Top PDF The Importance of Linguistic Diversity Instruction within Teacher Education Programs

The Importance of Linguistic Diversity Instruction within Teacher Education Programs

The Importance of Linguistic Diversity Instruction within Teacher Education Programs

Introduction Ghetto, redneck, hillbilly, low-class, improper are all words that no one who is at least moderately considerate to the feelings of others would consider using to address what a person is or looks like. Yet, when it comes to talking about the way that people speak, people are quick to judge, and all of a sudden these derogatory terms become commonplace. Within multiple classes at Wayne State University (WSU), one or more of these belittling words have been used by fellow classmates to defend the use of prescriptive, standard-English, a frankly antiquated, ethnocentric theory behind language and language instruction. One class in particular sparked a personal interest in the idea of requiring all education majors to take an introductory course about linguistic diversity. In this class aforementioned, which was centered on incorporating reading and writing into all subject areas, a student asked what to do when s/he was faced with a student who spoke “improperly” and “wrong.” Hoping to provide a bit of insight into current sociolinguistic standards, I told her/him that s/he cannot tell kids they speak improperly because it is simply different, and that s/he will essentially dismiss a student’s culture and the validity of her/his parents by talking to a student that way. Her/his response was more or less a complete defense of her/his comments with a complete unwillingness to understand, at least within this single class period. This ignorant, and subconsciously racist attitude is something that I believe can begin to be remedied with a simple introductory class that allows students who have never been exposed to the topic of linguistic diversity have a safe place to explore this widely accepted concept. This paper will explore the implications that language has on culture and how the two are completely intertwined, and that when teachers do not understand dialectal differences within their students they set their students up for failure which continually adds to the racial-
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Designing Teacher Education Programs for Human Rights

Designing Teacher Education Programs for Human Rights

In many teacher education programs, pre-service educators are provided content relating to ideas such as gender, race, religion, social class, and ability and their related impact on student achievement. Pre-service educators are also taught that regardless of a student's socio-cultural and economic background, all students should be guaranteed an equal opportunity to succeed. Horace Mann stated that, "Education is the gateway to equality." To not provide an equality of educational opportunity would violate the very principle of intrinsic equality and public reason upon which liberal democracies are based. However, equal opportunities do not necessarily equate to equal rights. 8 The importance of educating students regarding equal rights has been made easier with the increasing number of national and international documents that provide definitions of specific rights, such as the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child, the Geneva Convention, and numerous national constitutions. All of these documents contain lists of what people may expect and demand.
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ICT. Role of ICT in teacher education programs:

ICT. Role of ICT in teacher education programs:

 Third, teacher education programs need to take into account the two typical arguments in favour of the ICT appropriation in schools. One argument emphasises the importance of technological skills. Supporters of this argument urge teacher education programs to provide future teachers with as many technological skills as possible. The other argument accords a more important role to developing pre-service teachers‘ perspectives of and pedagogical knowledge about technology integration. Proponents of the latter argument believe that content-related technology knowledge is the most important factor for technology integration in teaching. This knowledge is referred to as technology pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The institutions that uphold the teacher education programs need to be aware of these two competing arguments and use the opportunity to build a balanced ICT program for pre-service teachers.
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Improving Teacher Education Programs

Improving Teacher Education Programs

To work efficiently, master teachers quickly learn to back-map curriculum and become skilled at matching instructional strategies with assessing outcomes. They learn what is essential, how students will get there, and what acceptable looks like. They take advantage of resources – the most crucial being time and experience. They learn a variety of pedagogical practices to engage learners. They learn know how to mediate, negotiate, and invite students to actively participate in their own learning. They hone their philosophies of teaching, come to value formative assessment, and learn to make research-informed interventions. They understand the importance of relationships, collaboration, community, and the influence they can have with the children they teach. They learn that content is merely a vehicle; knowing how to learn and how to think critically are the essential outcomes of education. We are not alone in believing these things: meta-analysis, effect size research by John Hattie (2003) has supported these points exceedingly well.
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Supervised Agricultural Experience Instruction in Agricultural Teacher Education Programs: A National Descriptive Study

Supervised Agricultural Experience Instruction in Agricultural Teacher Education Programs: A National Descriptive Study

