety of cognitive, motivational and social development outcomes. The meta-analysis across 11 studies provided strong evidence of lasting beneficial effects for pre-school education. Gains in cognitive development were evident for several years but not at 19 years. However, differences in motivational aspects were still present. A number of other studies have found similar effects with children from disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g. Ramey, Bryant, Campbell, Sparling & Wasik, 1988; Garber, 1988; Fuerst & Fuerst, 1993). Sylva (1994) concluded in her review that strong experimental studies support the claims that pre-school experiences actually cause relatively lasting benefits for children’s development. Rutter (1985) concluded in reviewing such research, “the long term educational benefits stem not from what children are specifically taught but from effects on children’s attitudes to learning, their self esteem and on their task orientation”. Lazar et al. (1982) suggest that there may be mutual reinforcement between pre-school participation and parents’ attitudes. The virtuous circle is seen to promote better motivation for the children to learn, resulting in long- term gains.
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The Impact of Early years Provision In Children's Centres (EPICC) on child cognitive and socio emotional development: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

The Impact of Early years Provision In Children's Centres (EPICC) on child cognitive and socio emotional development: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

The primary outcome in the EPICC trial is child cog- nition (i.e., language, attention and executive function). Since only one study has examined the impact of book-sharing training on executive function [20], and only one trial has reported an outcome for attention [14], we must calculate sample size from the language variable. The most recent meta-analysis [23] included the 10 RCTs of book-sharing interventions that targeted parents of pre-school children and reported the outcome of child expressive language. Although all but one of these studies showed positive benefit to the children’s language (the exception was one that comprised just three 5-min sessions [24]), there was considerable vari- ability in the nature and duration of the intervention programmes, and there was significant variability in terms of child outcome [23]. The overall effect size for expressive language in the 10 studies was 0.57. However, it is too conservative to base the sample size for the current trial on the effect size for all 10 studies, as the average effect size was 0.88 for the three trials that used a group format of dialogic reading instruction of the form to be used in the current study, and the lowest ef- fect size (0.04) was reported in a study involving just 5-min training sessions [24]. A mid-range medium effect size is therefore justified by the previous data. Using the statistical package R, with d = 0.66, within the cluster de- sign, an index and control sample of 96 carers in each are required (with alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90). With an addition of 10% to account for sample loss, a total sam- ple of 214 carers is required - i.e., two groups of 107.
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Structural elements of quality early years provision : a review of the evidence. August 2018

Structural elements of quality early years provision : a review of the evidence. August 2018

Renwick and McCauley (cited in Munton et al., 2002, p. 92) examined teachers’ perceptions of increases in the size of groups in 54 kindergartens in New Zealand. Teachers in larger groups (45 children compared to 30) concluded that the bigger size had negative consequences for both teachers and children. They believed that children were overwhelmed in larger groups, and had to compete more for equipment, space and teacher time. Teachers said they found it difficult to do individual or small-group work with children, were less able to provide varied learning experiences, and had to move constantly between groups of children. This had a negative impact on the quality and continuity of their interactions with children. Teachers working in classes with 45 children listed only negative consequences for children, staff and the quality of programs, from having to work with such large groups. Among the problems identified as a consequence of working in large classrooms were: excessive noise; more difficulties for quiet children; concern about accidents and frustration for children in trying to gain teacher attention; teachers’ role becoming mainly supervisory; increased workload; difficulty finding time connecting with all the families; and low morale. These conclusions are supported by data from the National Day Care Study (cited in Munton et al., 2002, p. 93), which also showed that ‘in smaller groups, adults spent more time interacting with children and less time simply watching them. Consequently, children cared for in smaller groups were more verbal, more engaged in activities, less aggressive and performed better on tests of language and learning’. And again, a review of the research on quality provision conducted by Gillian Doherty in 1991 for the Child Care Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services - and updated in 1996 - concluded that ‘despite a couple of studies that contradicted the general trend in research findings, it was safe to conclude that smaller groups facilitated caregiver behaviour which in turn encouraged positive child development. […] Similarly, children in smaller groups tended to cry less frequently, do better on measures of social competence and exhibit more highly developed styles of play’ (cited in Munton et al., 2002, p. 95).
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Poor children’s future access to early years provision

