Top PDF The Importance of Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Achievement Following Instruction

A Rationale for the Integration of Critical Thinking Skills in EFL/ESL Instruction

A Rationale for the Integration of Critical Thinking Skills in EFL/ESL Instruction

Received 14 March 2017; accepted 5 May 2017 Published online 26 June 2017 Abstract Critical thinking has become a high priority in almost every institution and educational system around the world, particularly since the second half of the 20 th century. Developing the learners’ critical thinking skills has become an educational ideal that schools strive to achieve. There is a tacit consensus about the importance of incorporating critical thinking in education and ample literature has been written about it although there are different approaches to how this should be done. Integrating critical thinking skills in language instruction, however is a less explored area, especially when it comes to justifying this process. The main purpose of this paper is to present a rational for the inclusion of critical thinking skills in language teaching with reference to EFL and ESL. Five categories of reasons are suggested to support the implementation of critical thinking skills in the language classroom. The first is philosophical reasons related to the connection between language and thought. The second is cognitive and metacognitive reasons dealing with how critical thinking skills influence and are influenced by processes such as memory, comprehension and metacognition.
Show more

6 Read more

Critical thinking: assessing the relationship with academic achievement and demographic factors

Critical thinking: assessing the relationship with academic achievement and demographic factors

Arriving at a consensus definition. While this discussion of “what is critical thinking?” has not exhausted all the approaches to critical thinking, it does represent major differences and opinions in the field. Only recently have experts from cognitive sciences, socio-cultural research, and educational philosophy come together for cross- disciplinary conversations on the topic (Nelsen & Seaman, 2011). Differences over a definition are obvious. One commonality, however, is clearly present. Nearly everyone believes critical thinking should be thought of as both skills and dispositions. While Ennis does not explicitly discuss this in his original definition, he does go on to discuss the importance of action in becoming the ideal critical thinker in later works (Ennis, 1993). The first part of being a critical thinker – having the skills – refers to ability. It is the cognitive aptitude for critical thinking. The second part – dispositions – refers to the inclination or desire to apply these skills. This is often called the “critical or reflective spirit” or, in psychology, the “epistemological understandings.” Critical thinking skills are useless, many argue, if one does not use them. Some scholars separate the skills and dispositions as two separate definitions that would then define the ideal critical thinker. Others believe they are too interdependent to stand-alone. Regardless, they are both part of the conceptualization of the ideal critical thinker (P. Facione, 1990d).
Show more

147 Read more

Critical Thinking Skills in Online Mathematics Discussion Forums and Mathematical Achievement

Critical Thinking Skills in Online Mathematics Discussion Forums and Mathematical Achievement

2.2 The Measurement of Critical Thinking The past decade has seen popular methodologies being used in computer mediated communication – survey research, case studies, and content analysis of the online transcripts. The content or interaction analyses allow researchers to investigate the nature and quality of the online communication during small group learning. Researchers have tried to answer questions on the quality of the online course, whether knowledge is constructed within the groups by means of online exchanges, whether individual achievement in problem solving is related to the online communication phase level of the individual. The Community of Inquiry model (see Archer, Garrison, Anderson & Rourke, 2001; Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001) focus on “critical thinking within a group dynamic as reflected by the perspective of a community of enquiry” (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001, p. 11). This focus on the group dynamic is pertinent when the goal is to examine evidence of critical thinking in the online community as a whole; however, this approach would not be relevant in cases where the focus is on the individual member of the online community.Perkins and Murphy (2006) have attempted to provide a model of critical thinking that could be used efficiently and easily to derive and present individual profiles of engagement in critical thinking on online transcripts. Their preliminary study demonstrated the potential usefulness and importance of identifying critical thinking for individuals in online asynchronous discussion forums.
Show more

10 Read more

Critical Thinking Skills as Related to University Students Gender and Academic Discipline.

Critical Thinking Skills as Related to University Students Gender and Academic Discipline.