A survey instrument was developed using Qualtics following the Tailored Design Method for Internet Surveys (Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2014). The instrument consisted of three sections based on the three objectives of the study. Content validity was evaluated by a review panel consisting of university faculty (n = 5) from across the United States, who have published SAE research. A separate panel of university faculty with experience in survey methodology (n = 4) reviewed the survey and evaluated face validity including the overall clarity and ease of navigation of the instrument. Feedback from both panels was considered, and adjustments to the survey instrument were made based on their recommendations. After the survey instrument was revised and IRB approval was received, an invitation was sent via email to the agricultural teacher education program representatives to explain the purpose of the study and emphasize the importance of their response. This invitation included a link to access the survey. Following the invitation, three reminder emails were sent to non-responders. These reminder emails were spaced several days apart over approximately two weeks. Dates and times for the reminder emails were purposefully selected to avoid the reminders being received by respondents on weekends or Monday mornings.
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Teacher-Education Programs & Teacher Trainees` Sense of Professional Efficacy

Teacher-Education Programs & Teacher Trainees` Sense of Professional Efficacy

organizational spheres. In this section, we discuss the findings of our research in reference to each of the three hypotheses.   Our first research hypothesis was that classroom efficacy would significantly increase from the first to the fourth year of teacher training. Contrary to our expectation (which was based on the literature, e.g. Woolfolk & Spero, 2005; Gilat et al., 2007), the change in classroom SE was not statistically significant over the four-year program. This finding was surprising, since the training program included (albeit limited) theoretical courses that should have facilitated the improvement of the students' sense of classroom efficacy. We suggest that it is possible that teacher educators are not sufficiently aware of the importance of developing the trainees' sense of classroom efficacy. This aspect is not a core issue in many programs, and was not reflected in most of the teaching or pedagogical courses in the program examined in the present study. Indeed, providing knowledge and information is not sufficient when it comes to self- efficacy – it requires ongoing facilitation of learning and reflection by teacher educators and field supervisors to develop it most fully in teacher trainees.
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Collaboration Opportunities within University Teacher Education Programs

Collaboration Opportunities within University Teacher Education Programs

Respectively, the early childhood/elementary program include National Association for the Education of Children (NAEYC) standards and Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) standards; the special education collaborative teacher program includes Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) standards. In each of these three SPA areas, threads of collaboration can be uncovered. NAEYC Standard 6: Becoming Professional, references collaborative relationships in 6c: “Engaging in continuous, collaborative learning to information practice; using technology effectively with young children, with peers, and as a professional resource.”The collaborative opportunities in the early childhood/elementary program give rise to the ability to develop a perspective of value toward continuous peer learning through collaboration. ACEI Standard 5: Professionalism, references collaborative relationships in 5.1: “Professional growth, reflection, and evaluation: Candidates are aware of and reflect on their practice in light of research on teaching, professional ethics, and resources available for professional learning; they continually evaluate the effects of their professional decisions and actions on students, families, and other professionals in the learning community and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally; 5.2: Collaboration with families, colleagues, and community agencies: Candidates know the importance of establishing and maintaining a collaborative relationship with families, school colleagues, and agencies in the larger community to promote the intellectual, social, emotional, physical growth and well-being of children.”In this standard, the ultimate goal is to help TCs understand that collaboration is a leverage resource for the shared responsibility of community stakeholders in promoting whole-child development. Naturally, the CEC standards are overflowing with collaborative elements. Specifically, CEC Standard 7: Collaboration, includes 7.1 “Beginning special education professionals use theory and elements of effective collaboration, 7.2 Beginning special education professionals serve as a collaborative resource to colleagues, and 7.3 Beginning special education professionals use collaboration to promote the well-being of individuals across a wide range of settings and collaborators.”This CEC standard clearly expresses that collaboration is a key element for advancing the education and welfare of students with special needs and that special education teachers do not bear this responsibility alone.
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Global education and linguistic diversity in initial teacher education: from intervention to (self)reflection

Global education and linguistic diversity in initial teacher education: from intervention to (self)reflection

Abstract: This self-study of two teacher educators/researchers is focused on the construction of professional knowledge by two pre-service teachers from a Master’s program in Pre-Primary and Primary Education, which included teaching practice in a school context and the development of action research projects on linguistic and cultural diversity within a framework of global education. Education for linguistic and cultural diversity is understood as a way of allowing innovative practices that enhance the professional development of those who design, implement and assess those practices. In this case study the authors analyze the written reflections of two pre- service teachers, one in a primary school context and another in a pre-primary context, which were collected under a framework of action research. The collected data were subjected to content analysis, according to three major dimensions of teacher education. The analysis of the results shows that both pre-service teachers developed the different dimensions of professional knowledge, albeit to varying degrees, showing planning, intervention and reflection competences on linguistic and cultural diversity in articulation with an education for global citizenship. They reveal a clear understanding of the importance of global and culturally- responsive education, questioning the knowledge they have built and which they feel to be developed throughout their professional careers. Findings suggest that future educators need to deepen these topics in future projects, allowing teacher educators to reflect on their training practices, which require more intentionality and differentiation.
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Diversity, Neoliberalism and Teacher Education

