Top PDF Improved Search Efficiency in Unstructured Peer to Peer Networks Using Search Result Path Caching

Improved Search Efficiency in Unstructured Peer to Peer Networks Using Search Result Path Caching

Improved Search Efficiency in Unstructured Peer to Peer Networks Using Search Result Path Caching

However, the performance degrades rapidly as the hop increases. This is because the cost grows exponentially with the path length between the query source and the target. On the contrary, SE of RW is better than that of the flooding when the hop is 5-7. When n is set as 2, SRCP gets the best SE for almost all hop counts. The Fig. 1 shows that a good choice of parameter n can help SRCP to take advantage of different contexts under which each search algorithm performs well.

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Alpha Multipliers Breadth-First Search Technique for Resource Discovery in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

Alpha Multipliers Breadth-First Search Technique for Resource Discovery in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

then check the path length and rewards the path if it is shorter than the average length, the path will be penalised otherwise [6]. LARD eases the problem of network flooding. However, by using TTL like Mashayekhi and Habibi’s technique, LARD also has an issue of fault positive error [3]. Improved Adaptive Probabilistic Search (IAPS) utilises ant-colony optimisation to search space and search overhead [7]. The technique is proven to be better than popular random walk and Adaptive Probabilistic Search (APS) [5]. DHMCF is a resource discovery technique for a pure unstructured P2P network that responds to dynamic requests [8]. In this technique, there are 5 units to gather information, make decisions, find resources and balance the load. This technique, however, suffers from low robustness and security [3].
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

The least-cost multicast routing problem is called as NP-Complete problem. The majority of the multicast routing algorithms make use of heuristic algorithms, such as the Kompella-Pasquale-Polyzos (KPP) heuristic [10], the Bounded Shortest Multicast Algorithm (BSMA) heuristic [11] etc. On the other hand, the results of earlier work are too slow or cannot calculate QoS constrained multicast trees with low costs. As such that, the deterministic heuristic algorithms for QoS constrained multicast routing are generally very slow, methods based on computational intelligence such as Neural networks, Genetic algorithms (GA) and Ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) have been proposed for solving the QoS multicast routing problem. In the area of computational intelligence, GA-based algorithms have come into view as a powerful tool for solving NP-complete constrained optimization problems. GA-based algorithms [12] have been introduced for solving the QoS multicast routing problem. Xiang et al. [13] have planned as a GA- based algorithm for QoS multicast routing in general case. Wang et al. [14] presented a GA- based algorithm for delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing problem. They have employed a tree data structure for genotype demonstration; however this algorithm is being short of local search ability. Also, adaptive genetic simulated annealing algorithm (AGSAA) is presented to overcome the drawbacks and improve the Qos constraints performance. Even though the existing AGSAA algorithm has certain drawbacks like delay etc, to overcome the problem and improve the security a novel approach is proposed in this paper. In this paper, the Artificial Bee Colony operators with Genetic Algorithm (GA) are proposed. Also an IDS system is introduced among two communication nodes to find the presence of intruder. Hence the network security performance gets improved.
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Survey of Various Search Mechanisms in Unstructured Peer to Peer Networks

Survey of Various Search Mechanisms in Unstructured Peer to Peer Networks

This is an informed version of modified-BFS. Nodes store query-neighborID tuples for the requests that have been answered by respective peers and on this basis the nodes are ranked. When a peer receives a request query for certain object, it identifies all queries similar to the current one present in its database on the grounds of query similarity metric; it then forwards the query to a fixed number of its neighbors that have returned the most results for such queries. If a hit occurs, the query takes the reverse path to the requester and updates local indices of all the nodes in its path. At the cost of an increased message production compared to modified-BFS (because of the update process), the algorithm increases the number of hits. It achieves high accuracy, enables knowledge sharing and no overhead is produces during node arrivals/departures. Seeing the other side of the coin, the numbers of messages, which are produced, grow as the time progresses since the distribution of knowledge about the objects also grow in each and every node. It does not easily adapt to the changing nature of network that is its
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

