Touchie, M. F., Pressnail, K. D., & Tzekova, E. S. (2012). Energy Savings by Retrofitting Multi- Unit Residential Buildings: Case Studies. Proc. 3rd Building Enclosure Science and Technology (BEST3) Conference (p. 105). Atlanta, GA: Building Enclosure Science and Technology Conference.
This paper makes several significant contributions to the current literatures. This is the first attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of BEES by using “ex-post” analysis methods in China, unlike energy consumption simulation predictions savings of the BEES (L Xu et al., 2013; Chen and Lee, 2013). Results provide policy makers and engineers with valuable feedback on buildings’ actual performance and the effectiveness of the standards. Secondly, the analysis gives deep insight into the performance gap between calculated energy savings and actual energy savings. This discussion provides a foundation for incorporating outcome- based pathways into the current BEES framework to better achieve potential energy savings in the future. Additionaly, some specific buildingenergy consumption behaviour data are provided for a future benchmark case in the BEES design work. Thirdly, the propensity score matching (PSM) method can be used to mimic randomisation by identifying a comparison group of households that is statistically similar with treatment households, based on observable characteristics. Since previous studies pointed out that matching strategies can mitigate covariate bias in models (Ho et al., 2007; Imbens and Wooldridge, 2009; Sekhon, 2009). The PSM approach yields coefficient estimated both before and after matching, thus, assuming selection on observables, an important source of evaluation error can be quantified when estimating energy savings.
converted from a single-family home to apartments, among others. Each of these building types, plus factors like whether the units are affordable vs. market rate, owned vs. rented, or individually vs. master-metered for utilities affect the potential for energyefficiency improvements and the strategies and policies through which that potential would be achieved. For policy makers and program providers, understand- ing these factors and their potential impact on energy consumption is important because it enables policy and program design that focuses on the most strategic energy-saving opportunities and, therefore, the best use of program resources. For example, programs targeting multifamily buildings can gain economies of scale by serving multiple units in one transaction. Further, because of their shared walls, units in multifamily buildings have less exposure to weather and, hence, less heating and cooling is lost to the exterior. This factor affects energy usage patterns as well as energy-saving opportunities. Less energy savings will come from building envelope and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency measures and more will come from increased efficiency in water heating and appliances. Particularly in areas such as the northern California coast where air conditioning is not wide- spread, and in scenarios where central water heating systems are present, the larg- est opportunity for saving energy in multifamily buildings is increasing the efficiency of the water heating system. 8 Improving the efficiency of the boiler or water heater,
Abstract: Residential buildings are the significant energy consumer of the India which is about 24% of the total energy consumption. Energy efficient buildings are the ideal solution to reduce energy consumption in the building sector. The energy efficient buildings can be achieved by incorporating passive features or renewable energy systems or both. The current work aims to perform a retrofitting analysis of an existingbuilding into an energy efficient building. For performing the energy analysis REVIT 2017 tool is used. Using the REVIT 2017 tool building model is developed, building information are loaded and energy analyses are performed. The building is analyzed as two cases. The first case is to estimate energyperformance of the existingbuilding. The second case is to incorporate passive features and renewable energy system to the building and evaluate the energyperformance. ExistingbuildingEnergy Usage Intensity (EUI) was 193 kWh/m 2 /year. When passive features (Insulation, additional window glazing and efficient air conditioning systems) alone incorporated to the building the building EUI is reduced to 138 kWh/m 2 /year. Along with Passive features Photovoltaic modules with different efficiencies 16%, 18% and 20% are considered for renewable energy generation. The energy generation for the different PV modules for three different roof area (40%, 60% and 70% of total roof area) is evaluated. The energy usage intensity varies from 11.4 from -150 kWh/m 2 /year for the combination of different efficiency of PV module and the different % of roof area covered. The negative sign indicates the energy generation after the required energy usage. The payback period for only incorporating passive features is 6.3 years and while incorporating PV system with passive features is 9 years.
Because of the difference between our point estimate and the engineering predictions, however, we now discuss a few reasons that the empirically estimated effects might plausi- bly be larger than the simulated predictions. First, energy code changes are likely to generate spillover effects on construction patterns across regions. While our control and treatment groups are from the same area located within Florida’s northern climate region, more substantial changes occurred at the same time in the state’s central and southern climate regions. It is possible that changes in the other regions caused a general shift in residential construction practices that resulted in more overcompliance with the energy code in the northern climate region. Second, there appears to have been confusion over what exactly the change in Florida’s building code meant for builders. Sev- eral sources suggest that builders interpreted changes to the code as prescriptive requirements rather than components that could be traded off in the overall performance-based metric. 20 This would, in practice, result in overcompliance with the energy code. Finally, new standards of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act took effect in July 2001 and increased the efficiency standard for refrigerators. Fairey and Sonne (2001) predict that these new standards decrease electricity demand of a typical Florida residence by 12.5 kWh per month. Applying this adjustment to our estimates would imply a decrease in electricity consump- tion of 3% which is closer to the simulated prediction of the engineering simulation.