Diversity, Neoliberalism and Teacher Education

Finally, the idea that teacher education programs are fully effective in their practice operates under the assumption that teachers can acquire the “tools” needed for a knowledge-based society. Neoliberal notions of what it means to educate are limited to quasi-structuralist or quantitative measures of student performance. Resultant, predictable student outcomes and anticipated answers to standardized questions are valued. In many of the ways classroom instruction has failed students, teacher education programs fail new teachers. The status quo is re-inscribed via limits to teacher “training”. Darling-Hammond (2006) identifies several learning principals to be considered as students enter class: they have prior knowledge, they need to organize that knowledge conceptually, and they will learn more effectively if they can manage their own learning. A perfectly scripted curriculum in which all students do the same things and learn in the same ways is not possible, yet standardization prevails. Consider a critical perspective in the ways education is perceived and for the expectations we have of it. Bureaucratic standardization practices cannot be the only measure by which we consider success if indeed we attempt to cultivate the critically minded citizen. In the current educational climate, those choosing to teach will experience far different outcomes and emotional reactions than they did as they attended school. This is both because the profession lacks a diversity of “other” perspectives, values and bodies, but also because it lacks a diversity of understanding.
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Beliefs of Recent Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) Program Graduates Regarding Linguistic Diversity as a Professional Responsibility

Beliefs of Recent Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) Program Graduates Regarding Linguistic Diversity as a Professional Responsibility

For example, Wiltse (2011), in looking back after some experience in language teaching, identifies a lack of awareness and preparedness for engaging within her linguistic context in responsible ways and connects this to training deficiencies: “Unfortunately, I learned neither about dialect in general nor about Indian English in particular during the teacher preparation program I took at the University of Victoria. Until I began to teach in a cross-cultural context, I had no idea how ill prepared I was for the position I had accepted” (p. 56). Even with changes to pedagogical practices related to the conception of language and language learning processes and contexts, there are indications that SLTE programs continue to approach language teaching in ways that fail to disrupt an English-centric belief, attitude, and orientation found in the language teaching of linguistic imperialism. Therefore, further exploring the beliefs and attitudes of recent SLTE graduates, along with associated teaching practices, will provide insight into potential weaknesses and strengths of SLTE to shape and prepare language teachers for exercising a professional responsibility which more truly and authentically liberates ELT from its imperialistic history as a threat to linguistic diversity.
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Catering for cultural and linguistic diversity: Using teacher created information texts

Catering for cultural and linguistic diversity: Using teacher created information texts

ITAP evolved following the success of the Book Flood program established in eight rural Fijian schools in the early 1980s. Students experienced significant growth in the use of English when high interest story books were introduced using the shared reading approach and daily silent reading (Elley, Cutting, Mangubhai, & Hugo, 1996). Subsequently, in an effort to provide more widespread support for effective literacy pedagogy, IDOC supported personnel from the University of the South Pacific with the development of the South Pacific Literacy Education Course (SPLEC), a series of ten professional learning units designed to encourage Pacific teachers to understand ‘the nature and importance of literacy learning and relate these understandings to the development of literacy programs that relate to different language needs’ (Moore, n.d., p. 25). SPLEC, implemented during the 1990s, included guidelines for using non-fiction texts in classrooms developed by Nea Stewart-Dore (2001), who was chair of IDOC from 1998 to 2001. The guidelines were based on earlier
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Using Model-Centered Instruction to Introduce GIS in Teacher Preparation Programs

Using Model-Centered Instruction to Introduce GIS in Teacher Preparation Programs

K-12 teachers already face the overwhelming demands of assessment accountability, increased diversity in students, and an already burdened curriculum. Similarly, university faculty have the pressures of time constraints, lack of administrative support or incentives, and charge to integrate basic technologies in their coursework without systematic training. While we think that technology will enhance learning, most faculty do not have sufficient time or training to integrate these skills into their course instruction. Evidence suggests that Colleges of Education have not yet successfully integrated technology in their teacher education programs (Kay, 2006) and as a result, new teachers are unprepared to integrate basic technologies in their classrooms (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, 2000). Furthermore, one might think today's net generation is more technologically proficient but this proficiency is limited to technologies such as checking instant messages, downloading music, and conversing in social networking spaces on the Internet (Lorenzo and Dziuban, 2006; Oblinger and Hawkins, 2006). When it comes to using a variety of technologies such as those in the geospatial field, students are far less prepared and need much more experience in using technology as problem-solving tools.
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Catering for cultural and linguistic diversity: using teacher created information texts

