Top PDF Impacts of good practice policies on regional and global greenhouse gas emissions

Impacts of good practice policies on regional and global greenhouse gas emissions

Impacts of good practice policies on regional and global greenhouse gas emissions

These targets are implemented into energy and land use models to quantify the impact on GHG emissions in 2020 and 2030. Two methods are used to estimate this impact: (i) the PBL FAIR policy model (den Elzen et al., 2014) together with the TIMER energy model (Van Vuuren et al., 2014), and (ii) bottom-up spreadsheet calculations by NewClimate Institute, which are based on existing scenarios from national and international studies (e.g. IEA´s World Energy Outlook 2014), as well as own calculations of the impact of individual policies in various subsectors. Both methods were supplemented with emission projections for land-use policies using IIASA’s global land-use model GLOBIOM (Havlík et al., 2014) and global forest model G4M (Gusti, 2010). For most sectors, both approaches analyse the impact in parallel, and the illustrated results compare the outcomes of the two models. Both methods were also used for the calculation of the impact of the most effective current and planned policies on greenhouse gas emissions, as described in detail in den Elzen et al.(2015). The selection of current and planned policies was based on literature research and expert knowledge. For the analysis of the good practice policies the PBL FAIR policy model and the TIMER energy model allows to account for the impact of possible overlaps between good practice policies. Such overlap could be efficiency targets that lead to lower energy levels and which would have an impact on the results of implementing renewable energy targets, or change in fossil fuel prices could change due to simultaneous implementation of all policies. NewClimate approaches the policy areas in a stepwise integrated way, meaning that for example the model considers first a change in the carbon intensity of the electricity supply, and then reductions in electricity consumption. The model does not consider overlaps between reductions of fossil fuels and emissions from fossil fuel production.
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Impacts of good practice policies on regional and global greenhouse gas emissions

Impacts of good practice policies on regional and global greenhouse gas emissions

These targets are implemented into energy and land use models to quantify the impact on GHG emissions in 2020 and 2030. Two methods are used to estimate this impact: (i) the PBL FAIR policy model (den Elzen et al., 2014) together with the TIMER energy model (Van Vuuren et al., 2014), and (ii) bottom-up spreadsheet calculations by NewClimate Institute, which are based on existing scenarios from national and international studies (e.g. IEA´s World Energy Outlook 2014), as well as own calculations of the impact of individual policies in various subsectors. Both methods were supplemented with emission projections for land-use policies using IIASA’s global land-use model GLOBIOM (Havlík et al., 2014) and global forest model G4M (Gusti, 2010). For most sectors, both approaches analyse the impact in parallel, and the illustrated results compare the outcomes of the two models. Both methods were also used for the calculation of the impact of the most effective current and planned policies on greenhouse gas emissions, as described in detail in den Elzen et al.(2015). The selection of current and planned policies was based on literature research and expert knowledge. For the analysis of the good practice policies the PBL FAIR policy model and the TIMER energy model allows to account for the impact of possible overlaps between good practice policies. Such overlap could be efficiency targets that lead to lower energy levels and which would have an impact on the results of implementing renewable energy targets, or change in fossil fuel prices could change due to simultaneous implementation of all policies. NewClimate approaches the policy areas in a stepwise integrated way, meaning that for example the model considers first a change in the carbon intensity of the electricity supply, and then reductions in electricity consumption. The model does not consider overlaps between reductions of fossil fuels and emissions from fossil fuel production.
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Biofuel Growth: Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts from Changes in Forest Carbon Stocks

Biofuel Growth: Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts from Changes in Forest Carbon Stocks

An important question is whether biofuels growth could facilitate or constrain mitigation opportunities? For instance, Golub et al. (2008) estimate substantial GHG mitigation potential in non-US forests. Furthermore, those authors find that a carbon tax could lead to input substitution away from land and fertilizer. Both results run counter to the changes in land-use estimated by Hertel et al. (2008). Understanding interactions between potential biofuels and climate policies is important. There are regional comparative advantages in biofuels production (as well as food crops and timber production). There are also regional comparative advantages in land-based GHG mitigation. By modeling biofuels and climate policies simultaneously, we can assess the implications for land-use, production, and global competitiveness. This extension will include calibration of the model to the mitigation costs for non-CO2 GHGs from USEPA (2006) and for forest carbon sequestration from Sohngen and Mendelsohn (2007). It will then evaluate the CGE GHG mitigation responses to a range of carbon equivalent taxes with and without biofuels growth. We can then investigate the interactions between the policies at the global, regional and sectoral levels.
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Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio–economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.
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Regulating global shipping corporations' accountability for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the seas