DeVoogd (2006) argued that students need the ability to question everything, and students should never take content at face value without careful analysis. For example, in describing his experiences growing up in the post-World War II era, DeVoogd stated he was indoctrinated that the United States was winning the Vietnam War as part of the conventional reasoning within his culture. As he matured, he determined, through questioning, that this belief was far from true. DeVoogd added that his mother, a youth in Germany during World War II, never heard about the holocaust until the war was over. She had been led to believe that Germany was winning the war. This mindless acceptance of propaganda perpetuated through conventional thinking leads to deception and ignorance. DeVoogd's early experiences were devoid of critical thinking, and this lack of understanding made critical thinking important to him as a teacher concerned about the thinking of others and the growth of democratic thinking within the culture. Critical thinkers recognize the importance of different perspectives in problem solving and the danger of accepting information without question (Tsui, 2002).
Show more

86 Read more

Teacher Perceptions on Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Academic English Module

Teacher Perceptions on Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Academic English Module

T EACHER P ERCEPTIONS ON D EVELOPING S TUDENTS ’ C RITICAL T HINKING S KILLS IN A CADEMIC E NGLISH M ODULE Abstract: The current study explores the perceptions of a group of Academic English (AE) lecturers on their views on critical thinking in teaching English for academic purposes and the ways they believe this can be developed, if at all. The findings suggest that the majority of teachers believe in the importance of touching upon critical thinking in their classes. They consider evaluating information, analyzing, logical reasoning, arguing, reflecting, and problem solving are among the main strategies needed for developing critical thinking skills and believe that that they can be developed in the academic English language classes. The results of the second survey (second stage) showed that AE teachers believe Academic English should be responsible for incorporating critical thinking into their teaching. The main activities perceived to be effective were debates, class discussions, evaluating presentations, listening for main ideas and details, reading for the main idea and evaluation of sources, writing argumentative essays, academic reports and reflection.
Show more

13 Read more

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

Collecting the information was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the questionnaires were given to the students and the objectives and importance of the research were mentioned. In the next stage, the students' academic performance was reviewed. After data collection, the data were coded and analyzed, using the SPSS 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). To describe the data, descriptive statistics were used such as mean and standard deviation for continues variables and frequency for qualitative variables. Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine the relationship between variables at a significant level of p<0.05.
Show more

8 Read more

The Development of Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions in First-Year College Students: Infusing Critical Thinking Instruction Into a First-Year Transitions Course

The Development of Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions in First-Year College Students: Infusing Critical Thinking Instruction Into a First-Year Transitions Course

Another issue in the analyses presented in the previous chapter is relative importance of standardized mean scores versus raw mean scores. As has been established, the standardized scores are somewhat less meaningful due to the small sample size. In addition, given that the results will not be used to generalize to larger populations but rather, to better understand the pedagogy of infusing critical thinking instruction into a UNIV course at this particular institution, the raw scores actually provide better insight. This is especially true regarding the CCTDI because of the score categories. In order to get the whole picture of students’ dispositions in both, the control and experimental groups, the mean raw scores were necessary. They showed that the students had strong scores from the beginning therefore improvement over the course of a semester would be more difficult. In addition, given that the average mean scores started out in the positive range, an increase in score will not change the score category. With regard to the CCTST, it was the raw score that was related to the percentile ranking, indicating that as the scores rose, it became increasingly more difficult to increase in percentile ranking. The standardized mean score versus raw mean score became even more prominent when the groups were broken down by gender because this reduced the sample size even more.
Show more

211 Read more

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS

Ma Chung University Villa Puncak Tidar N-01, Malang 65151, Indonesia Abstract: Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this area have begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and crit- ical attitude was given to a group of language learners who were studying Business Correspondence. Questionnaires were then used to capture traces of their thinking as they were preparing to accomplish a learning task and while they were listening to their classmates’ presentation of ideas. The data show the change of their thinking process. After the training there is a ten- dency from the students to ask more critical questions with slightly higher frequencies. It is concluded then that the brief training has prompted their awareness of critical thinking.
Show more

16 Read more

Critical thinking skills in early years

Critical thinking skills in early years

Teachers are not equipped with proper skills to improve the thinking skills among students. This study has been able to identify the current practice limitations in the kindergarten and the importance of fostering thinking skills in the early years of learning. Educators should be well-trained in order to integrate effective thinking skills into their teaching practices (Burke & William, 2008). When thinking skills are taught in early years, young children are able to gain the abilities to think critically and creatively at present and their adulthood in the future. With the understanding that critical thinking is a desired result of education, we will need to find solutions to help students improve their skills to think critically and their nature to use these skills. The larger study will therefore include a consideration of
Show more

