Top PDF IMPACT OF TILLAGE AND MULCHING PRACTICES ON WEED BIOMASS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE UNDER RAINFED CONDITION

IMPACT OF TILLAGE AND MULCHING PRACTICES ON WEED BIOMASS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE UNDER RAINFED CONDITION

IMPACT OF TILLAGE AND MULCHING PRACTICES ON WEED BIOMASS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE UNDER RAINFED CONDITION

Soil tillage is one of the very important factors that affect soil physical properties and yield (Keshavarzpour and Rashidi, 2008). Tillage method affects the sustainable use of soil resources through its influence on soil properties, i.e. proper tillage practices can improve soil related constrains, while improper tillage may cause a range of undesirable processes such as destruction of soil structure, accelerated erosion, depletion of organic matter and fertility, and disruption in cycles of water, organic carbon and plant nutrients (Lal, 1993). Tillage as a mean of weed control is primarily achieved by burial of small annual weeds with soil thrown over them (Khajanji et al., 2002). Scopel et al. (2001) reported that tillage and mulching can increase water storage in the soil profile under both intense and relatively rare rainfall events. Subsoil tillage in some cases has improved maize root growth and water availability as larger root mass pulls moisture from deeper soils (Khan et al., 2001; McWilliams, 2003).
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EFFICACY OF TILLAGE AND MULCHING PRACTICES FOR WEED SUPPRESSION AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER NON IRRIGATED CONDITION

EFFICACY OF TILLAGE AND MULCHING PRACTICES FOR WEED SUPPRESSION AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER NON IRRIGATED CONDITION

A field experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, during summer, 2012 to check the impact of different tillage and mulching practices on weed suppression and maize yield. Maize variety "Azam" was sown in the trial. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block design having two factors viz., tillage practices (conventional, optimum and minimum) and mulches (wheat straw and Berseem straw). The treatments combination were (1) Cultivator 4 times + Wheat straw (2) Cultivator 4 times + Berseem straw (3) Cultivator 4 times +Control (4) Mouldboard plow followed by rotavator + wheat straw (5) Mouldboard plow followed by rotavator + Barseem straw (6) Mouldboard plow followed by rotavator + control (7) Cultivator twice + wheat straw (8) Cultivator twice + Barseem straw (9) Cultivator twice + control. The results showed that maximum weed density (58 %) and fresh weed biomass (45.77 g m -2 )
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Measuring and simulating maize (Zea mays L ) yield responses to reduced tillage and mulching under semi arid conditions

Measuring and simulating maize (Zea mays L ) yield responses to reduced tillage and mulching under semi arid conditions

Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid environments of sub-Saharan Africa faces many challenges. Productivity of the smallholder ag- ricultural systems has been on the decline in recent years. Conservation agriculture practices have a potential of steering the smallholder agri- cultural systems of sub-Saharan Africa to grea- ter and more sustainable levels. This study was designed to calibrate the APSIM model so that it could be used as a tool for understanding the long term impact of conservation agriculture techniques (mulching, tine ripping and planting basins) on the productivity of smallholder sys- tems under semi-arid conditions. The APSIM model predicted reasonably well the seasonal and mulching effects on maize production on sand and clay soils. Under these semi-arid conditions the use of 10 kg·N·ha –1 is preferable under both conventional and basin tillage sys- tems. Planting basins offer a better chance of getting maize grain yield than the conventional system in southern Zimbabwe at N quantities ranging from 0 kg·ha –1 to 52 kg·ha –1 . This mod- elling exercise suggested that smallholder farmers are still prone to complete crop failure in some years despite the use of available con- servation agriculture systems.
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TILLAGE AND MULCHING EFFECT ON WEED DYNAMICS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE CROP IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR UNDER SEMI ARID ENVIRONMENT

TILLAGE AND MULCHING EFFECT ON WEED DYNAMICS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE CROP IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR UNDER SEMI ARID ENVIRONMENT

Similarly, on the other hand tillage practices have been used to control weeds since the beginning of agricultural system however, a reduction in tillage may dramatically increase weeds growth and development. Several studies suggested a small difference in weed population between conventional and zero tilled fields (Derksen et al., 1993) and in some cases, fewer weeds were observed in zero till condition (Hobbs and Gupta, 2001; Sing et al., 2001). So this result clearly showed that both tillage and mulching practices reduces weed density, growth and development during semi-arid environment. Harvest Index (%)
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Evaluating the Impact of Different Tillage Regimes and Nitrogen Levels on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L )

