Iowa State University
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to examine how agricultureteachers implement supervisedagriculturalexperience (SAE). A combination of focus groups and individual telephone interviews were conducted. Iowa agricultureteachers offered SAE because it is (a) a means of developing life skills, (b) a component of the FFA award system, and (c) theoretically, one–third of the agricultural education model. Although agricultureteachers were able to talk conceptually and theoretically about the benefits and value of SAE, they did not necessarily practice SAE in that manner. The method in which teachers implemented SAE programs varied considerably as did the means by which they conducted their SAE programs. Five factors were identified that limited SAE: (a) changing demographics and societal attitudes, (b) mechanics and structure of schools, (c) resource availability, (d) image, and (e) the agricultural education system. These findings would indicate that there is dissonance between (a) theory and practice, and (b) experience and learning of SAE. It is recommended that the purpose of SAE be further refined, communication regarding the value of SAE be increased among the stakeholders, creative and innovated approaches to SAE be explored, and the complete experiential learning model be incorporated into SAE programming.
Keywords: SupervisedAgriculturalExperiencePrograms, SAE, Agricultural Education, Development, Implementation
The development and implementation of the home-project by Rufus Stimson created a lasting impact on school-based agricultural education (SBAE) (Moore, 1988; Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008). Stimson (1919) stated, “neither skill nor business ability can be learned from books alone, nor merely from observation of the work and management of others, both require active participation, during the learning period, in productive farming operations of real economic or commercial importance” (p. 32). Later, specific wording requiring the use of the home-project method was incorporated into the 1917 Smith Hughes Act, which stated that agricultural education programs shall provide “directed or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year” (as cited in Phipps et al., 2008, p. 443).
Iowa State University Abstract
This article presents a synthesis of research and identifies research deficiency on supervising supervisedagriculturalexperience (SAE) programs during a thirty-year period, 1964 - 1993. A library search of selected sources was used to gather data for the study. Research in this area was found to be primarily descriptive. SAE program partners (teachers, students, parents, and employers) value the supervisory role of teachers in conducting SAE programs, however, implementation of the practice varies greatly from state to state. Cumulative data are not available to guide the development of policies and standards for supervising SAE programs. Future research in this area should focus on effects of supervision on SAE programs, when in a SAE programs is supervision most critical to student learning, roles of each partner in supervising SAE programs, goals for SAE visits, strategies for planning SAE programs and recording accomplishments, extended contracts and release time for SAE supervision, and teacher education related to supervising SAE programs.
Faculty in agricultural teacher education programs are responsible for preparing future teachers to lead effective school-based agricultural education programs. However, agricultureteachers are having difficulty implementing supervisedagriculturalexperience (SAE), even though they value it conceptually as a program component. In an effort to improve SAE instruction in teacher education, the American Association for Agricultural Education has adopted a guiding philosophy and competencies for teacher preparation in SAE. Using these documents, the purpose of this national descriptive study was to identify where and to what extent SAE instruction was included within agricultural teacher education curriculum and describe the level of SAE instruction occurring in agricultural teacher education programs in the United States. Findings of this study indicate that there was a broad range in the level of instruction occurring for each of these competencies among teacher education programs. These results provide a snapshot of one- moment-in-time and serve as a starting point for a conversation about how supervisedagriculturalexperience should be taught in agricultural teacher education. It is recommended that supervisedagriculturalexperience competencies be taught using inquiry-based or problem-solving methods guided by the experiential learning process.
