Results and Discussion
Adoption of ImprovedGroundnutVarieties
Farmers of Andhra Pradesh grew several improvedgroundnutvarieties (JL 24, Kadiri, and ICGS 44) while farmers of Maharashtra adopted JL 24, TAG 24, UF-70-103, TG 26, and Karad 4-11 in the year 1997. ICRISAT varieties were popular in Guntur and West Godavari districts (Andhra Pradesh) and in Nanded, Parbhani, and Satara districts (Maharashtra) (Table 4). ICGS 44 was widely grown by farmers in Guntur and West Godavari; its adoption rate among sample farmers was 98% during the rainy season, 58% during the postrainy season, and 32% during the summer season in 1997. It may be mentioned here that TMV 2 was widely cultivated in Andhra Pradesh and SB 11 in Maharashtra. These two varieties, which were recommended by the Government of India in the early 1940s, were widely cultivated because of seed availability, drought resistance, and yield stability.
The sudden move to demonetize Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 currency notes is not new. Rs 1,000 and higher denomination notes were first demonetized in January 1946 and again in 1978.The highest denomination note ever printed by the Reserve Bank of India was the Rs 10,000 note in 1938 and again in 1954. But these notes were demonetized in January 1946 and again in January 1978, according to RBI data.Rs 1,000 and Rs 10,000 bank notes were in circulation prior to January 1946. Higher denomination banknotes of Rs 1,000, Rs 5,000 and Rs 10,000 were reintroduced in 1954 and all of them were demonetized in January 1978. The Rs 1,000 note made a comeback in November 2000. Rs 500 note came into circulation in October 1987. The move was then justified as attempt to contain the volume of banknotes in circulation due to inflation.However, this is the first time that Rs 2,000 currency note is being introduced.While announcing currently circulated Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes as invalid from midnight 8 Nov, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said new Rs 500 note and a Rs. 2,000 denomination banknote will be introduced from November 10.
People are adopting online payment system such as BHIM, Paytm etc. after ban for high denomination currency in India. Digital transaction systems, E-wallets and apps, online transactions using E-banking, usage of plastic money (Debit and Credit Cards), etc. has noticed substantial increases in demand. This behavioral change could be a game changer for India in the near future.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), in collaboration with national partners, has developed and released a number of improvedgroundnutvarieties as a way of improving groundnut productivity and competitiveness. In order to address these overlapping constraints and harness the untapped potential in groundnut for poor farmers, ICRISAT has initiated a major legume projects: Tropical Legume II (TLII) supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, in 2007-08.The project was designed to increase the legume productivity by 20 per cent, ensure the share of improvedvarieties to 30 per cent of the cropped area and reaching the benefits to 57 million poor. The project also set short term (3 years) objectives to increase the legume productivity to five per cent, improvedvarieties to the extent of 10 per cent of cropped area and gaining more than $ 75 million. Groundnut has been selected for Tamil Nadu among six crops covered under TL II. The project has two components; the first one is to identify the best varieties to the locality for up scaling and prioritizing the breeding work and the second component has targeted to assess the present status by baseline and groundnut market surveys with the intention to track the early adoption of improvedvarieties, mid-term evaluation of the project and focused to draw factors for better efficiency of the project intervention through ex-ante and ex-post evaluation methods.
non-political organization that conducts agricultural research for development in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with a wide array of partners throughout the world. Covering 6.5 million square kilometers of land in 55 countries, the semi-arid tropics have over 2 billion people, of whom 644 million are the poorest of the poor. ICRISAT innovations help the dryland poor move from poverty to prosperity by harnessing markets while managing risks – a strategy called Inclusive Market-Oriented Development (IMOD). ICRISAT is headquartered in Patancheru, Telangana, India, with two regional hubs and five country offices in sub-Saharan Africa. It is a member of the CGIAR Consortium. CGIAR is a global research partnership for a food secure future.
Majority of the groundnutvarieties being grown in the country are quite old and are susceptible to both biotic and abiotic stresses. The TL-II program is targeting the popularization of newly released stress tolerant varieties and efficient seed delivery mechanism so as to enable the groundnut farmers to raise the yield at a higher front. ICRISAT initiated TL-II project in Odisha during 2012-13 to take concrete steps in releasing some promising groundnutvarieties conducive to growing conditions in the state. A baseline survey was undertaken in this project with the following objectives: 1. To study the current status of groundnut crop in the state of Odisha; 2. To examine the socio-economic profile of the groundnut farmers in the studied area; 3.To find out the importance of groundnut in the area allocation by farmers; and 4. To investigate the level of adoption of modern varieties, productivity level, profitability, preferred traits of groundnut crop etc.