The third chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing buildingenergy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, which means they impact construction of a very large number of buildings. In this way, they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings (in particular, residential buildings in northernChina and government buildings). In the fourth chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the
It can be observed that, the PES obtained for the different scenarios fall within a small range (approx. 6.5%) suggesting that the overall impact of the different operating conditions on the PES is low. If, net electrical imports are considered, higher appliance electrical efficiency results in a higher PES. Increased the thermal load (e.g. when connecting the trigeneration system to a larger building) results in longer operating hours and hence in a higher PES. Likewise, improving the building fabric has a negative effect on the system’s PES. Finally, at the current level of grid efficiency, exporting all the cogenerated electricity and importing all the electricity from the grid (Scenario 4 – as is encouraged by the current FIT model in Malta), results in a reduction in PES compared to using the cogenerated electricity for on-site demand.
Attention of relevant authorities has been attracted by the buildingenergyefficiency. China began to try out the first design standard on buildingenergyefficiency in 1986, and incorporated the design standard on buildingenergyefficiency in the northern area of China in the mandatory standard in 1999. In recent years, the General Office of the State Council and the Ministry of Construction have successively issued such documents as the Notice on Further Boosting the Innovation in Wall Materials and the Promotion of Energy-saving Buildings and the Guidelines on the Development of Energy-saving and Ground-saving Residential and Public Buildings to enhance the buildingenergyefficiency. The concrete implementation measures have been introduced in various regions to reduce the buildingenergy consumption.
1) From the application of the model in the energy- saving reconstruction project of the residential b total energy consumption of other aspects took a small pro- portion (less than 1 percent) in the total energy consump- tion of the building project. In a word, the operation stage of the buildings is key for the energyefficiency of the buildings, and, after the reconstruction, the propor- tion of the energy consumption in operation of the build- ings was decreased while that of the energy consumption in construction was increased.
Because all ENERGY STAR-qualified fixtures and ceiling fan light kits are designed as systems (meaning the manufacturer should have considered the implications of pairing the light source and fixture), consumers have greater assurance that their expectations will be fully met. The implications to the consumer of incorrect application of CFLs range widely, and can include low lumen output, high levels of glare, poor color characteristics, and even early failure. Unlike screw-based CFLs, where the consumer is making application decisions, fixture application decisions are made at the manufacturer level. If the potential pitfalls of incorrect application are overcome in the fixture design process (as they should be), fixtures could provide a very
The purpose of this study was to investigate how construction logistics works in practice and what happens to material after it arrives to the construction site. By direct observations and interviews, we found out how much time skilled workers spend on handling material. After that the alternative logistics solution for handling material deliveries has been developed. Our study showed that the importance of construction logistics is underestimated by construction companies. In Swedish construction industry companies are not aware of how important logistics is and what could be the consequences of poor logistics planning. In the apartment building project example, we have analyzed the costs associated with material handling.
Other studies, such as  and , take a power system adequacy perspective. The former proposes a planning methodology to explore, in a heating electrification scenario, how weather events can stress the power system due to the increasing weather-dependence on both supply and demand sides, and capacity expansion requirements due to the increased net load demand. The authors conclude that different weather patterns considerably influence investment and planning choices. However, the buildings’ thermal inertia could be used to partially decouple electricity and heat demand (through flexible heater operation and building pre-heating), greatly decreasing the impacts on the electric system while maintaining users’ thermal comfort. The latter study analyses supply reliability in six published 2050 UK energy scenarios, proposing a range of decarbonised supply side technologies combined with electrification of transportation and heating. The authors report that electrification of heating combined with decarbonisation of the electricity system cannot be done with simple substitutions of existingenergy forms. The authors conclude that heating demand reduction and demand side management (for balancing purposes) are of paramount importance to deliver a secure and clean energy future, in a cost- effective manner.