Poor children’s future access to early years provision

announcement was trumped by the Chancellor’s November 2011 decision to double the number of targeted children to around 40 per cent of all two-year-olds by 2014/15, involving some 260,000 children. The predicted impact of proposed austerity measures on families with children 6 and findings from a recent Millennium Cohort Study analysis of multiple risk factors among families with one-year- olds, 7 warrant the assumption that most of these children will be economically disadvantaged.

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Early years provision and children’s life chances

Early years provision and children’s life chances

current debate around poverty and life chances, it is salutary to note that the children’s home environment proved a more important influence than par- ents’ social class or levels of education, though these also had an effect. The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is also an important source of information on the impact of early childhood education and care on disad- vantaged children aged under three. The approximately 19,000 children recruited to the MCS in 2000/01 were part of the first generation to have experienced the universal roll-out of early education for three- and four-year- olds. It is a representative study, collecting observational, health and psy- chometric data on children from birth, 7 and it over-samples areas with high
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Towards universal early years provision: analysis of take up by disadvantaged families from recent annual childcare surveys

Towards universal early years provision: analysis of take up by disadvantaged families from recent annual childcare surveys

The findings of this study suggest that lack of awareness of the entitlement to free early years provision and a low level of information about local options for nursery education and childcare were important factors affecting take-up of early years provision by disadvantaged families. In addition, the way the entitlement to free early years provision is delivered through a range of providers appeared to have an impact on its uptake by the disadvantaged families. Parents from disadvantaged families were more likely to mention lack of availability of places at local providers and other constraining factors than those from families in better circumstances. There is some evidence to suggest that some types of providers (e.g. nursery classes attached to schools) might be more easily accessible by disadvantaged families than others (e.g. day nurseries), which means that there may be fewer options open to disadvantaged families with regard to where to take-up the entitlement to free early years provision than to families experiencing no or little disadvantage.
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Childcare and early years provision : a study of parents' use, views and experience

Childcare and early years provision : a study of parents' use, views and experience

The growth of a ‘24-7’ society means that an increasing number of parents are having to work at times which have traditionally been regarded as ‘family times’ such as evenings and weekends. Work outside what used to be the ‘standard’ nine to five, Monday to Friday week is now the norm for many parents, rather than the exception. Thus the ‘standard hours’ for the purpose of this survey were considered as Monday to Friday, eight until six. The majority of recent childcare policies focus on formal childcare, which is largely available at these ‘standard’ hours. Little has been proposed to facilitate the provision of informal childcare or formal childcare at atypical times. Indeed, there are debates around the extent to which the use of informal childcare can or should be facilitated (e.g. eligibility for tax credits, approval schemes). There are also issues around what types of childcare parents would ideally choose during atypical times (e.g. more home-based care; informal care). In contrast, parents with young children have potentially benefited from a number of policies designed to make work more attractive by promoting ways of working that enable employees to combine paid work with other aspects of their lives more effectively. Parents with young children have the right to ask for flexible arrangements, such as part-time work and term-time contracts. The government’s Work-Life Balance Campaign, launched in 2000, has sought to raise awareness among employers of the advantages of allowing staff to work flexibly in ways that successfully reconcile the needs of both parties. This is a trend that accords with several European Union directives promoting choice for workers over working arrangements. Such moves may potentially decrease demand for childcare in times such as school holidays.
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Trust and early years education and care: an exploration of parents' trust in preschool provision

Trust and early years education and care: an exploration of parents' trust in preschool provision