Research Program – Markets, Institutions and Policies
To inform future R&D strategies for sustainable development pathways for the SAT Introduction
Groundnuts are a major source of edible oils in India. One of the central problems of groundnut production and processing sectors are huge inefficiencies due to uncertain production environment owing to rainfed cultivation, less resource base of smallholder farmers and processors, and low adoption rate of improved technology. This policy brief addresses critical issues binding groundnut oil sector inefficiency and international competitiveness. With the widening gap between demand and supply of edible oils in India, policy action is imperative not only to arrest surging imports of edible oils but also to benefit both producers and consumers in terms of broader employment generation and decentralized rural industrialization. Specific policy implications are highlighted in this policy brief, which encompass a) the harnessing of improvedvarieties with attributes like drought tolerance, high oil content, high productivity for large scale seed multiplication/distribution by both public and private agencies; b) viable village seed banks and seed networks through cycles of rabi (postrainy) season seed multiplication to meet the seed requirements of kharif (rainy season) and vice versa; c) low-cost technologies to increase profitability and reduce risk; d) oilseed clusters to facilitate scale economies and capacity utilization in processing units; and e) capital subsidies to accelerate technological upgrading to shed inefficiency in the processing sector. The expected gains in efficiency in both production and processing of oilseeds are expected to produce measurable producer and consumer benefits, which will justify proposed non-market distorted
Nigeria is the largest groundnut producing country in West Africa accounting for 51% of the production in the region. The country produces 10% and 39% of the World and Africa’s total production respectively. Prior to 1980s, groundnut production declined significantly due to rosette incidence and drought. However, since 1984, production has been increasing at a growth rate estimated to 8% resulting both from area expansion (6%) and increased productivity of 2% (Ndjeunga and Ibro, 2010). It is a major cash crop for many households accounting for 21% of rural cash earnings and is a major source of employment. The roles of groundnut in enhancing rural household livelihood outcomes are important and have been well documented. Groundnut increases the total value of production per hectare by increasing cereal production (intensifying cereal based cropping systems through intercropping, relay cropping and rotation cropping) with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). By raising food production through BNF of cereal crops, they also increase food security. Groundnut is a nutritious and safe food and contributes to improved health of the rural population. It is rich in protein, oil and micronutrients such as iron and zinc. Their amino acid profiles complement those of cereals, such that consuming them together raises the nutritional effectiveness of both. High iron and zinc contents are especially beneficial for women and children at risk of anemia and have proven to be genetically malleable. Groundnut contributes to the sustainability of the natural resource base with positive external- ities. On average groundnut contributes to about 60 kg nitrogen per hectare. By fixing nitrogen in biological forms that are more slowly released over time than chemical fertilizers they can improve nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems fostering healthier soils richer in biological activity and higher inorganic matter content. By substituting for manufactured chemical fertil- izers that are usually insufficiently available to meet the needs of the rural poor, they contribute directly to reducing cultivation costs while also increasing the productivity of other crops the following season (cereals, roots/tubers).
This thesis intended to examine the potential of IGVs to improve yields and production while measuring the managerial capacity of adopting farmers compared to peer farmers that utilize traditional varieties in Uganda. A contribution of this study is the employment of nationally representative data as an effort to mitigate biases from regional differences, a factor that has not been fully considered in the literature. Results reveal that the adoption rates for IGVs is 10 percent, which is significantly lower than previous estimates of over 50 percent. However, these results are consistent with the fact that the other available studies have been performed in sites that are close to the NARO research station and this is likely driving the higher regional adoption rates. Estimates of TE indicate that there is theoretically room to double production without the adoption of IGVs, and that TE remains low even when only Adopters are considered. The impacts of adoption are inconclusive given low sample size. The half normal distribution is employed and does not yield a significant impact from adoption, but other distributions offer significant results.
than sorghum in the other intercropping treatments; also this may be due to fixed atmospheric nitrogen by groundnut, which may be utilized by sorghum plants or may be excreted from the nodules into the soil and be used by other plants growing nearby. Similar results were recorded by Musa  who found that the arrangement of 1:1 gave the highest forage yield. Gabatshele et al.  reported that sole crop produced significantly more dry matter weight than maize intercropped with cowpeas.
Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume and oilseed crop cultivated globally in 20.9 million hectares with a production of 34.7 million tonnes (FAOSTAT, 2012). About one-third of the groundnut produced globally is eaten and two-thirds are crushed for oil. India, China and the USA are the major groundnut producing countries in the world and India has been contributing a significant share occupying first place in area and second place next to China in production (Madhan Mohan and Nigam, 2013.). In India, 70-75% of the groundnut area (4.19 m ha) and production (5.62 m tonnes) is concentrated in four states i.e., Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka ((Madhusudhana, 2013). The genetic variability in groundnut is low due to origin of the crop through a single hybridization event between two diploid species followed by chromosome doubling (amphidiploid) and crossing barriers with wild diploid species (Kochart et al., 1996).
Second, household head’s education (HH_Educ) appears to have a positive effect and a very strong and robust impact on improved maize adoption across all analysis, except in the southern region. On the other hand, it is not statistically significant in the beans adoption model. On average, Mozambican household heads had very low years of attending formal education (only 2.8 years). Drawing from this result, policies that emphasize improving the household heads’ knowledge are required (e.g., improve household heads’ knowledge through various training activities). Also, household heads’ formal educational background (e.g. household heads’ ability to read and write) should be taken into account when developing training materials. Greater attention should be placed on practical training in order to more effectively communicate results of agricultural research to the typical household with minimal formal education.
groundnut samples collected from farmers’ fields than from farmers stores, market retailers and vendors in the five agro- ecologies of eastern Ethiopia. Present study also agreement with groundnut seeds collected from store house and oil mills of Warangal district were infested by different seed borne fungi varying in percentage different sample conditions and place of collection (Kalyani et al., 2014). The finding of the present study is in agreement with the findings of Abdi and Alemayehu (2014) who reported that groundnut samples collected from farmers’ fields and farmers store houses in Babile and Gursum districts had 80 and 70 % kernel contamination, respectively, by
In India, poultry arming is increasing. The poultry manure is relatively a cheap source of both macro nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S)and micronutrients (Cu, Fe,Mn,B) and can increases oil carbon and N content, soil porosity and enhances oil microbial activity. As poultry waste contains a high concentration of nutrients, addition of small quantity of it in an integrated nutrient management system could meet the shortage of FYM to some extent. This paper highlights the most productive cropping system at diﬀerent combinations of organics and inorganics, and compares the relative eﬃcacy of three organic manures on productivity of three cropping systems.
Documentation of yield components (pod and seed characteristics) in the groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties of Ethiopia has not been done so far and the same is not available in the literature. Such literature is required as it forms a platform for further studies in future on plant breeding programmes to improve the traits of this crop in Ethiopia. Hence, a study has been taken up to characterize the pods and seeds in certain important groundnutvarieties released by Werer Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. The parameters studied include individual seed weight, number of seeds per pod, 100 pods weight, 100 seeds weight and shelling percent. All the six varieties exhibited statistically significant variations in the studied parameters except shelling percent. Thus, a great extent of genetic diversity is found among the groundnutvarieties in Ethiopia. Individual seed weight, 100 pods weight and 100 seeds weight were highest in the variety, Tole 2 while number of seeds per pod was highest in the variety, Werer 964. The parameters analyzed in this investigation were compared with previously available data on days to maturity, oil content and shelled seed yield. Correlation matrix of the studied parameters revealed some interesting relationships among them.
Abstract:- The experiment was carried out in the demonstration farm of Federal College of Forestry, Jos during the 2017 farming season to evaluate eight varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogea, L.). The experiment consists of varieties of groundnut Samnut (10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26) which represent the treatments which were replicated three (3) times each in a plot size of 2×1m in a Randomized Complete Block Design ((RCBD). Data collected include plant height at 3, 5 and 7WAP; leaf count 5 and 7WAP; number of branches 3, 5 and 7WAP; number of flowers at 50% and 100% flowering; number of pods, pods length at harvest and finally yield in kg/ha at harvest. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference at 5% level of significance using mini-tab 17.0 versions to separate the means. The results show that there was significant difference at (P<0.05) for plant height at 3, 5 and 7WAP, while treatments did not differ significantly in terms of leaf count and number of branches at 3, 5 and 7WAP. In number of flowers, significant difference was observed at 50% flowering while there was no statistical difference at 100% flowering. Treatments did not show significant difference in terms of number of pods and pod length at harvest at (P<0.05). The highest yield value of (148.84kg/ha) was recorded in samnut 10. Other yields in kg/ha from other treatments includes samnut (22, 23, 11, 21, 25, 24 and 26) (107.00kg/ha, 53.67kg/ha, 47.84kg/ha, 40.84kg/ha, 39.07kg/ha, 37.00kg/ha and 36.96kg/ha). The results show that planting samnut 10 with some agronomic improvement in Jos will give much more yield compared to what was obtained.