While the integrated three–component model of agricultural education (Phipps & Osborne, 1988) depicts equal emphasis on each part, SAE programs appear to be the weakest (Croom, 2008). Less than one–third of agricultural educators in the nation reported 75.0% or higher participation rate in SAE (Wilson & Moore, 2007). Based on this statistic, teachers need help in improving the quality of the SAE component in their program, but this cannot be accomplished if barriers to participation are not identifiable. Many perceptions exist as to why participation has decreased by students enrolled in agricultural education courses. A few of these factors, identified by agricultural educators, include: lack of time, increased number of students in the classroom, complicated record–keeping, limited school and community opportunities, lack of facilities, low student desire, lack of agricultural background, and a lack of knowledge of the newer categories of SAE (Steele, 1997; Wilson & Moore, 2007). In rural schools, Whaley and Lucero (1993) identified the image of production agriculture, transportation, a lack of appropriate facilities and equipment as perceived barriers. These barriers were agreed on by focus group interviews conducted by Retallick (2010)
This study was an ex post facto, descriptive-correlational study. The data collected was used to determine the perceptions and concerns of Tennessee high school agricultureteachers regarding the implementation of a year-round schedule at the school where they currently teach. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Release 11.0). Statistical tests were conducted to assess potential response bias by determining if differences existed between early and late responders. Differences between early and late responders were analyzed for several key independent variables (level of concern, biggest concern, increased/decreased student discipline, teacher burnout, student burnout, contract type, willingness to change contract, type of schedule, time spent on SupervisedAgricultural Experience's, scheduling camps, ability to have trips approved, instructional changes, and curriculum changes) using Chi Square and t-tests. No significant statistical differences were determined to exist between early and late responders and the preceding variables. Since late respondents are
In the SWP program, students worked one-on-one with faculty and staff on a detailed research project or other work assignment. The purpose of SWP was to provide opportunities for agriculture students to learn while working with faculty and staff mentors in university research laboratories, farms, greenhouses and other units through a planned education and work experience program (Retallick and Steiner, 2009). Students who participated in the semester-long SWP program earn money for working on their project and can earn three academic credits for fulfilling all course requirements. Student learning outcomes for SWP included acquiring technical agricultural skill; developing organizational and planning skills related to research and other experiences; developing skills related to data collection, research procedures, written and oral communication, human resources management, teaching and critical analysis of data. Increased understanding of research activities, linkages to higher level course work and gaining an understanding of the connection between research and practical, real work situations/problems are also learning outcomes of SWP.
numerous award and recognition opportunities (Stewart & Birkenholz, 1991). However, according to the students in this study, awards and recognition neither positively nor negatively influence SAE participation. Although there is encouragement to do so, not every student with a SAE program receives awards and recognition. At the same time, more of the students without a SAE program do not feel their teacher encourages every student to have a SAE. Several of the factors agriculturalteachers assumed lessened student SAE participation are not very influential at all from a student’s perspective. Educators must be cognizant to avoid stereotypes towards students who do not meet the mold of a typical SAE participant and motivate all students to be involved in agricultural experiences. Students who appeared to be heavily involved in additional school and community activities may have the potential to participate in the highest quality SAE programs when given the opportunity. Agricultural educators must begin assessing the specific motivators for individual students and finding ways to engage all students in some type of experiential learning project.
The Carl Perkins Act was amended in 1990 to provide the largest amount of funding ever for vocational education. The next legislation to directly impact agriculture education was the Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994, which was designed to be a blueprint for improving education. Following this legislation was the School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994, that emphasized the importance of school and industry partnerships which directly impacted agriculture education. The Carl Perkins Act was amended again in 1998 to emphasize federal support in high quality programs that integrated academics, promoted more rigorous standards for students, and developed linkage between secondary and post-secondary education. The 1990’s saw an increased focus on core academics and declining recognition of the importance of vocational education toward student learning and development. As a result vocational programs became more technical and focused extensively on integrating core academics. The National Council for Agricultural Education developed a strategic plan for strengthening agricultural education known as Reinventing Agricultural Education for the year 2020 (RAE 2020) by establishing contemporary vision and mission statements. Funded through the Kellogg Foundation this initiative set out to increase the supply of teachers, provide greater student access, and develop alliances or partnerships (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008).
The FFA was founded in 1928; the Future Farmers of America brought together students, teachers and agribusiness to solidify support for agricultural education (National FFA Organization, 2012). Since then there have been millions of agricultural students who have participated in the FFA and have worn the famous blue and gold FFA jacket. A group of delegates at the 1969 National FFA Convention voted to allow women to be members of the FFA (National FFA Organization, 2012). The FFA organization is structured on three major levels, local, state and national. Today students are encouraged to be involved in the FFA program at their high school and it has been implemented into many classrooms that the FFA is a part of the students overall course grade. In the late 80’s a few delegates that attended the National FFA Convention that year decided to change the organizations official name from Future Farmers of America to the National FFA Organization. The reason being was to recognize that the FFA is not only for those wanting to farm but for all those who are interested in agribusiness, production agriculture and technology in agriculture. Today, the National FFA
Research question three asked What do urban middle school teachers perceive as challenges with the implementation of effective social-emotional learning? Participants cited two major challenges with effective SEL implementation which included time constraints as well as no formal training in SEL education. Participants unanimously agreed that lack of time was the largest obstacle for SEL instruction. Due to administrative preference, on-going yearly testing schedules, core academic subject instruction, and impromptu changes in daily schedule, explicit instruction of SEL is often cut from the classroom routine. Coupled with lack of time is the situation in which teachers have no prior experience with SEL instruction prior to entering the classroom in Jones school district. Only a handful of universities nationwide incorporate SEL coursework into their teacher preparation programs. Participants cited feeling anxious, stressed, confused, and frustrated when given the task and expectation of teaching SEL. They communicated that initially when SEL was taken districtwide in Jones, they mitigated these uncomfortable feelings through not engaging in SEL or to conducting SEL with a compliance driven mindset rather than an actual belief system.