This article examines the effects of two Information and Communication Technology (ICT) related factors, ICT utilization and perceived ease of ICT usage, on two job outcomes, job satisfaction and work effectiveness. On a theoretical basis, the author proposed that these effects could be mediated by knowledge sharing. A total of 246 usable responses from full-time employees working in Iraq were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses, which were furthered confirmed by Sobel test and bootstrap-based PROCESS analysis. Results showed that both job satisfaction and work effectiveness were positively related to ICT utilization and perceived ease of ICT usage. Employees’ knowledge sharing orientation significantly mediated the relationships of job satisfaction with ICT utilization and ease of ICT usage, as well as the relationships of work effectiveness with these two factors. The present study provides further understanding of the mechanism underlying the influences of ICT on employee workplace issues.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used for collecting the information from the environment. WSN consists of a large number of Sensor Nodes (SN). Each Sensor Nodes in the network are connected by a wireless Channels. All the real time applications of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) need energy. The nodes in the Wireless sensor networks are battery driven. There are some techniques such as clustering and data aggregation is used for energy efficiency. In the existing Energy Efficient Clustering to Enhanced Lifetime (EECPL) protocol, the reduction in the energy consumption is accomplished by performing data aggregation in the Cluster Members rather than Cluster Heads. Further, ring topology is adopted, in order to enable load balancing in the network. However, it is observed that the delay involved in data transmission is increased which makes it unsuitable for real-time application. In this paper, an Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol is proposed to reduce without compromising Network lifetime. The proposed protocol is compared with the existing EECPL protocol. The performance metrics considered for comparison are average end to end delay, the average energy consumption and network lifetime. NS2 simulation tool is used for the implementation. The proposed protocol outperforms the existing EECPL protocol.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

299 In this paper [9]. a novel wireless sensor routing protocol called Self-Selecting Reliable Paths (SRP) was proposed for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing, that addresses both challenges at once. It is evolved from the Self- Selecting Routing (SSR) protocol which is essentially memory-less. In the first generation of SSR protocol each packet selects the forwarding node at each hop on its path from the source to destination. The protocol takes advantage of broadcast communication commonly used in WSNs as a communication primitive. It also uses a prioritized transmission back-off delay to uniquely identify the neighbor of the forwarder that will forward the packet.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

Nishant Gupta et.al [4] proposed an efficient data replication technique for Mobile Ad-hoc networks that improve data availability by considering all the issues related with MANET such as power consumption, resource availability, response time and consistency management. This replication technique made data replication effective as it replicate data items on the basis of access frequency of data items, current network topology and stability of wireless links. It improved the response time and maintained consistency. However the performance of our Algorithm was yet to be measured in terms of the percentage of transactions successfully executed, energy consumption of servers and clients, and the average difference in energy consumption between two servers.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

The main purpose of this research work is to propose a novel methodology for predicting and prevention when a vehicle may be at risk for wheel-lift prior to sliding. Additionally, multiple control strategies were combined with the fuzzy logic inorder to mitigate the vehicle rollover. To investigate the vehicle transient and steady states, an improved rollover model combined with the fuzzy logic was established in this study. Simulation results indicated a decreased overshoot of the roll angle and a better confined steady value. An optimal controller for a rollover model has been combined with the fuzzy controller which is designed in Matlab simulation to implement a predictive control to the vehicle roll over. The Kalman estimate was applied to train the system output and the numeric optimization method was used to test the cost function.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

The restrictions of fault recovery using intrinsic reconfiguration were described by Greenwood [3]. Evolvable hardware (EHW) is a viable method of performing fault recovery in systems without redundant hardware. Previous EHW research relating to fault-tolerance primarily focused on restoring functionality, with no consideration of time constraints. But, the device programming time, the fitness evaluation time and the EA overhead time must be considered on attempting to intrinsically evolve a new hardware configuration because they all contribute to the reconfiguration time. Intrinsic reconfiguration can be used for fault recovery so long as it finishes before the mandatory recovery deadline. It may also be possible to do the recovery in stages rather than all at once.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

The algorithm is tested with different types of artifacts, namely, blocking artifacts, strip lines, drop lines, blotches and impulse noise. The results are compared with those of standard median filter (SMF), adaptive median filter (AMF), Decision based algorithm (DBA), trimmed median filter (TMF), non linear decision based filter (NDBF).In this section, results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Two images are selected. They are lena and baboon. The result of the removal of impulse noise with 30% and 70% densities along with degradations are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

Research in the field of modeling and simulation of underwater environment is to study the behavior of the environment and biota in the form a unified function and behavior in a marine ecosystem. Modeling and simulation in this study the main objective is to support the manufacture of vehicle simulators and the underwater environment by making the modeling and simulation of marine plants, especially algae. Modeling and simulation is performed using the laws of physics to simulate the motion behavior of marine algae as a result of the dynamics of water in the form of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, or both. In this research, modeling is used to provide a descriptive overview of the structure of the handle while the laws of physics-dynamics for dynamic simulation. Implementation process modeling and simulation is done by using the method of l-systems and OpenGL. Modeling and simulation using the method of L- system and OpenGL in this study resulted in the visualization of structures and simulation algae under the sea.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