13 Read more

Critical thinking skills in early years

Critical thinking skills in early years

Teachers are not equipped with proper skills to improve the thinking skills among students. This study has been able to identify the current practice limitations in the kindergarten and the importance of fostering thinking skills in the early years of learning. Educators should be well-trained in order to integrate effective thinking skills into their teaching practices (Burke & William, 2008). When thinking skills are taught in early years, young children are able to gain the abilities to think critically and creatively at present and their adulthood in the future. With the understanding that critical thinking is a desired result of education, we will need to find solutions to help students improve their skills to think critically and their nature to use these skills. The larger study will therefore include a consideration of
Show more

13 Read more

Teaching Strategies for Critical Thinking Skills

Teaching Strategies for Critical Thinking Skills

A task faced by an instructor is to learn how to apply critical thinking strategies in the classroom setting regardless of whether that setting is traditional or online. Often times in a classroom session, instructors present course concepts and terminology without promoting rigorous interaction with the students (Brookfield, 2011). Researchers contend that critical thinking is positively linked to student engagement (Barkley, 2009; Behar-Horenstein & Niu, 2011; Carini, Kuh & Klein, 2006). Critical thinking is helpful in developing skills for both professional and lifelong learning and can create greater gains in a student’s ability to analyze and approach problems (Bensley, 2010). This article addresses the importance of engaging students through critical thinking as well as five teaching strategies to promote critical thinking in the classroom. These strategies include but are not limited to: The Circular Response method, The Devil’s Advocate activity, The Scenario Analysis, The Critical Incident Questionnaire and the Look, Select and Deepen activity. The application of these five strategies encourages students to question their assumptions and biases and to contemplate divergent viewpoints when making decisions.
Show more

6 Read more

Importance of Critical Thinking in Medical Science Students

Importance of Critical Thinking in Medical Science Students

Beginning nursing students often have difficulties with the data collection, the organization, and the analysis as part of the nursing process. Without help, students cannot apply the process effectively. Nurse educators are responsible for teaching the thinking process to students. Role modeling of this thinking process by the faculty is essential. According to Koehler (1995), the educator's role in the nursing process is to have the student develop critical thinking skills, that is, assess the patient, gather information from the literature, select relevant points, relate all of this information to the care of the patient, and illustrate the information graphically. This helps the student establish priorities, seek relationships among information, and build on previous knowledge. The nursing process provides a systematic guide or method to assist students and novices in developing a style of thinking that leads to appropriate clinical judgments (Christensen, Kenney 1995). Jeffreys (1993) offered a Guided Visual Metaphor for teaching nursing diagnosis. The Guided Visual Metaphor includes a guided series of six instructional steps. In step one (drawing and labeling), the student compares the healthy person to the clinical experience with the assigned patient. In step two (reflection), the student evaluates or reflects on what all these representations mean to the patient. Actual or potential strengths and problems are identified during step three. Problems are then translated into nursing diagnoses in step four. Prioritization, in step five, encourages students to review and weigh selected nursing diagnoses. Discussion is the sixth and final step of the Guided Visual Metaphor process. Another method, described by Iyer et all., (1995) offers a guide to logical thinking which includes seven questions.
Show more

7 Read more

Concept Mapping as a Teaching Tool on Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Diploma Nursing Students

Concept Mapping as a Teaching Tool on Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Diploma Nursing Students

feedback (25). For example, a patient’s chief complaint or medical diagnosis is placed in the center of a concept map. Assessment findings are then placed around it. Seeing a diagram with all of this information enables the nurse to identify important factors that may contribute to the patient’s problem. With this information, the nurse can plan her patient’s care more appropriately, implement her plan and check for its effectiveness. Although educators realise its importance, the challenge still remains how to incorporate critical thinking into the curriculum and use effective teaching methods that enhance and develop critical thinking skills (26). A concept map also helps the nurse to see relationships between certain assessment findings and she may be able to address such related findings with the same interventions. The above assertion incorporates the concepts of critical thinking, life-long adult learning and the professional mandates that nurses will practice.
Show more