Yield: 1400 kg (1728 kg/ha)
P urusotti Kondagiri , a 40-year-old farmer, lives in a household with his wife, a son, a daughter and his mother in Darabada village, Kolnara block, in district Rayagada, Odisha. He has no land of his own, but farms and cultivates land that he rents. In the year 2012, after intensive village meetings and awareness generating activities, Purusotti Kondagiri agreed to cultivate, under the seed production program, pigeonpea variety Maruti (Foundation seeds), in place of the local varieties. In previous years he had cultivated different crops such as cotton, local
Grubs of H. serrata and H. reynaudi were reared from adults that were collected in the field at ICRISAT Asia Centre (H. serrata) or at Anantapur (H. reynaudi). Larvae were reared in a bed of sand/ organic matter mixture in an outdoor screen house, with pearl millet seedlings grown as food for the developing larvae. When the grubs reached second instar, they were collected from the rearing area, weighed and then added to the microplots (20 larvae/ plot in 1995, 10 larvae/ plot thereafter) (table 1). Larval mortality was assessed 15 days after release by removing the content of each microplot and searching the soil for larvae (“destructive sampling”). In some trials, a separate set of groundnut plots was allowed to grow to maturity to assess yield parameters. Plant mortality, larval mortality and larval weight gain were recorded. In Trial 4, the number of flowers m -2 also was recorded at the 15 days--after--release assessment. At crop maturity, final plant mortality, weight of plant haulms, pod weight and seed weights were also recorded. Data was analysed by analysis of variance, using Fisher’s Protected LSD test (Steel and Torrie, 1980) for mean separations of pre-planned comparisons to elucidate the efficacy of each chemical and the lowest efficacious dose where a range of doses were tested. Some data sets required transformation prior to analysis.
Cultivation of cereal crops among small holder farmers in Africa is mostly rain-fed and susceptible to climate changes and environmental disasters. This study investigates the resilience (yield stability) of improved maize varieties among smallholder farmers in Tanzania. The study uses the survey data collected by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in 2013/2014 whereby a sample of 750 randomly selected smallholder farmers who grown at least one type of improved maize varieties was used for statistical analysis. The mixed effect model has been used to evaluate the resilience of improved maize varieties by calculating the effect size. The total effect size (Cohen’s d) is positive (0.241) and significant at 5 percent level, that implies, under the same growing condi- tion, improved maize varieties are more resilient than local varieties. The regression results show that education, quality of extension services, inorganic fertilizer and pesticides/herbicides are significant factors that positively influence resilience of improved maize varieties at 5 percent level. Therefore, the government should create supportive policies that enable smallholder farmer adopt multiple modern agricultural practices so as to harvest higher yield and hence to ensure food security in Tanzania.
Pato variety was preferred by risk neutral and moderately risk averse farmers under ox-plough without manure application. In term of net-returns, Mtama-1 and Macia varieties were predominantly first choice varieties. The two varieties dominated other varieties due to high yield and price. High price is attributed to market opportunities opened by the growing demand from the brewery and animal feed industries. These new opportunities are allowing farmers to receive significantly high price and invest more in production activities such as ploughing and manure application. Although these activities add cost, the marginal gain in yield and net- returns are enough to outweigh marginal costs. There is therefore a need to simultaneously promote the adoption of improved sorghum varieties in the area and develop new market opportunities and value adding activities along the value chain. Since most farmers are using manure as a soil amendment activity, there is a need of conducting studies to establish manure application rate and developing improvedvarieties that are more responsive to manure application. Also, promoting small- scale mechanization (use of ox-plough) will increase both production and productivity of available limited resources in the region.