Using multiple sources of data such as observations, interviews, and documents (lesson plans, course review reports, and professional development plans), I used an exploratory case study to answer the research questions: ―What are the instructional strategies being used by teachers to prepare students to achieve an intermediate level of English proficiency?‖ and ―What are the barriers teachers encounter when implementing instructional strategies to support students‘ learning?‖ Case studies are focused on making meaning of a contemporary phenomenon in its real-life context to answer questions typically starting with what, how, and why, and they involve the investigator having little or no control over behavioral events (Yin, 2014). The bounded system of this exploratory case study was the EFL component of the foundation year at an international technical college in Saudi Arabia. Six EFL teachers, the college academic manager, and the foundation curriculum designer were interviewed. Additionally, these same six teachers were observed in their classrooms. Listening, recording, interacting, and contextualizing the participants‘ perspectives toward the instructional strategies used to develop students‘ language skills helped me understand the phenomenon (see Henwood, 2014). In addition, it was important to pay attention to the process to ensure a quality case study (Yin, 2014).
some of the response categories it was necessary to combine data to provide larger numbers of responses in some cells, so a valid the chi-square test could be made.
A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relationship between the age of the teacher and the perceived importance of the pre-service activities. Only three of the 49 items were found to be significantly different. The age groups 22-35 were more likely to agree that instructing a lab, participating in an RSO (registered student organization) and grading student SAE record books as important pre-service activities. The age group of 51 and older were least likely to find these activities’ important. (Table 3) For the other 46 activities, there was no difference in opinion between the groups. The three items that were found to have a significant difference were examined to see if there was a trend. There was no clear pattern, therefore the null hypothesis was not rejected. Overall the perceptions of the teachers’ were the same based on age.
desk and will be destroyed upon completion of the study requirements for maintaining documentation.
Protection of participants . As evidence that I fully understand the ethical protection of all participants, I obtained a certificate from The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Extramural Research (Appendix C). This research study will have a low risk level to participants, and none of the participants have ever worked with me. Participation was voluntary. A meeting was held with the school principal to reiterate the voluntary nature of the study, discuss the purpose of the study, and address any questions or concerns raised by the principal. I compiled a list of participants who met the original criteria as alternate participants in the event that a selected participant later withdraws from the study. I emailed an invitation to participate and consent letter a second time to alternate teachers, if necessary. Overall, the safety, well-being, and confidentiality of all participants are a priority throughout the duration of the study. Pseudonyms were used to protect participants’ identities when reporting the findings within this project study. In addition, all electronic data collected from each participant will be kept secure by being stored in password-protected files on my home computer and all non-electronic data will be stored securely in my home desk. I will store these data for 5-years, per Walden University protocol.
Student backgrounds and experiences. Culturally responsive teaching cannot occur if the teacher is not knowledgeable about his or her students. While race and ethnicity may give indication to a student's culture, each individual is different. Thus, each student brings with them a sum of perspectives, abilities, and lived experiences that will affect how they learn, communicate, and behave. All students have various ways of learning, but some may or may not be connected to their culture (Vavrus, 2008). If a teacher wants to appropriately align lessons and obj ectives to be responsive to students' needs and motivate them to learn, then they must truly know their students (Toppel, 20 1 5 ; Villegas & Lucas, 2002). Teachers can learn about students in creative ways, such as photo boards, discussion topics, self-disclosure, and interest inventories. When teachers can connect lessons and obj ectives to students' interests, needs, and personal experiences, students will be more apt to put forth effort to learn, care about learning, and share that learning (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). Teachers that work to build a repertoire of knowledge of various cultures and their individual students' interests and lives, begin to develop a positive disposition and sociocultural awareness.
