MATLAB is an interactive software for doing numerical computations to simplify the implementation of linear algebra routines. Powerful operations can be performed by utilizing the provided MATLAB commands. Simulink is an additional MATLAB toolbox that provides for modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamic systems from within a graphical environment. This software allows for both modular and hierarchical models to be developed providing the advantage of developing a complex system design that is conceptually simplified. Due to this modular, simplified high level approach, Simulink has gained popularity among engineers and researchers for development, verification and modification of control algorithms . Because of this wide-spread use, the ability to design and verify hardware implementation from within this same software environment becomes a great advantage for rapid prototyping of new theory and designs. In addition, the capability for hardware-in-the-loop simulation with the Simulink plant models provides the additional benefit of this verification to take place without risking the loss of hardware. Because the software this final verification to take place through the use of standard computer ports no additional data acquisition hardware is required. This presents a far more cost efficient solution than other methodologies. It is because of these advantages that the Simulink/SystemGenerator environment was selected as the best available development platform for this project.
Matching process plays the role of finding the most sim- ilar blocks from current frame for every extracted template block from the previous frame. This is done by correlating the template blocks with next frame to find their corresponding position based on similarity measure. Due to simplicity of hardware implementation, Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) is chosen as the matching criterion for the correlation process. SAD will generate a similarity error rating of pixel- to-pixel correlation between each template block (from pre- vious frame) and matching block (from current frame). SAD will yield zero result if both blocks are pixel-by-pixel identical. Block matching is computation intensive as each template block has to search for its most similar pair by performing SAD with each block within its search region. Several search techniques had been proposed in the literatures to reduce the computation by minimizing the search region such as Three-Step Search Technique [33, 34], Four-Step Search Technique , and Diamond Search . However, most of these techniques are targeted for general purpose processor which reads image in irregular way and are not suitable for streaming hardware architecture. This work uses traditional full search technique  as it is efficient to be performed in stream-oriented hardware due to its regular accessing of image.
vehicle. In this paper we introduced a new systemvehicle whose motor is run by both battery as well as internal combustion engine run with fuel as petrol. In this system a solar panel and a generator attached to the wheel to charge the battery are used. This system can operate on the three mode and compared to present automobiles it is more efficient regenerating braking implemented in these system. Due to energy regeneration fuel combustion, charging time emission rate get reduced. Mechanical and electronic system both sector are combined in these paper which indicate the fuel economic growth. In this paper along with solar charging use of energy management in a smart way is made.
for alternative UV.A visualization framework of UAV information constructed from Information Abstraction (IA) was executed.Allowinga single operator to coach a scheduling algorithm resulted in significantly enhanced system performance.The main objective is to control the multiple UV using single operators by novel RESCHU (Research Environment for Supervisory Control of Homogeneous Unmanned vehicles) software. The automation reduces operator workload to control the group of vehicles and the system increases speed as well as efficiency. This also demonstrates the need to incorporate human attention inefficiencies in models of human-UV systems.
UAV applications have witnessed a great leap during the last decade including aerial photography, surveillance, inspection, mapping and many other applications. Us- ing UAVs has many advantages over manned aerial vehicles. Reducing costs and avoiding putting human lives in danger are two major benefits. Currently, most of the UAVs are remotely controlled by human operators, either by having Line of Sight between the operator and the UAV or by controlling it from a ground control station. This may be fine in short missions. However, manually executing long and boring missions adds much inconvenience on the human operators and consumes more human resources. In addition, there is always the risk of losing the connec- tion between the UAV and the human operators which leads to unpredicted, and probably catastrophic, consequences. The objective of this work is to reduce this inconvenience by moving the decision making responsibility from the human oper- ators to the mission controlsystem mounted on the UAV. In other words, the target is to design an on-board autonomous mission controlsystem that has the capability of making decisions on-board and in real-time. Expert system technology, which is a type of artificial intelligence, is used to reach the autonomy of the target UAV. Expert system has the advantage of dealing with uncertainty during the mission execution. It also makes the system easily adaptable to execute any mission that can be described in form of rules. In this thesis, the design, implementation and testing of the expert system-based autonomous mission controller (ESBAMC) is covered. The target mission used to prove the feasibility of the proposed approach is the inspection of power poles. Power pole insulator is autonomously inspected by capturing three pictures from three different points of view. The proposed system has been successfully tested in simulation. Results show the performance and effi- ciency of the system to make decisions in real-time in any possible situation that may occur during the execution of the considered mission. In the near future, it is planned to test the proposed system in reality.