Regulating global shipping corporations' accountability for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the seas

Article 207 of UNCLOS details responsibilities for the states to establish global and regional rules, standards and practices for controlling pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, ‘taking into account characteristic regional features, the economic capacity of developing states and their need for eco- nomic development. ’ According to Article 211(1) and 212(3) of the UNCLOS, the state parties are responsible for establishing global rules and recommended practices and procedures for preventing vessel-sourced marine pollution. They are also obligated to assist international agencies like the IMO. However, there does not seem to be any kind of firm commitment by the states in this area, and this has also resulted in the lack of proper accountability practices by shipping corporations. In the first week of December 2014, representatives from 195 states gathered in Lima for two weeks to discuss climate change policies that are scheduled to be approved in the Paris meeting in late 2015 [72] . They discussed the policy terms and wordings, and it was reported throughout the media that no platform was unanimously agreed upon [5,46,83, p.6] . While the USA, China, and the European Union commit to their emissions reductions, other important nations, such as Canada, Australia, Japan, Russia, South Africa, Brazil and Indonesia have not made their positions clear.
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Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit

Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit

For each method, Booz Allen took the number of public transit trips and assumed that these individuals would shift to motorized and non-motorized trips (in proportions generated by the New York Regional Transportation Forecast Model). Booz Allen then assumed that in the absence of MTA, land use would change to resemble less dense areas (e.g., suburban New York and New Jersey). Booz Allen assumed that the average length of trips would be equivalent to trips in that area. That is, without MTA, not only would the number of trips increase, but the length of those trips would increase as dense development would no longer be possible. 4 In addition, the impact of congestion was also considered for these new hypothetical areas. For each of the three methods Booz Allen estimated impacts for three different approaches:
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How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through A Regional Performance Based Framework

How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through A Regional Performance Based Framework

Consider the scope of the problem: Transportation generates approximately one-third of all US GHG emissions. Surface transportation in the 100 largest US metropolitan areas is responsible for more than half of these emissions, by far the largest single contributor. Moreover, between 2000 and 2005, carbon emissions in those same MSAs increased by nearly 10 percent. Even factoring in the recent economic downturn and its downward effect on carbon emissions, the long-term trend in transportation emissions still appears to be moving upwards. To meet the goal of 80 percent emissions reductions by 2050, which the scientific community has put forward as necessary to avoid the most significant impacts of climate change, new thinking and action is needed in the surface transportation sector. By modeling the effectiveness of emissions reduction policies in MSAs, Booz Allen Hamilton has identified portfolios of strategies that would curtail greenhouse gases in a wide range of metropolitan areas. These models allowed us to generate a series of recommendations for a new approach to funding transportation projects based on a region’s success in meeting specific GHG reduction goals. Such a performance-based approach would represent real public sector innovation, and would tackle a fundamental challenge that has limited progress in reducing emissions to date. With a total program cost estimated at a fraction of projected annual cap-and-trade revenue, or the federal government’s traditional annual investment in transportation, such an approach would put the scientific community’s 2050 goal within reach.
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

In addition to possible regulations, government-sponsored research and development (R&D) can be an effective driver of innovation, especially when it is targeted at basic research that is beneficial to many industries (e.g., low-carbon fuels and advanced lightweight materials) or is focused on risky projects (e.g., radical changes to airframe designs and novel hull coatings for ships) that individual companies may not be willing to fund. Public R&D has been a particularly important driver of aviation innovation in the past (GAO 2008), and while this has raised trade concerns and World Trade Organization challenges at the international level, an increase in U.S. R&D funding could accelerate the rate of innovation. Current R&D programs in the United States include the FAA’s Continuous Lower Energy Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) program and NASA’s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. Moreover, expanded federal R&D support for the aviation industry in the United States would have both domestic and global impacts, particularly due to U.S.- based Boeing’s position as one of the world’s two dominant commercial aircraft manufacturers, along with the European Airbus. Increasing federal government funding for marine vessel R&D, if carefully targeted, could also be effective. While only a small share of global ship building actually takes place in the United States (Figure 10), R&D efforts could focus on technological innovations aimed at making ship components that are manufactured here more fuel efficient. Moreover, international collaboration and technology transfer could be a possible option to facilitate R&D across countries.
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The Distributional Impacts of Economic Instruments to Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport

The Distributional Impacts of Economic Instruments to Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport

revenue neutrality was achieved by abolishing VED then low-mileage/off-peak urban drivers would generally pay less in congestion charges than they would gain, but high- mileage/peak-time urban drivers would generally lose and rural drivers would still gain. IPPR (Foley and Fergusson 2003) has recently published the results of research they commissioned from Stephen Glaister and Dan Graham of Imperial College showing that a revenue-neutral congestion charging system offset by a 12p per litre reduction in fuel duty could actually increase road traffic in England by nearly 7 per cent and increase carbon dioxide emissions by 5 per cent. The effect of a revenue-neutral charge would be to make urban motoring more expensive, but it would make rural motoring cheaper. Roads in rural areas would experience a significant growth in traffic. By contrast, a revenue-raising charge would, according to their modelling, lead to a nearly 7 per cent decrease in total traffic and an 8 per cent decrease in carbon dioxide emissions from traffic. The IPPR report acknowledged that it would be politically challenging to introduce a revenue-raising charge, but suggested that VED be abolished in order to make it more acceptable to motorists. They also suggested that some of the additional revenues from congestion charging could be put into public transport. It is worth noting, although they did not, that an alternative policy of increasing fuel duty and compensating with the abolition of VED would do more to reduce overall traffic and carbon dioxide emissions, although it would not reduce congestion nearly so much and would have a disproportionate impact on low-income rural motorists with above average annual mileage.
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Greenhouse gas Emissions in Saline and Waterlogged

Greenhouse gas Emissions in Saline and Waterlogged

was the lowest at water logging. Anaerobic habitats have lower CO 2 emissions than aerobic soils even though they have much higher C content (Goreau and Mello 2007). A lowered water table increases O 2 and C substrate available for microbial activity for releasing CO 2 (Jauhiainen et al. 2005). The rate of emission of CO 2 was higher when soils were well aerated and the water level was at 15 cm below the soil surface. CO 2 emissions are doubled by lowering the groundwater level from 30 to 80 cm below the ground surface (Renger et al. 2002). Despite high organic matter content in organic amended treatment, CO 2 fluxes were fairly low because lack of O 2 forced organic matter decomposition into thermodynamically
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Chicago s Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

Chicago s Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

A fi rm commitment, in both political will and dollars, is required to ensure that transit is a cornerstone mitigation strategy to reduce transportation-related emissions. Beyond a commitment to maintaining the system, Chicago’s transit system can increase ser- vice and ridership by increasing bus routes, track miles, accessibility, and frequency. Coordination between transit providers and taxi and car-sharing companies, better sig- nage and information about how to make connections, farecard coordination, and station transfer points can all increase transit use as well. The GHG benefi t of increased transit ridership assumes a corresponding reduction of single-vehicle-occupancy use. Additional benefi ts from increased transit use include lower household transportation costs and improved air quality.
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CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions

CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions

C02 and other greenhouse gas emissions On 16 July 1992 the Council decided to consult the Economic and Social Committee, under Articles 130s and 198 of the Treaty establishing the Europe[r]

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How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