8 Read more

The Flipped Classroom: Its Effect On Student Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking Skills in High School Mathematics

The Flipped Classroom: Its Effect On Student Academic Achievement and Critical Thinking Skills in High School Mathematics

failed to reject the null hypothesis since results indicated no significant difference and showed that students who took Mathematics III when the flipped classroom was implemented did not earn higher academic achievement posttest scores than their traditional counterparts. Although the results for this research question proved statistically insignificant, mathematics educators can still implement various flipped classroom models as an alternative curriculum to incorporate differentiation of learning and reaching students with various learning styles. In turn, student academic achievement may be impacted. These findings are important for high school mathematics educators because alternative modes of teaching can provide an innovative substitute that is at least no worse than today’s traditional mathematics classrooms delivery methods. Some teachers or school administrators may be reluctant to innovate in the classroom, fearing that their students’ performance on high stakes testing may actually be lower as a result of the innovation. This research has shown that the inverted curriculum is an
Show more

127 Read more

Evaluating the impact of instruction in critical thinking on the critical thinking skills of English language learners in higher education

Evaluating the impact of instruction in critical thinking on the critical thinking skills of English language learners in higher education

not presented in the tables, but instead the results of significant tests were used to show that the two groups were different. This was despite having no random samples. Another study looked at the effect of concept mapping (a brainstorming technique) on 36 EFL students’ CT (Khodadady & Ghanizadeh, 2011). The TOEFL was administered to all students to ensure that they had the same proficiency level. The groups were assigned to treatment conditions based on their pre-test. In other words, allocation was not random even though the authors claimed that the students were randomly assigned to the two groups. The intervention was delivered in 22 two-hour sessions. In each session, students in the experimental group were given a reading passage and were asked to construct a concept map at home using the software C-map tools. The maps were then discussed in class the following day. The control group was not assigned any homework. The same instructor taught the two groups. As the experimental students were required to do the concept maps at home other variables could have affected the study. For example, students could be given extra help from parents, siblings, or friends or do additional reading up. It is therefore not possible to rule out the influence of other extraneous factors. This could be controlled if the activities were completed in class. There is also a possibility of a Hawthorne effect as the use of the software for generating concept maps is a novel idea. Attrition rate was not reported.
Show more

407 Read more

Cognitive Skills for Critical Thinking and Second-Language Academic Writing

Cognitive Skills for Critical Thinking and Second-Language Academic Writing

Abstract: Critical thinking (CT) includes cognitive skills such as inference, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, explanation, and self-regulation. Previous studies did not pay much attention to CT cognitive skills although they underlie the successful writing in an academic setting. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of CT cognitive skills on the academic writing of second language learners of Japanese (JSL). Fifty-four JSL learners were randomly divided into three groups: the critical thinking group (CT), the academic writing group (AW), and the control group (CG). Participants in the CT group received an essay writing instruction focused on CT cognitive skills. The participants in the AW group received conventional essay writing instructions. The participants in CG received no instruction. All participants wrote an argumentative essay. Using an analytical academic writing rubric, two raters evaluated the essays in terms of overall quality and the specific components of content, organization, and coherence. The results show that the participants in the CT group had signifi cantly higher scores for overall quality as well as each of the specifi c components compared with the other two groups. This finding suggests that CT cognitive skills play a critical role in enhancing text quality.
Show more

10 Read more

The Impact of Peer Instruction on Academic Achievements and Creative Thinking Skills of College Students

The Impact of Peer Instruction on Academic Achievements and Creative Thinking Skills of College Students