Catering for cultural and linguistic diversity: using teacher created information texts

ITAP evolved following the success of the ‘Book Flood’ program established in eight rural Fijian schools in the early 1980s. Students experienced significant growth in the use of English when high interest story books were introduced using the shared reading approach and daily silent reading (Elley, Cutting, Mangubhai & Hugo, 1996). Subsequently, in an effort to provide more widespread support for effective literacy pedagogy, IDOC supported personnel from the University of the South Pacific with the development of the South Pacific Literacy Education Course (SPLEC), a series of ten professional learning units designed to encourage Pacific teachers to understand ‘the nature and importance of literacy learning and relate these understandings to the development of literacy programs that relate to different language needs’ (Moore, n.d., p. 25). SPLEC, implemented during the 1990s, included guidelines for using non-fiction texts in classrooms developed by Nea Stewart-Dore (2001), who was chair of IDOC from 1998 to 2001. The guidelines were based on earlier observations by Morris and Stewart-Dore (1984), noting that reading programs focused predominantly on the use of fiction texts and did not necessarily prepare students for the demands of comprehending reading materials across curriculum areas.
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The Importance of Managing Expectations: A Challenge for Teacher Preparation Programs

The Importance of Managing Expectations: A Challenge for Teacher Preparation Programs

separation of teaching into opposing outcomes is called the inspiration/content dichotomy (Delamarter, 2015). It divides education into binary categories: teachers can either inspire – that is, address the emotional and subjective domains of the heart – or they can teach content – the intellectual and objective domains of the mind. Furthermore, emotional outcomes are to be privileged over the merely academic. In fact, according to this construct, content-based instruction sometimes operates at cross-purposes with the true aims of education. Remember: the classroom is a place for students to “feel like they can do anything they put their minds to.”
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Integration of NOS Instruction into a Physical Science Content Course for Elementary Teachers: Enhancing Efforts of Teacher Education Programs?

Integration of NOS Instruction into a Physical Science Content Course for Elementary Teachers: Enhancing Efforts of Teacher Education Programs?

Because NOS remains such a highly contentious topic among scientists, historians, sociologists, and philosophers, the generalized and non-controversial aspects of NOS emphasized in the reforms were selected to avoid “paralysis of practical action” (Rudolph, 2000). Arguably, much of the debate within these communities is beyond the level of basic scientific literacy of concern in K12 classrooms (Matthews, 1998; Smith & Scharmann, 1999). As future K12 teachers, our students would be expected to teach the aspects of NOS emphasized by reforms to their students. These aspects include (a) scientific knowledge is both durable (one can have confidence in scientific knowledge) and tentative (subject to change); (b) no single, universal scientific method captures the complexity and diversity of scientific investigations; (c) creativity plays a role in the development of scientific knowledge; (d) there is a relationship between theories and laws; (e) there is a relationship between observations and inferences; (f) though science strives for objectivity, there is always an element of subjectivity in the development of scientific
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Markets and linguistic diversity

Markets and linguistic diversity

Abstract The choice of language is a crucial decision for …rms competing in cultural goods and media markets with a bilingual or multilingual consumer base. To the extent that multilingual consumers have pref- erences over the intrinsic characteristics (content) as well as over the language of the product, we can examine the e¢ ciency of market out- comes regarding linguistic diversity. In this paper, I extend the spokes model and introduce language as an additional dimension of product di¤erentiation. I show that: (i) if …rms supply their product in a single language (the adoption model) then the degree of linguistic di- versity is ine¢ ciently low, and (ii) if some …rms supply more than one linguistic version (the translation model) then in principle the mar- ket outcome may exhibit insu¢ cient or excessive linguistic diversity. However, excessive diversity is associated to markets where the frac- tion of products in the minority language is disproportionately high with respect to the relative size of the linguistic minority.
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Teacher Education Programs and Online Learning Tools:

Teacher Education Programs and Online Learning Tools:

In the United States, the first K-12 school to be- gin using online learning was the private Laurel Springs School in California around 1994. This was followed by the Utah eSchool in 1994-95, which primarily used a correspondence model, but did offer some online courses (Barbour, 2009). In 1996-97, the Florida Virtual School (FLVS) and Virtual High School Global Consortium, which were created using state or federal grants, came into being (Clark, 2007). At the turn of the mil- lennia, Clark (2001) estimated that there were between 40,000 and 50,000 virtual school enrol- ments. Almost a decade later, Picciano and Seaman (2009) indicated that there were over 1,000,000 students enrolled in online courses, while Watson, Murin, Vashaw, Gemin, & Rapp (2010) reported significant online learning activity in 48 states, and the District of Columbia. In 2006, Michigan became the first state in the US to require that all students complete an online learning experience in order to graduate from high school (a move that has been followed by other states, such as New Mexico, Alabama and Florida). Finally, some have gone so far to predict that the majority of K-12 education will be delivered using online learning by the year 2020 (Christensen, Horn & Johnson, 2008).
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Developing Technology- Rich Teacher Education Programs:

Developing Technology- Rich Teacher Education Programs:

Again, Barbour (2007) found that most of the actual instruction provided to students in that one virtual school occurred during the synchronous classes. The teachers’ reliance on synchronous methods of instruction was consistent with the premise stated earlier by Surrey and Ely (2007). These teachers were drawn to the synchronous en- vironment because the virtual classroom allowed them to teach in a way that they were familiar with (e.g., lecturing to students with the use of a whiteboard or other visual aids, students raising their hands to ask questions, speaking one at a time, etc.). The majority of synchronous instruction in virtual schooling occurs in Canadian programs, where education is controlled at the provincial level and provincial governments can expect ac- commodation as a condition of participation. As education is locally controlled in the United States, this kind of demand is not an effective tool. For example, if the Michigan Virtual School wished to have full-class synchronous sessions they would need as many of the 549 public schools districts that were participating in the Michigan Virtual School to agree upon a common schedule, start time, class period, lengths, etc.. This is why synchronous instruction in virtual schools in the United States are often limited to individual ses- sions or are outside of the school day.
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The Evolution of Linguistic Diversity

The Evolution of Linguistic Diversity

As long as these limitations are borne in mind, I feel these results are interesting and suggestive. I f they have any implications for reality at all, they are as follows. There must be an inherent source of linguistic variation in language, stemming from acquisition or performance. However, this is not a sufficient condition for linguistic evolution. Both the social and functional selection mechanisms must be operating on this variation. The functional mechanism must be at work because it produces law-like phenomena like chain shifts amongst phonemes, and Greenbergian universals. If there were no functional selection, then different grammatical characteristics would be randomly distributed amongst the world's languages, which o f course Greenberg and other typologists have shown to be untrue. The social mechanism must be at work because it is much the most powerful way o f generating and maintaining diversity, even in the simplistic form in which it is implemented here. This suggests from a theoretical perspective something that sociolinguists have been urging from empirical observations for several decades now (Weinreich, Labov and Herzog 1968); the fundamental importance o f social factors to language evolution. More formally-inclined linguists still tend to ignore or downplay social factors, but these simulations imply that only the social selection mechanism could produce the linguistic map o f areas like the New Guinea Highlands, where hundreds o f distinct languages have evolved despite extensive inter-group contact.
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Collaborative Programs in General and Special Teacher Education

Collaborative Programs in General and Special Teacher Education

While many individual collaborative efforts in higher education con- tinued after the Dean’s Grants program ended in 1982, other schools and colleges failed to address collaborative programming at all. Only in early childhood education and early childhood special education was there a broader based, more systematic effort to encourage collaboration in teacher education. In these areas, the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and its Division for Early Childhood and the National Association for the Education of Young Children agreed to support collaborative teacher edu- cation models as part of program review in the accreditation process (Stay- ton & McCollum, 2002). Even today, with the convergence of multiple policy and legislative levers that have implications for collaboration (i.e., IDEA and NCLB), in many teacher education programs collaboration is still limited to minimal discussions regarding single courses and is not ap- proached from a programmatic perspective. Unfortunately, in some higher education settings, teacher educators in special and general education still see themselves and their work as entirely discrete and mutually exclusive. The discrete model itself, however, does not coincide with the realities of today’s PK-12 classrooms and schools, where students who have disabilities are often educated in general education classrooms, a practice that is based on the assumption of collaboration between special and general education. Further, many school practices such as coteaching have flourished even though graduates of discrete programs may never have had an opportunity to engage in the practice—and certainly never observed models in their own teacher preparation programs.
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