How To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Östersund received Klimp funding of just over SEK 24 mil- lion. Municipal climate investment programmes are intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by improving energy effi ciency and converting to alternative energy sources. Measures include upgrading methane gas for use as a motor fuel, biogas-driven cars, a booking system for the eco-car pool, a commitment to “green traffi c” and the “Mobility Week”. Other investments are expansion of the district heat- ing network, improved energy effi ciency in municipal build- ings, grants to home owners, as well as public education and information.
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The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The need for effective control of global warming has arisen from growing public concern about the negative effects that this phenomenon has for society as a whole. A number of efforts to promote the effective and efficient use and allocation of resources have also taken shape over the last years (e.g. Aristovnik, 2012; Grubb and Neuhoff, 2006). Policy makers have therefore developed an interest in different economic and fi- nancial instruments in order to tackle the issue of global warming. Environmental taxes have been frequently advocated as a cost-effective instrument for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper is to address this question, by defin- ing whether taxes for environmental purposes have had an important impact on GHG emissions. We investigate the interaction between collected and spent public appropri- ations on one side, and their impact on GHG emissions, expressed in CO2 equivalents, from industrial processes, on the other. According to the Intergovernmental panel on climate change, emissions from industrial processes represent one of the main sourc- es of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Taking into account all three categories, we evaluate the direct effect of environmental taxes, and the indirect effect of environmental taxes through environmental expenditures on GHG emissions in industrial processes. In this respect, the model discussed in this paper represents a simple methodological inno- vation. The article contributes to the debate whether environmental taxes and, conse- quently, environmental policy have been effective. We used a panel of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. Countries included in the analysis are: France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Neth- erlands, Bulgaria, Austria, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Denmark, Germany and Spain. The criterion for selection of countries was the availability of data for direct and indirect effects of environmental taxes and GHG emissions in industrial processes. The major results of the analysis are that the direct effect of environmental taxes on the optimization of environment-related processes for minimizing GHG-related pollution in industrial processes is confirmed. We also confirmed the indirect effect of environ- mental taxes through environmental expenditures on the reduction of GHG emissions and found that the indirect effect is more statistically significant and more robust than the direct effect alone. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section two presents a literature review, section three describes the model and variables used in this analysis, section four presents empirical findings, while section five concludes.
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The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and Its Potential Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and Its Potential Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

In this paper, we contribute to the debate on the relation between trade and the environment by considering the case of the RCEP and examining whether it will increase or decrease GHG emissions. To respond to this impor- tant research question, we measure the impact of the RCEP on GHG emissions using the GTAP model and the GTAP CO 2 and non-CO 2 emissions databases. Our scenario assumes the complete removal of all import tariffs

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How To Calculate Greenhouse Gas Emissions

How To Calculate Greenhouse Gas Emissions

118. The typical / average capacities and average payloads agreed with DfT that are used in the calculation of van emission factors per tonne km are presented in Table 32. These are based on quantitative assessment of the van database used by AEA in variety of policy assessment for DfT. For the 2011 update, a correction has been made to the dataset used to calculate van emissions in 2010, where it was discovered some van models had been included in the incorrect weight classes. The correction reallocated some vans between the different weight categories for the payload capacity calculation. In addition the assumed split of petrol van stock between size classes has been adjusted using the split of registrations from this dataset. This has resulted in some changes to emission factors, particularly since the proportion of smaller petrol vans is much higher..
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Food and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Food and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Changes in behaviour and attitudes towards eating are also essential (Garnett, 2008). Reduced con- sumption of the most harmful food products and of products with low nutritional value, avoidance of food waste and eating only as much as necessary are actions that can reduce CO2 emissions from food consumption and simultaneously combat other environmental or social problems, such as obe- sity and food provision inequity. In fact, more sustainable diets are often in line with healthy diet rec- ommendations by governmental authorities.

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A Global Environmental Assessment of Electricity Generation Technologies with Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions

A Global Environmental Assessment of Electricity Generation Technologies with Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Limiting climate change by stabilizing the global temperature requires the near complete phase-out of conventional fossil fuel power generation and its replacement through technologies with low greenhouse gas emissions, such as renewable energy, nuclear power, and fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capture and storage. We investigate the environmental and resource co-benefits and adverse trade-offs for a wide range of candidate electricity generation technologies using an integrated life cycle approach. Most renewable energy technologies provide substantial benefits in terms of emission reductions. Additional material demand for manufacturing energy conversion devices ranges between 0.1 and 3 times annual global production in 2010.
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Global Energy and Climate Outlook 2018: Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances

Global Energy and Climate Outlook 2018: Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances

3 Scenarios The following scenarios are presented in this document (more details of policies considered can be found in the main GECO 2018 report): ● Reference scenario: It corresponds to a world where no additional policies are implemented compared to what was legislated as of the end of 2017; energy and emissions projections are driven by market forces and technological learning. In particular, it does not pursue the policies put forward in countries’ NDCs nor does it attempt the deep decarbonisation of the 2°C or 1.5°C scenarios.
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The significance of livestock as a contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions today and in the near future

The significance of livestock as a contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions today and in the near future

for milk and ruminant meat energy production is higher than the bar for enteric 247. methane emissions (both as a percentage of global totals), this indicates that a region 248[r]

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