The aim of this thesis is to undertake an empirical exploration of the dynamics of trust within a key welfare transaction – parents’ use of early years education and care. Early education and childcare has taken on increasing social and political significance in England, both on account of increasing maternal employment and because of the “unparalleled attention and resources” given to early years services by the Labour Government which came to power in 1997 (Moss 1999: 229). It is also prima facie a rich arena in which to explore relationships of trust. In common with other welfare services, the evaluation of quality by the purchaser is held to be difficult (Krashinsky 1986); further, there can be few transactions in which the act of trust is as poignant as in the giving of a child by a parent to the care of others. It is also the case that policy- makers in England have favoured an institutional framework of service delivery which makes use of both market-based structures and multiple systems of regulation. These are precisely the components of welfare service reform which have been predicted to erode or problematize trust: empirical investigation of the preschool field thus offers a window through which to observe the effect of such policies.
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IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MICRO SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN INDIA

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MICRO SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN INDIA

In nutshell we can conclude that the Micro Small and Medium Enterprise (MSMEs) have emerged as backbone for the Indian economy. These sectors are emerged as the engine of the growth and significantly contribute in the GDP, industrial production, employment generation and exports from the country. However, this sector is important for employment generation second after agriculture. These sectors absorbed the zero marginal utility of agricultural labors. In recent years specially after new economic policy these sectors are faced stiff competition with large industrial units. However, to stimulate these sectors Government helps through various industrial policy; promote entrepreneurship in one way or other. By creating basic facilities, utilities and services, the Government creates a facilitative set up to establish enterprises by the entrepreneurs. Development of industrial estates, export promotion zones, special economic zones, etc. aims at, among other things, to create a facilitative environment for establishing enterprises in these areas. The government draws policy to reduce the competition from lager industries and announced various incentives to promote entrepreneurship and innovation in these sectors to stimulate new policies to enhance the growth of these sectors. The promotion of policies is directly or indirectly benefited to this sectors and help to sustainable contribution to generate employment, enhance national income and promote the exports of the Indian economy. The policies are helping MSMEs to improve the productivity and quality effectiveness and promote to develop new approach.
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Government finance institute provision: impact of enterprise development on SMMEs growth and local economic development in Gauteng

Government finance institute provision: impact of enterprise development on SMMEs growth and local economic development in Gauteng

a limited prospect within the large private sector, public sector or government parastatal, the focus on policy development for SMMEs as the driver of job creation in many countries has increased especially in sub-Saharan Africa were the majority of enterprises are SMMEs (Rogerson, 1997; Kessides, 2007). Turok (2012) argues that it is imperative to identify policies that will strengthen urban economies. It is further stated that in the last decade there is little research on the state of the economy of the African cities, which is remarkable considering the weight of this issue (Turok, 2010). The initial aim of interventions is on enhancing SMME development in secondary centres and major cities (Nel & Rogerson, 2005; Rogerson, 2011; Rogerson & Rogerson, 2012), not neglecting rural SMME development entirely as they are also critical issue in South Africa. The critical question to be asked is whether these SMMEs can be transformed into more productive high growth entities that can employ more people and contribute to the tax revenue, which in turn, will improve public service and infrastructure (Turok, 2012). To achieve positive results, the SMMEs need to address challenges such as the lack of capital, skills, technology as well as shortcomings in the support environment and operating in saturated markets (Grant, 2010; Meagher, 2010; Turok, 2010). Turok and Parnell (2009) are not convinced that current local government capacity is sufficient to address these critical challenges.
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The creation of income inequality: the impact of government policies in Australia and other OECD economies

The creation of income inequality: the impact of government policies in Australia and other OECD economies