The prior international experience (PIE) of faculty was significant in their study abroad involvement and perceptions. As consistent with prior research, agriculture faculty in this study were more likely to perceive KSA outcomes of study abroad as important for professionals in their field if they have acquired international experiences themselves (ACE, 2012; Akpan & Martin, 1996; O’Hara, 2009). As such, efforts should be directed toward increasing the international experience of faculty. While institutional differences were observed for PIE, no significant differences were observed for study abroad involvement, KSA agreement, KSA importance, study abroad awareness, and study abroad priority. This finding was surprising at it is inconsistent with prior research. Considering the potential for departmental differences to influence faculty involvement, beliefs, and knowledge of study abroad, the findings from this study warrant examination of departmental differences. These differences may perhaps carry more weight than institutional differences. Differences in faculty involvement and perception based on academic department were not reported in this study due to a limitation with the format of the survey instrument. As such, this study should be replicated using a modified version the academic discipline section of the original instrument.
I want to stay in education. As I mentioned, I am officially retired right now. I like working. It doesn’t necessarily have to be with kids. I want to take a break from kids right now. I have been working nonstop with kids since 1980, so that is 34 years. I just need a little break from that, but then I can see being involved, maybe in the future, but not as a classroom teacher. I would be interested in a position in environmental ed, maybe in music ed. If I had to remain in public schools, I think environmental, music ed, or anything with Spanish and French acquisition as a foreign language. I would love to be maybe a consultant to initiate dual-language programs around the country. We started one at the school I just retired from in 1995 from scratch; it couldn’t have been more from scratch. National Public Radio has a series called “The Long View,” in which they speak to people who have been in the profession for a long, long time. They ask those people to tell them the long view of how things have evolved over a long period of time. I think I have a long-view perspective that would be valuable to programs.
of the student’s sentiments, “This internship will let me travel, but not in touristy areas” (T). E said, “I want the culture shock.” This group of students said that they wanted a more realistic view of other countries, one that will let them be immersed in the culture (J, M, T). Travel was a major motivator for the group, but all of the pre-internship focus group participants had traveled abroad before, even if for a short amount of time (B, C, D, E, J, M, T). Several of the students said that this internship tied into their major (B, J, M), that it would give them work experience (D, J), and would increase their knowledge of international agriculture (B, C, D, M). Several of the students said that the internship was a culmination of many of their interests (B, H, La, Ld) ). Many of them were excited to learn more Spanish, especially in a natural setting (B, La, Ld, M, T). One girl (J) was Hispanic and said they she chose this internship because she is “much more comfortable with people of my own culture.” Two students took the class without anticipating taking the internship, but their interest grew during the class (Ht, La). Most of the students heard about the internship from their advisor (B, C, D, H, Ht, La, Ld, M, T) and many also saw presentations from program alumni (B, C, D, La, Ld, T). Three students mentioned that it was cheaper than a study abroad trip (B, D, T).
Initially provisional admittance is noted as an individual meets admission requirements for the college. A student may receive full admission when he or she completes 30 hours of course credit, maintains a 2.5 grade point average, completes Praxis I tests (or exemption), displays evidence of four desirable teaching dispositions, submits an application, and is approved by the Teacher Education Committee. The third phase of admittance to the College of Education is the admittance to student teaching. This phase includes maintaining a 2.5 grade point average, a minimum 2.0 average in the major teaching field, completion of Praxis II tests, completion of all course requirements, a minimum of “B” in all courses that require a focus on field experience or technology, and completion of the college base exam. Following these requirements, the student may begin the student teaching semester. Pending successful completion of this semester, a student may be approved and recommended for state licensure. Tennessee Technical
Conceptual frameworks are a collection of systems of organizations based on systems of theories. According to Bordage (2009), conceptual frameworks are used to develop research projects. A strength of conceptual framework models is the structural design allows for each concept to be developed as a magnifying element to the problem (Bordage, 2009). I used a conceptual framework to identify the teachers’ perceptions of the efficacy of multimodal literacies to improve adolescent health literacy via the introduction of a health literacy program into the curriculum. Trying to understand how much the teachers understood about health literacy by using a phenomenological approach made it easier for me to ask in-depth, probing questions during the interview process. The issue of health literacy education is not when to implement health education, but how to best implement health literacy programs. Teachers are one of the identifiable places to begin investigating what they know about health literacy. In Chapter 3, I