Self-reconfiguration is a special case of dynamic reconfiguration where the configuration control is hosted within the logic array containing the configuration control remains unmodified through out execution. This design brings advantages such as; the control logic is located as close to the logic array as possible, thus minimizing the delay associated with accessing the configuration port. It also provides a simple mechanism to implement the multi- agent communication protocol, thus fewer seperate discrete devices are required, reducing the overall system complexity. The proposed generic agent-based architecture using configurable SOC is applied to a real mobile robot system.
Abstract— Image Features are the basis for most of the real time image processing applications. Edge is one of the prime features of image. It helps us to analyze, infer and take decision in various image processing applications. In this paper sobel and prewitts algorithms are implemented over Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Real time system demands dedicated hardware for image processing. Prototype of the ASIC can be obtained by FPGAbasedimplementation of edge detection algorithm. FPGA has many significant features, that serves as a platform for processing real time algorithm. It gives substantially higher performance over programmable Digital Signal Processor (DSPs) and microprocessor. Modern approach of ‘Xilinx SystemGenerator’ (XSG) is used for system modeling and FPGA programming. XSG is a tool of matlab that generates bit stream file (*.bit), netlist, timing and power analysis.
Owing to the excess energy demand, alternative renewable energy sources like solar/ wind etc. are being used with energy storage device i.e . Battery which works as a stan- dalone power source or in sharing mode with Grid or DG power source. Between the two sources, solar energy is highly preferred because it is easily available in every part of the country where as wind energy is restricted only to the coastal area. A hybrid system structure is shown in Figure 1. A novel integration scheme for PV and wind system is proposed for both grid and rotor side power converters of doubly fed induction gene- rator . Hybrid systems for wind and PV with standalone system with PI controller are proposed . Voltage variation in hybrid system is controlled using converter . It proposes a hybrid system of wind and PV on sea oil wellhead electrification, optimizing the size of the systems . Six arms for power conversion PV and wind turbine gene- rator are proposed for grid systems . High voltage gain grid connected PV system, because steady state model analysis was carried out . Discrete optimization of cost function and balance of energy analysis is done for hybrid system . A novel multi- input inverter for grid connected hybrid system is proposed to simplify power system to reduce cost . PV system designed to meet the system reliability and power quality issues are discussed . An isolated hybrid system employs a simple three-phase square wave inverter to integrate photovoltaic arrays . Stand alone hybrid inverter for PV and wind system is designed and calculation of optimum size of PV array for the sys- tem is designed . A simple numerical algorithm has been developed for generation unit sizing. It has been used to determine the optimum generation capacity and storage needed for a stand-alone, wind, PV, and hybrid wind/PV system . Concerning the initial investment purely solar power converter usage is much expensive and voltage control can be obtained by acting on the impedance connected to the module termina- tions. In order to reach optimal conditions, a DC/DC converter is used which has to be properly controlled. On account of varying solar insulation, sun radiation and the li- mited available grid source especially in rural sector, the battery barely, find time to
chips is old and well known , whereas very little work can be found in the literature on how to implement PID controllers using FPGAs. A PWM generator is introduced in . However, only simulation results are presented. The contributions of the authors in  are considered complementary to the present work as they provide tools for building the current application. The software developed provides the user interface through on board peripherals like Pushbuttons and Seven Segment Displays, so that the user can change the set speed of the motor as well view the data display on Seven Segment Display. The organization of this paper is given as follows: In section II, an overview of the complete system, In section III, functional modules of a FPGAbased PID controller for DC motor speed controlsystem are explained. In section IV, the implementation results of the system are discussed. Conclusions are discussed in section V.