Left unchecked, the normal operation of business delivers great economic and social inequality. Trade unions have been able to reduce this inequality to some extent, by raising wages and putting pressure on governments to support the unemployed, the sick, the old and other vulnerable people, and to impose progressive taxes on high income earners. It is for this reason that John Kenneth Galbraith saw unions playing a vital role as a ‘countervailing power’ to that of business (Galbraith 1956). These measures have tended to reduce income inequality, but under pressure by business, governments in most rich countries have set out to reduce ‘the burden on business’ and to weaken the power of trade unions as part of this. In Australia, the major achievements in this regard were a product of the Hawke and Keating governments from 1983-96, assisted by the leadership of the union movement themselves, even as they were weakened by the policies they supported. Their ‘success’ is reflected both in a long period of economic expansion, and in a large increase in income inequality, including rapidly rising incomes for the top 1% and top 0.1% layer of income
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Inspection report for early years provision. Unique reference number Inspection date 26/03/2010

Inspection report for early years provision. Unique reference number Inspection date 26/03/2010

Staff are highly skilled in providing a rich environment full of opportunities and activities which children thoroughly enjoy and participate in. They ensure that all activities and experiences cater for each child’s individual stage of development and needs. Staff have a very good knowledge of the early learning goals and ensure that these are fully covered. Staff make frequent observations that are used successfully to assess children’s early progress and to identify their next steps. Each child has their own individual learning journey file which includes observations; these are readily shared with parents.
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The early years

The early years

better  organized,  with  a  professional  at  each  site  meet- ing students to improve the experience. Also, the recent  restructuring  of  the  undergraduate  medical  program  at  McMaster  provided  opportunity  for  the  EarlyYears  Steering  Committee  to  encourage  a  more  comprehen- sive basic neurodevelopment curriculum in undergradu- ate  medical  education  before  clerkship.  This  inclusion  will  level  the  clerks’  previous  experience  and  provide  a  better  base  for  a  more  clinically  focused  clerkship  program.  At  present,  we  are  exploring  opportunities  to  expand  the  earlyyears  curriculum  and  create  an  inter- professional collaboration with student peers in nursing,  rehabilitative sciences, and midwifery.
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5 From Government Policies to

5 From Government Policies to

In February 2004, the HED–MOE selected 180 colleges and universities across China for trial experimentation. To provide more incentive for the reform effort and to generate more innovative measures from the local institutions, the department provided funds to support over 400 reform projects in the 180 experimental colleges and universities in the following two years. In the reform of the CET, a series of changes was made in 2005 in its content and format, the weighting of different skill components, and the method of score reporting, introducing new sub-skill components and more subjective test items, giving more weight to the listening component and converting the original full score of 100 to 710 for score reporting. A cutoff score of 60 for “Pass” has been regarded as a norm in Chinese educational practices. With the full score changed to 710, it was hoped that different universities could adopt different passing scores according to the actual English proficiency of their students.
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Government Policies and Their Effects to Business in Kenya

Government Policies and Their Effects to Business in Kenya

Given the above background it can be noted that both countries GDP has been rising for the last 50 years, Botswana from one of the poorest country in the world to its current status as a middle income country. Its low population coupled with low population growth rates has significantly boosted its per capita income. While Kenya on the other hand has experienced tremendous economic growth rate between 1970 and 1980 as depicted by rising GNI per capita, but in 1980s and early 1990s the country was in stagnation and sometimes negative growth was reported (See Figure 1). The population was rising quickly than the Gross National Income, putting a lot of strain in the available resources and consequently increasing the rate of unemployment. In 2003 the government im- plemented the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and employment crea- tion (ERS) which has seen the country’s economy back to rapid growth, from lows of 0.6% in 2002 to 6.1% in 2006, as noted in Kenya Vision 2030 page 1 [6]. Currently World Bank data shows that Kenya GDP growth ranges between 5% to 6% and it’s among the few countries in the world with a considerable GDP growth. “Kenya’s economy is projected to grow at 5.9% in 2016, recording an improvement over the 5.6% estimated for 2015, says a new World Bank Group economic report. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is expected to improve further to 6% in 2017” (The World Bank Group 2016) [7]. It is under this back- ground that this paper aims at exploring the business environment in Kenya and Botswana using international comparative advantage, and also compare how the government economic policies have influenced business policies in these two countries, as both country strive to achieve high economic growth and develop- ment. Which lessons can Kenya run from Botswana to maintain a sustainable economic Growth? In my evaluation I shall use the national output model (Y = C + G + I + X) and see how various government policies influence the model and the resulting effects tobusiness environment.
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GOVERNMENT POLICIES FOR QUALITY TEACHER EDUCATION