In international studies conducted on peer instruction, it was demonstrated that the method had a significant effect on the student attendance, interest, achievements, comprehension, synthesis skills and integration (Trent, 1996; Rao & DiCarlo, 2000; Harvey, 2003). It was reported that student dialogues and discussions that takes place during peer instruction had positive effects on learning (Nicol & Boyle, 2003). Although it is predominantly used in in the field of science, the effects of peer instruction on philosophy and logic instruction and it was determined that it had significantly positive effects on comprehension, feedback, and critical and creative thinking skills of most students (Butchart, Handfield & Restall, 2009). Consequently, the peer instruction method was applied in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, science, philosophy, logic, English language, computer sciences and engineering. In a study conducted by Dumont (2013) in Switzerland, it was reported that the English language course instructed by peer instruction method improved the self-esteem of the students and was effective on conceptual reasoning. However, this study was conducted with extracurricular assignments. In the study, an exercise application was conducted on the common language practice of the classroom with written responses through the instruction of the course using Wiki (a knowledge base that allows editing by all) in extracurricular assignments to improve teacher-student communications. In other words, the peer instruction method was implemented using Wiki in homework assignments. This was an application designed to assist students to increase their participation in peer discussions when doing their homework and to improve student comprehension. The Wiki was used to develop common pre-course work with more conventional instruction methods. In fact, at the end of the application, student scores were found to be satisfactorily high. There are also long-term studies conducted on the method. Crouch and Mazur (2001), for instance, conducted a ten-year long experimental study to reveal the effects of peer instruction more comprehensively and in depth. The study findings demonstrated that the ten-year long peer instruction improved both the conceptual thinking and quantitative problem solving skills of the students.
Show more

10 Read more

Maximizing Exposure to Online Tasks to Improve Critical Thinking and Academic Writing Achievement

Maximizing Exposure to Online Tasks to Improve Critical Thinking and Academic Writing Achievement

The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of online tasks on improving critical thinking and academic writing achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To perform this study, 150 Iranian EFL learners studying English in a private Language Institute in Isfahan were selected. They took an Oxford Placement Test and 100 intermediate-levels were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. Then, both groups were given a pre-test of writing and critical thinking questionnaire before the treatments sessions to determine the participants' writing ability and critical thinking at the beginning of the research period. During the treatments, both groups were taught writing courses. The experimental group received the courses through online program while the control group received traditional teaching of the writing courses. Having finished the treatments, the learners in the both groups were given the post-test of writing ability and critical thinking questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Independent Samples t-test to test the hypotheses of this study. The findings revealed that writing ability of the experimental group improved after the instruction while the instruction did not have significant effect on developing writing ability of the control group. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group at the significant level.
Show more

10 Read more

The Relationship Between Critical Thinking, Its Subscales and Academic Achievement of English Language Course: the Predictability of Educational Success Based on Critical Thinking

The Relationship Between Critical Thinking, Its Subscales and Academic Achievement of English Language Course: the Predictability of Educational Success Based on Critical Thinking

94 Students’ academic progress represents the extent to which educational goals are achieved. Teachers, students, parents, and theorists have concerned about academic achievement. In case of educational success, the students will be accepted by others and in the case of academic failure, they will doubt their abilities. Considering that one of the criterion for the effectiveness of the educational system is the rate of progress, it is important to discover and study the variables affecting academic achievement. Educational achievement is the result of the instruction which the teacher conveys to students. From the factors influencing academic achievement, critical thinking is thought to be influential. According to Kelly and Lincona (2018), education is based on thought, and critical thinking requires students to think carefully while learning, and this is done by the use of some abilities, manners and characteristics like rationality and intuition.
Show more

15 Read more

Critical thinking skills: The academic ability, mastering concepts, and analytical skill of undergraduate students

Critical thinking skills: The academic ability, mastering concepts, and analytical skill of undergraduate students

The various factors are estimated to be correlated with the students’ critical thinking skill, not only analytical skill and mastering concepts, but also academic ability. In some previous studies Karmana (2011) and Mamu (2014), academic ability is seen as one of the factors likely to affect students' critical thinking skills. An individual with high academic ability tends to have good critical thinking skills, whereas low academic students tend to lack critical thinking skills ( Setiawati & Corebima, 2017 ) . Karbalaei (2012) argues that a strong critical thinking pedagogy that encourages students’ critical knowledge, skills, and dispositions may improve students’ academic success. However, according to Kanbay (2017), there is no relationship between critical thinking skill with academic achievement. The improvement of academic achievement proceeded to the next grade. Thus, the focus of this study is to find out what factors are correlated with the critical thinking skills of students in Botany class. This study will also want to find out which factors are the most determinant in determining the students' critical thinking skills level. Therefore, the result of this study could be a basic reference or consideration in designing the learning process that is able to empower the critical thinking skills of students.
Show more

8 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...