The Spartan3 family of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays is specifically designed to meet the needs of high volume, cost-sensitive consumer electronic applications. The eight-member family offers densities ranging from 50,000 to five million system gates. Because of their exceptionally low cost, Spartan3 FPGAs are ideally suited to a wide range of consumer electronic applications, including broadband access, home networking, display/projection and digital television equipment. Modern FPGAs and their distinguishable capabilities have been advertised extensively by FPGA vendors . Moreover, some refereed articles addressed the advantages of utilizing these powerful chips . In the past two years, Spartan II and III FPGA families from Xilinx have been successfully utilized in a variety of applications, which include inverters , communications , embedded processors , and image processing . The implementation of PID controllers using microprocessors and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) chips is old and well known , whereas very little work can be found in the literature on how to implement PID controllers using FPGAs. A PWM generator is introduced in . However, only simulation results are presented. The contributions of the authors in  are considered complementary to the present work as they provide tools for building the current application. The software developed provides the user interface through on board peripherals like Pushbuttons, Toggle switches, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Seven Segment Displays, so that the user can change the set speed of the motor as well view the data display on Seven Segment Display and also reset the entire system.
paper, we report on the implementation and hardware platform of a real time video encryption processing. The processing encrypts videos in real time using the AES Algorithm. We propose a computationally efficient architecture for AES. The system is optimized in terms of execution speed and hardware utilization.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - Noise is a never ending problem, especially in communication where it corrupts the information bearing signal (desired signal). So recovery of desired signal from a noisy signal is a must. Earlier noise minimization was done using Passive noise controlsystem but it was found inefficient at low frequency noise. For low frequency, Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) system is recently more widely adopted for noise minimization or elimination. Hence, in this paper Active Noise Cancellation system has been realized using Xilinx systemgenerator (Processor simulation and Co-hardware simulation using Vertex 6 FPGA Kit, ML605 board) to implement Least mean square (LMS) algorithm, Feed-forward Filtered-X least mean square (FxLMS) algorithm, Feedback Filtered-X least mean square algorithm. During the flow, VHDL codes for the algorithms are also generated, hence design summary, device utility, RTL view and simulation results are also added here. Finally, the comparison between algorithms are done based on certain parameters like mean square error (MSE), time complexity, convergence rate, noise rejection ratio (NRR), hardware requirements etc.
One of the most important features of Xilinx SystemGenerator is possessed abstraction arithmetic, which is working with representation in fixed point with a pre- cision arbitrary, including quantization and overflow. You can also perform simulation both as a fixed-point double precision. XSG automatically generates VHDL code and a draft of the ISE model being develop. Make hierarchical VHDL Synthesis, expansion and mapping hardware, in addition to generating a user constraint file (UCF), simulation and test bench and test vectors among other things.
The paper presents the robust performance analysis on dynamic control of UAV system with the help of Bode plot in MATLAB. The background theory and mathematical model of the dynamic control of robust system for UAV system have been expressed. The objectives of this work have been completed for getting the solution for robust stability problems for dynamic control of unmanned aerial vehiclesystem which is critical challenge in the space technology.. The specific purpose on analyzing the performance of dynamic of digital controlsystem for space technology was solved based on the robust stability approaches. The best solution for choosing the appropriate gain for stability of digital controlsystem has been done in this works. According to the simulation results, the highest gain could be achieved the best solution for the stability of unmanned aerial vehiclecontrolsystem.