GOVERNMENT POLICIES FOR QUALITY TEACHER EDUCATION

A sound economic and social infrastructure determines the growth and development of any nation or society. Economic infrastructure includes roads, transportation, communication, banking, finance etc. Social Infrastructure is inclusive of education, health and housing facilities. Thus, Education is the most important and crucial component of social infrastructure of any country or society and if we want the changes to take place in the outlook of any nation, then the education system should be developed, organized and well equipped with new changes that take place around the Globe and the entire responsibility of these changes dwells upon the teachers. Teachers are the only persons that possess the capability of molding the entire generation of any nation. It is the impact of the teachers that means a lot for the students and sometimes this impact is far more than the impact of parents on their children. If the teachers are dynamic in their outlook, their attitudes, their approach and in their methodology, merely then the education system could achieve sky heights, students can be developed holistically emotionally, socially, intellectually and in all the other aspects of their personality and they can positively contribute in the growth and development of the nation and we as a nation and as a society can become developed. In order to understand the process of growth and development of teacher education in India, It is Z Scholarly Research Journal's is licensed Based on a work at www.srjis.com
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Kuyperania in recent years

Kuyperania in recent years

The key theme that arises from these books is how important the church question was to Kuyper, and Wood (2013) has shown that it was the church issue that shaped his public theology. [r]

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The impact of government policies on business growth of SMEs in South Western Nigeria

The impact of government policies on business growth of SMEs in South Western Nigeria

There are specific factors that have triggered increased interest in the development of SMEs. Ekpenyong and Nyong (1992) identified one of such factors as rising concern over low employment elasticity of modern large- scale production. The authors observe that in Nigeria, modern large scale production has failed to accommodate a considerable percentage of the Nigeria growing labour force. Even the introduction of optimal policies has not been able to reverse this trend. The second factor was the widespread recognition of the fact that economic growths were not being fairly distributed. The unequal distribution of such economic growth has always been blamed on the use of large scale, capital-intensive techniques. Additionally, Onwukwe and Ifeanacho (2011) note that the country’s import substitution industrialization strategies have had little impact on sustainable development, as the bigger and multinational corporations are not compatible with the relative factor of endowments for developing countries like Nigeria. The third factor, which has also been supported by empirical studies, is the fact that unemployment is not solely responsible for the poverty as many poor individuals are already employed in various small-scale low productivity activities. Thus, increasing productivity of those that are involved in small-scale production has been identified as one of the effective strategies for achieving poverty alleviation (Ekpenyong & Nyong, 1992).
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Women with disabilities: policies governing procedure and practice in service provision in Ireland during pregnancy, childbirth and early motherhood

Women with disabilities: policies governing procedure and practice in service provision in Ireland during pregnancy, childbirth and early motherhood

mechanisms including submissions, consultations, interviews and focus groups were used to collect information. Contributors identified how society excluded them from ‘every aspect of economic, social, political and economic life’ (Government of Ireland, 1996:4). People with disabilities called for equality and the opportunity to participate fully in an equal society, which was at that time hindered by the lack of access to appropriate services such as transport. This lack of accessible and appropriate transport means that people with disability may not have full access to essential services such as employment, education and training and health. Health services were described as fragmented with no coordination between service providers. Information about the services was not available in any accessible format, which became a further mechanism to isolate and marginalise people with disabilities. The Commission presented a number of recommendations on the basis of 3 guiding principles - equity, maximising participation and enabling independence and choice. The Commission was confident that these guiding principles would facilitate the full and equal participation of people with disabilities in Irish society. In doing so, people with disabilities will be afforded the opportunity to achieve their full potential and exercise their right to quality services that address their needs at all stages of their lifespan.
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