Evaluating the Impact of Different Tillage Regimes and Nitrogen Levels on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L )

Biological yield reflects about the total biomass obtained by the plant during its life cycle under prevailing condition(using different treatments) and it comprises of Stover and grain yield. So it is a function of the genetic makeup of the crop, environmental condition, soil nutrient status and management practices. Data regarding the biological yield of autumn maize are given in Table 2. It is clear from Table 2 that the effect of different levels of nitrogen and tillage regimes and their interaction on biological yield of maize was highly significant. As re- gards to tillage, mean value of biological yield (177.61 t∙ha −1
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Seed yield and yield components of vetch species and their accessions under nitosol and vertisol conditions in the central highlands of Ethiopia

Seed yield and yield components of vetch species and their accessions under nitosol and vertisol conditions in the central highlands of Ethiopia

., (2003) and Fekede (2004) also reported that most of the oats varieties with high grain yield showed higher 1000 kernel weight. In general, vetch species (V. narbonensis and V. sativa) which have erect growth habit and early maturing had comparatively higher thousand seed weight than creeping growth habit and intermediate to late maturing vetch species. Similarly, the vetch accessions varied significantly (P<0.05) in thousand seed weight at both locations (Table 7). The highest thousand seed weight was recorded for accession 2376 (V. narbonensis), whereas the lowest was recorded for accession 61039 (V. sativa) at both locations. The difference could be due to the inherent variation in seed size complemented with the environmental and soil conditions. This agronomic trait is important for seed rate determination of vetch species. Fekede (2004) also reported that thousand seed weight has got practical significance in estimating seeding rate for each oat variety in order to ensure that equal number of seeds could be sown per unit area.
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EVALUATION OF HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN MAIZE AND THEIR IMPACT ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

EVALUATION OF HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN MAIZE AND THEIR IMPACT ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

Maize (Zea mays L.) plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. In spite of the best efforts and intensive research, maize yields in Pakistan are much lower than their potential yields. Weeds cause reduction in crop yields by competing for light, nutrients, water and carbon dioxide and interfere in farm operations besides increasing the cost of production. In addition, weeds harbour insects and plant disease organisms and in some cases, they serve as alternate host for insect pests and disease organisms; thus indicating that weeds are the most persistent of all crop pests.
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WEED CONTROL MEHTODS INFLUENCE THE GROWTH ATTRIBUTES OF WEEDS AND RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.) UNDER SEMIARID CONDITION

WEED CONTROL MEHTODS INFLUENCE THE GROWTH ATTRIBUTES OF WEEDS AND RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.) UNDER SEMIARID CONDITION

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an ancient as well as popular vegetable of temperate regions of the world. Radish is widely consumed as a root vegetable and its tender leaves are used as a green vegetable. It is a rich source of carbohydrates, protein and vitamins A & C. In Pakistan, radish is grown on an area of 10.133 thousand hectares with a total production of 173.806 thousand tones (MNFS&R, 2013). The average yield of radish in Pakistan is 15.91 tons ha -1 that is far behind the yield obtained in other countries of the world
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Impact of Different Mulching Materials on the Growth and Yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Dehradun region of Uttarakhand

Impact of Different Mulching Materials on the Growth and Yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Dehradun region of Uttarakhand

Significant effects of soil mulches on the investigated tomato cultivars parameter including plant height,number of trusses per plant, number of fruits per truss,weight of immature/ green tomatoes and weight of mature/ red tomatoes under Dehradun (Uttarakhand) region of India. Due to hilly area some parameters like soil erosion and cultural practices may be very difficult to control soil and plant ecosystem and weeds control, so there is need to conserve the soil and plant environment by using mulches.From the results of this study, it could be concluded that black polythene mulch showed the general
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Tillage, Desmodium intortum, Fertilizer Rates for Carbon Stock, Soil Quality and Grain Yield in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Tillage, Desmodium intortum, Fertilizer Rates for Carbon Stock, Soil Quality and Grain Yield in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.82018 327 American Journal of Climate Change generations. Also, the extent to which soil stewardship and protection is pro- fessed determines the sustainability of land use, adequacy of food supply, the quality of air and water resources and the survival of humankind [2]. Hence, decline in SOC under cropping systems can be minimized if relevant informa- tion is available on the impact of different nutrient management systems on SOC in the short and long term regimes. For example, the use of nitrogenous fertilizer alone aggravated the problem of soil acidity by lowering the pH from 5.8 to 4.7 after 25 years [12] and this would have adverse effect on the soil quali- ty, crop yields and carbon stock. This study therefore will evaluate tillage prac- tices and relevant minimum data set of the soils under maize-based cropping systems with Desmodium intortum intercrop, as well as maize grain yields and carbon stock to determine best-bet soil quality, carbon stock and optimum grain maize yield under the study areas.
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INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND WEED MANAGEMENT METHODS ON CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.). I. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS

INFLUENCE OF TILLAGE AND WEED MANAGEMENT METHODS ON CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.). I. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS

Table-8 demonstrated no significant effects of ploughs types on yield of chickpea per donum. Hand hoeing was the only operation that significantly increased seed yield, and most effective weed control measure increased crop growth and yield. Seed yield showed similar trend to that of hay yield. Low crop yield was mainly due to drought conditions since total rainfall from March to June was only 158.5 mm. Hand hoeing gave the highest yield (120.4 kg) followed by paraquat which gave only 78.4 kg. The interaction of hand hoeing with both cultivator and mould board gave the highest yield per donum which were 127.5 and 126.6 kg, respectively. These results agree with those of different workers (Ahmad et al., 1990; Vaishya et al., 1995; Yasin et al., 1995; Kayan and Adak 2005; Varshney and Arya 2004; Iqbal et al., 1991; Tewari and Tiwari, 2004; Dungarwal et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2003).
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through Soil Moisture Conservation Practices Enhance Crop, Water, Energy Productivity

through Soil Moisture Conservation Practices Enhance Crop, Water, Energy Productivity

inclusion of winter season crops after rainy season maize co-culture with cowpea under organic 169.. rainfed condition.[r]

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Black polypropylene non woven textile as mulch in organic farming

Black polypropylene non woven textile as mulch in organic farming

The results from weed control showed the positive effect of mulching on weeds biomass, where by 89 % lower weight of weed biomass was found in black polypropylene woven mulch in comparis[r]

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INDIVIDUAL AND COMBINED EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES ON WEED CONTROL IN WHEAT

INDIVIDUAL AND COMBINED EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES ON WEED CONTROL IN WHEAT

ha ). Maximum grain yield was observed in Affinity 50 WDG treated plots, because it is more phytotoxic to both grassy and broad leaf weeds than other herbicide. Similar results were recorded by Punia et al. (1996) who concluded that herbicides if applied in combination provide better weed control and consequently higher yield. Panwar et al. (1995), Prasad and Singh (1995), Azad et al. (1997) and Marwat et al. (2003) who reported that post-emergence application of 2,4-D + Isoproturon was found to be the best treatment in reducing dry weed biomass and producing the highest straw and grain yield.
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IMPACT OF INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF MAIZE

IMPACT OF INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF MAIZE

Integrated weed management (IWM), which involves the combination of two or more weed control practices, has been identified as a viable alternative to the current methods of weed control (Akobundu 1992; 1996). IWM can lead to sustainable food production, minimize drudgery, and reduce the cost of removing weeds from crops. Hand weeding is difficult in maize due to very high temperature during the hot months of June, July and August. Similarly the herbicide application cause weed shift, herbicide resistance in weeds and environmental pollution. As atrazine based herbicides are used in maize in NWFP which has longer residual life in soil, therefore cultural and most importantly IWM is a good option for controlling weeds. Integrated weed management uses all available weed control options in the best possible way to manage weeds. Such option include crop rotation, cover crops, intercropping, manipulation of nitrogen fertility, planting pattern, tillage systems, critical period of weed control, alternative weed management strategies in conservation tillage systems and economic thresholds. All these practices are components of an IWM system and none of these control measures on their own can be expected to provide acceptable levels of weed control. Therefore, instead of banking on a particular method of weed control, an IWM system uses a mixture of methods of weed control; for example, reduced rates of herbicides can be combined with mechanical tillage for improved weed control. Weed interference in maize is a serious problem in NWFP and cause considerable yield losses. Various summer annual and perennial weeds infest the maize crop and thus share the available resources like moisture, sunlight, nutrients and space. Therefore numerous researchers have documented the importance of weed control in maize. Ali et al. (2003) reported that herbicides significantly increased maize yield and decreased the weed density. Khan et al. (2003) reported that weeds decreased the grain yield of maize.
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Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L )varieties eco 92 and African tall

Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L )varieties eco 92 and African tall

availability of Fe, Zn etc., through production of plant growth promoting substances. The research of various other studies has demonstrated that mixed treatments increase plant vegetative growth, resulting in increased yield in crops and legumes under farm conditions. The result showed that treatments of biofertilizers in the form of N-fixing Azotobacter and phosphate solubilsing bacteria (PSB) enhanced increase yield with positive effects on measured plant height ,number of cob, diameter of cob, cob weight, grain yield. Given the significant enhancement in growth and yield of maize taking place mainly N-fixing Azotobacter and phosphate solubilsing bacteria (PSB) under environmental condition, the mechanism for this beneficial effect could be due to more balanced nutrition and improved absorption of nitrogen and other nutrients by the corn. Interaction between N and P showed that the comparison of the values of the grain yield for interaction between Azotobacter and PSB biofertilizers showed that, highest grain yield as compaired to control and differences were significant. In the final results of this study revealed that, the application of nitrogen and phosphate solubilsing bacteria (PSB) biofertilizers increased yield and yield components of maize under environmental condition.
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Evaluation of different types of mulching practices on weed management and productivity of winter maize in Chitwan, Nepal

Evaluation of different types of mulching practices on weed management and productivity of winter maize in Chitwan, Nepal

Experiment was carried out in Randomized Completely Block Design with four replication and nine treatments constituting 36 plots. The experiments consist following treatments weedy check, Weed free, Green Polythene Mulching, Clear Polythene Mulching, Cowpea co-culture, Black Polythene Mulching, Atrazine +one hand weeding @30 DAS, Silver black Polythene Mulching and Lantana camera Mulching.The field was ploughed 15 days prior to sowing using tractor. In Polythene mulch treatment plot plastic were laid down on field and hole was made. Seeds of Deuti maize variety were planted by jab planter in furrows at spacing of 25 cm opened 60 cm apart with the help of tractor drawn furrow opener on 5 th October 2016. In case of control plot, weeds were
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Effect of Tillage and Mulch on Growth and Performance of Maize in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Effect of Tillage and Mulch on Growth and Performance of Maize in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

weight of 1000grams and yield (t/ha) were obtained in no- tillage systems. These results are in agreements with that of Videnovil et al., (2011) who observed higher maize yield in conventional tillage plots in comparison with that of the no-tillage plots in comparison with that of the no- tillage plots in the chenozen soil type in Cemunpolje, Serbia. This is particularly due to the fact that no-tillage environments are more likely to exhibit no-uniform germination, emergence and early growth and development which cause great plant to variability for multiple morpho-physiological traits that are associated with yield reduction (Livet al., 2004; Tokattidis et al., 2004)
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PLANT SOIL ENVIRON., 49 , 2003 (5): 223–229 223

PLANT SOIL ENVIRON., 49 , 2003 (5): 223–229 223

Weed plants were sampled in eight weeks after maize emergence, from July 5 to 15 in all years. Weed number for each species was estimated on each sub-plot in four quadrants, each measuring 50 cm × 50 cm (16 replications totally). The effects of herbicide treatments are shown according to weed density in these groups of weeds: an- nual grasses, annual broad-leaved weeds and perennial weeds in relation to the untreated control plots. Life forms of species were determined according to Landolt (1977) and their nomenclatures were taken over from Ehrendorfer (1973). Maize was mechanically harvested between October 10 and 15 in all three years. The yield data were recorded and adjusted to 14% moisture con- tent.
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EFFECT OF SOWING TECHNIQUES ON WEEDS GROWTH AND YIELD OF TURNIP CULTIVARS

EFFECT OF SOWING TECHNIQUES ON WEEDS GROWTH AND YIELD OF TURNIP CULTIVARS

the soil accumulation on ridges might have exposed certain weed seeds which may fail to germinate because of exposing to harsh and anti germination environmental conditions that ultimately reduced the weed population due to less germination compared to flat sowing. These results are similar to that of Nadeem et al. (2013) who recorded maximum weed density in crop sown in flat as compared to crop in ridges. Similarly Aslam et al. (2007) and Parminder et al. (2007) reported lower density and dry matter of weeds in raised bed planting. Weed biomass (kg ha -1 )
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