But CPLDs doesn‟t have much memory. Due to lack of memory devices require lots of flip flops which complicate the design of system. When comparison of response time for various frequencies, for both is observed CPLD was performing twice as better than PLD. PLD based circuit shows a delayed response. The response with respect to clock, found that delay response of PLD is twice as much than the delay response of CPLD at a nano second level. Traffic system which requires fast response, CPLD may be the best choice. But further More to implement more complex circuits and tested the capability; the CPLD is not useful because not having very large number of gates capacity. CPLDs having thousand to ten thousand of logic gates available. FPGA is the perfect replacement for CPLD. CPLD and FPGA is having somewhat same features but FPGA is having more logic gates availability. FPGAs typically range from tens of thousands to several million which is more than CPLD.
The major development in communications networks was born when the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) started its work to define a technical standard for the so-called Beyond 3G (B3G) systems . The expansion of cellular services with 4G technologies like Long Term Evolution (LTE) depends on the availability of the right sort of the spectrum. The goal of LTE is to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques and modulations that were developed in the beginning of the new millennium . LTE has been developed by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project
input as 64 bit plain text and gives a 64 bit cipher text as output using a 128 bit key. While working on plain text, it divides the input data in to 16 bit sub-blocks and operates on each block. It is described as one of the more secure block algorithm due to its high immunity to attacks. In spite of the fact thatData Encryption standard (DES) is another popular symmetric block cipher which is used in several financial and business application and its drawback is the short key word length .Moreover unlike DES,IDEA doesn‟t need any S-box or P-box is required for implementing this cipher. The most crucial module part of this algorithm is the design of the multiplier modulo a Fermat prime, which is one of the algebraic group operation used and entire speed of IDEA depends on this module. So designing the multiplier is a major during the hardware or software implementation of IDEA because its speed is a big issue when hardware implemented IDEA is used in real time application. The overall objective for hardware implementation of IDEA is to minimize the hardware requirements which result in efficient use of silicon area and at the same time improve the processing speed and high throughput of data. As the performance of IDEA cipher depends entirely on the modulo(2 n +1) multiplier design, the main objective is to design an efficient andfast modulo multiplier which is to be used in the entire IDEA algorithm.
1314 | P a g e Moreover, in order for such systems to become viable in the commercial marketplace, the control devices will need to be easy to use with minimal training and low operational costs. One solution to these problems is to make the control of such systems sufficiently intuitive so that almost any computer-literate person can operate them with little to no training. Such a system could reduce hardware requirements, man power training time & cost can be signicantly reduce by this system if such a controlsystem leveraged off-the-shelf components. The UAV has a variety of potential uses in military operations, including fire control, and detection of intruders. For border patrol hostage rescue, and traffic surveillance Law enforcement organizations could use UAVs. For most of these applications, a swarm of UAVs could provide wide-area coverage.
The control counter 64 may be initialized such that the voltage produced by the control DAC 66 is less than the voltage produced by the dither DAC 46. Thus, when the path length is too short, the XOR gate 60 produces a logic 0. This causes the control counter 66 to decrement, which causes the output voltage of the control DAC 66 to drop, which increases the voltage difference between the output of the control DAC 66 and the dither DAC 46. The PZT 48 therefore gets thinner, increasing the path length of the RLG 50, which is the desired result. Provided that the PZT 48 is connected with the correct polarity, the same feedback will occur even when the control DAC 66 produces a voltage greater than that produced by the dither DAC 46. A similar feedback occurs when the path length is too long.
When deployed with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs), UAVs bring complimentary skills making the team outper- forms the classical single-robot systems in many aspects (speed, effectiveness, coverage, etc...). Likewise, using Air Ground Cooperation (AGC) in mobile robotics allows to obtain a complete system that include global perception and high movement velocities brought by the UAVs, and powerful computational capabilities and payload brought by the UGVs. Thus AGC opens a new wide range of applications using mobile robotics that was not an easy (or even impossible) task to be performed using a single type of robots or even a group of homogeneous robots.