From 2003 to 2012, interprovincal and intraregional inequality increased stea- dily which can be interpreted as evidence for the Rise of Central China Plan proposed in 2004. The plan might led to the significant increase of energy effi- ciency in Anhui, from 0.679 in 2004 to 1 in 2012, and decrease of energy effi- ciency in Shanxi (from 0.209 in 2004 to 0.129 in 2012). Intraregional inequality from Western region decreased significantly and it might be interpreted as evi- dence for the Western Development Program carried out in 2009. Energy effi- ciency of Ningxia (from 1 in 2000 to 0.243 in 2008), Sichuan (from 1 to 0.773 in 2008), Shaanxi (from 0.322 in 2000 to 0.252 in 2008) and Inner Mongolia (from 0.302 in 2000 to 0.151 in 2008) decreased during 2000-2008. After 2008, intrare- gional inequality form Western region experienced an increasing trend. In 2008, Theil index of interprovincial inequality reduced to 0.1151 suddenly, which might be interpreted as the negative effect of the economic crisis that started in 2008. The decline of interregional inequality in 2008 was the result of the de- crease of intraregional inequality in eastern as well as western region.
representation of the market (other agents’ reactions to new prices are not considered), it provides potentially useful insights on the expected energy cost changes due to the electrification of heating. • This could be relevant for policy makers and stakeholders, to
In present senior energy expenditure has increased a lot. The boost in energy consumption is due to increase in number of building that is being constructed these days. The materials that are used to build a general building now a days, mostly consists of non renewable materials. Which are neither durable nor energy competent. These are health dangerous and less eco friendly too. As far as economist is concern, though these material gives the low initial cost for making a building but leads to high energy expenditure and a high protection cost which results in increasing the overall cost of the building. Green building materials recommend specific benefits to the building owner and building occupants by reducing maintenance and replacement costs over the life of the building, energy conservation, improved occupant health and productivity, lower costs associated with changing space configurations.
Real plants have any number of possible combinations that place high demands on hydraulic design and the control concept. Energy-efficient plants are distinguished by having components that are correctly sized, installed and commissioned. System temperatures are set as low as possible (ca. 30 °C) in modern, energy- efficient plants. This allows the use of renewable energy carriers at a high level of efficiency (e.g. heat pumps) and minimizes losses from generation and distribution. We recommend using differential pressure dependent hydraulic circuits to control flow in the piping network. A considerable amount of electrical energy can be saved from supply pumps thanks to variable water flow since plants largely operate at partial load operation.
oven. However none of the appliances were found energyperformance certified. The chosen property was also examined for the compatibility with renewable energy sources. The power predictor was mounted on the site to record the real time readings of wind strength, wind direction and solar intensity to verify the suitability of the site. The power predictor found that the site was not suitable for the wind turbine installation which was also verified using Energy Saving Trust's online service. However the site was found appropriate for the solar energy system installation and the economics of the system showed that the payback period for the particular system should be 22 years, which was reasonable in this case.The research was done aiming the ultimate solution for the domestic energy crisis for particular dwelling and the results have shown very promising future if the suggestions are me t. Keywords: Energy Efficient Buildings, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Energy conservation.
The most important parameters needed for a building’s thermal simulation are the thermo-physical properties of the construction materials (conductivity, specific heat, density), the casual gains associated with occupancy and appliances and infiltration/ ventilation rates. Without those parameters, a reliable model could not have been created . Previous studies have demonstrated that in simulations, the most sensitive parameters affecting the heating consumption are the conductivity of the external construction components, the outdoor temperature (as described by a weather file), equipment heat gains and the infiltration/ventilation rate [18, 37]. Furthermore occupancy could play a major role in households’ demand for energy and that the presence of a thermostat is a major factor in the demand for heating . In our study, we did not consider sensitivity to outdoor temperature, as we were mainly interested in explaining the differences in sensitivity in different types of dwellings that are all located in the same climate area: the Netherlands. Furthermore, in the multi- zone model we did not take into account the air exchange between zones.
The fast increasing in the quantity of commercials, industrials, residential and institutional buildings has a serious effect on the evolution of the country and brings to increase in world energy demand. Be aware of the limited energy resources, the development should run in parallel with energy production and energy consumption . Since energy crisis in 1970, engineers, architects and building developers are better fitted out to design, build and maintain buildings more efficiently to diminish energy consumption and electricity usage. Based on the effort to sustainable the building practice, The Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice on EnergyEfficiency and use of Renewable Energy for Non- Residential Buildings has been introduced. The standard briefly explain the engineering, architectural, landscaping and site planning aspects in designing to optimize the energyefficiency of a building .