This paper aims to provide a unique and enhanced authentication model based on Kerberos environment. With this, it provides a hack-proof authentication system and protects the Kerberos environment from password-guessing attack and replay attack. Traditionally, the banking and financial institutions sends OTP to the client mobile. When it is hacked, the identity can be compromised. Using the proposed authentication model, even when the nonce value or the OTP is hacked, the identity cannot be compromised. This paper insists the need for an additional Session Key and a nonce to be used between the Authentication Server (AS) and Client i.e. Alice. This helps to make the security stronger. Kerberos environment is prone for replay attack and password-guessing attack and hence this security model helps Kerberos environment to prevent such attacks.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

For video transcoding applications, it is highly preferred that video signal be encoded in good average quality but at the same time must also ensure less quality fluctuations in the middle of adjacent frames known as variable bit rate (VBR) video encoding. Interleaved distributed transcoding in [17], a video encoding scheme allowed peer nodes to perform effective transcoding. Given a total bandnndwidth constraint, characteristically, two-pass encoding schemes were employed to accomplish smooth video quality. However, for real-time video steaming applications, it was impossible to pre- encode a video sequence. `Thus global statistical information for the complete video sequence was not available with the current implementation methods.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

The proposed system uses Fuzzy C- Means for foreground extraction, the Bit-plane slicing to reduce the memory space and optical flow for eliminating false foreground pixels. It takes less memory and less execution time when compared with other methods. The performance is evaluated using recall, precision, F-measure and four clustering index functions. In future GPU is used to speed up the process to handle real time video images and the membership constraint in the fuzzy clustering will be eliminated.

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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

There are many papers on Dynamic Slicing of object oriented programs but few papers address in details about the most basic features of Object Oriented Programming i.e. class definition, object creation, accessing object through reference, invoking methods of a class, polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding etc. Most of the semantics based slicing algorithms have focused on finding static slices on the abstract properties by using SSA as intermediate representation and extract slices by storing an execution trace of a program. To the best of our knowledge generating dynamic slices based on abstract/Concrete properties of variables/objects in object oriented programs addressing all key features of object oriented programming is scarcely reported in literature.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

Software metric is defined as “a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute.”Software metrics can be categorized into direct measure and indirect measure. Direct measure of the software engineering process includes cost and effort applied. Direct measures of the product include lines of code (LOC) produced, execution speed, memory size, and defects reported over some set period of time. Indirect measure of the product includes functionality, quality, complexity, efficiency, reliability, maintainability [24]. Thus software
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

From these scalability study and simulation experiments we can conclude that making some changes in the terrain size and the type of node placement with same configuration may vary the performance of any type of adhoc network. These analysis will be more useful for researchers in the field of mobile adhoc networks and wireless sensor networks[4] for deploying their nodes in the terrain depends upon their applications and their configuration for reliable and efficient data collection . Further, the future works continue for various parameter measurements with same simulation environment.
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DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE 
TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

DESIGN OF EFFICIENT CACHING ALGORITHMS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC IN INTERNET

A single phase AC supply is applied to diode bridge rectifier with filtered capacitance whose output is given to full bridge DC to DC converter fed DC motor followed by double sided PWM double sided switching interleaved boost converter. The output of boost voltage multiplied with rectified input voltage by using multiplier, whose output is taken as reference current of input current of inductance .After comparing high reference

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Tag based Improved Search in Peer to Peer Overlays

Tag based Improved Search in Peer to Peer Overlays

Early developers of P2P applications had the difficulty of creating the pipes between peers for communication without centralized authority. This task has been made easier by the developers at Sun. They created JXTA specification using Java which provides protocols for the peers to communicate with each other [11]. Currently there are six protocols in the specification. Peer resolver protocol which enables to query and respond. Peer discovery protocol which helps to advertise and discover content. Peer information protocol that helps to know a peer‟s status. Peer Binding Protocol that is used to create communication between peers. Peer Endpoint Protocol is used to find the route from one peer to another. Rendezvous Protocol is needed to propagate messages in the network. JXTA framework shown in Fig.2 is used in this work for the P2P topology construction, communication and routing. JXTA search is a decentralized search engine for P2P overlay networks. Peers can publish a description of the queries they are willing to answer for other peers who are consumers in the overlay network. Both provider and consumer peers are modeled as simply peers in an arbitrary network. In JXTA search peers can act as hubs and can register with other hubs as information providers to field queries from other peers based on arbitrary content description registrations [12]. Fig.3 shows a JXTA search network where each peer interacts with one hub. Each hub forwards requests to registered providers, which might be either another peer or a hub in the network. Each peer in the JXTA network may act as a consumer, provider, and a hub.
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