It should be appreciated however, that the H&S of any operation is determined long before people, procedures and equipment are brought together at the work site. In other words before the contractor commences work. As Behm (2005:590) puts it, many if not all hazards are designed into construction projects. Design in this case is a process that happens long before the contractor commences work on site. However, this is not to say contractors have no role in accident causation. To the contrary, contractors are just as guilty as the other parties. The contractor’s influence on H&S can be seen in the studies that have been undertaken before. It has been found that for a number of accidents, the inappropriate construction planning, construction control and operation are some of the frequent contributing factors (Suraji, Duff & Peckitt, 2001:339). Research also indicates that the attitude of contractor’s top management impacts on H&S performance. According to Gould & Joyce (2002:367), top management’s attitude can be reflected on the job site in many ways, such as training, housekeeping, toolbox talks, meetings, and adherence to H&S measures, maintenance of equipment and tools, and intolerance of violations. It is a natural tendency for those in authority to exert control and show exemplary behaviour to those under them. Managerial commitment is reflected in the H&S culture that is prevalent and the number of accidents that result. It is however unlikely that H&S performance improvement can be achieved throughout the industry by only focusing on addressing issues at the construction stage and the contractor specifically. This is due partly to the difficulty conditions that contractors operate in. Suraji et al. (2006:59) argue that contractors operate under a number of constraints including the actions of designers as well as the action of clients, and therefore may fail to provide safe working conditions, at least in part as a result of these constraints.
Client-centred H&S performance improvement has not been investigated in sufficient detail (Lingard et al., 2009: 132). The study by Huang & Hinze (2006) in the U.S.A. investigated the influence of owners or clients on construction H&S performance by using the number of accidents to measure performance. To the contrary, the current study used leading indicators which better reflect H&S performance and are proactive (Carder & Ragan, 2003: 163; Jafri, Ahmad & Kamsah, 2005: 703; Cameron & Duff, 2007: 870) to characterise H&S performance. Examples are the use of indicators such as evidence of H&S inspections and audits to define performance. In addition, this study was not restricted to projects with good H&S performance only, but included other construction projects within South Africa and Botswana. In addition, the study investigated specifically the influence of the H&S culture of clients on H&S performance.
Therefore, the dynamics related to construction activities/tasks that leads to changes during construction induces unsafe behaviours, and may also preclude the effectiveness of straightforward H&S defensive measures (Musonda & Smallwood, 2005: 58). These behaviours are mostly rooted in workplace culture, which is collectively made up of values, vision, goals, mission, assumptions, and purposes espoused in organisations (Hallowell, 2010b: 411). Accordingly, Smallwood & Haupt (2005: 3) suggest that top H&S performance must be accepted as an achievable goal to realise an optimum H&S culture. Goals must be set at a high level. If an organisation sets goals at a low level it will probably attain such goals. Improving the industry norm marginally relative to H&S is unlikely to be of much comfort. Therefore, ‘Zero accidents’ as an attainable goal is worth the collective commitments of project stakeholders. 2.3 H&S duties of clients, consultants, and contractors
The guide contains two workbook style components which can be used to start to implement the Framework in a workshop, pen and paper style manner. Firstly, the action lists from each of the 8 Framework flowchart steps are consolidated into one action document to help prompt organisational personnel and identify subsequent steps. Second, several questions and a blank matrix were included that will help organisations perform a current status health check on their company. The questions help identify whether an organisation 1) already has a safety management task in their organisational documentation or not, 2) already has a position holder responsible for a safety management task or not, and, 3) already has a training program providing education (rather than training) in particular safety management tasks or not. Following this exercise, the organisation can begin to complete the ‘blank matrix’, a matrix from the original Competency Framework with the safety critical positions list removed so that companies can identify, in the context of their own organisation, which position is responsible for each task.
The ACE group is one of the world’s largest multiline property and casualty insurers. With operations in 53 countries, ACE provides commercial and personal property and casualty insurance, personal accident and supplemental health insurance, reinsurance and life insurance to a diverse group of clients. ACE limited, the parent company of the ACE group, is listed on the new york Stock Exchange (nySE: ACE) and is a component of the S&P 500 index. Additional information can be found at: www.acegroup.com. The opinions and the positions expressed in this paper are the author’s own and not necessarily those of any ACE company. Insurance is provided by ACE American Insurance Company, Philadelphia, PA, or in some jurisdictions, other insurance companies in the ACE group. This publication is for educational purposes only. The suggestions and information are not intended to be professional or legal advice. The advice of a competent attorney or other professionals should be sought prior to applying this information to a particular set of facts.
Construction industry has earned the reputation of being a highly hazardous industry because of the high incidence of accidents and fatality rates. It is needed to look into a new way in improving its image. One key to success in business is minimizing cost. Providing a safe and health workplace is one of the most effective strategies for holding down the cost of doing construction business. Accidents frequencies and property losses create great impact to construction company. Not only do they cause delays in operations but also directly and indirectly incur cost. Therefore, it is mandatory for all construction companies to provide a safe working environment for their workers and subcontractors.
The construction projects in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member countries are at peak as the region is in the stage of improving its infrastructures. This paper presents the current status of the occupational safety and health in the region by providing a brief comparison with some of the advanced countries wherein improved safety performance is guaranteed and maintained. The comparison of the available data shows, that in general, GCC countries display a poor occupational safety and health performance. The paper suggests the key areas for research which could help the GCC construction industry to improve its performance. These areas include the awareness and importance of safety, cost of accidents, environmental and climatic factors which affect the workers, occupational safety and health regulations and its implementation, workers’ wellbeing, safetyculture and safety climate.
In the UK, the CDM regulations 2015 places duties on all those who can contribute to health and safety of a construction project. Duties are placed upon clients, principal designers and other stakeholders with more authority given to the principal designer in what is considered a more authoritative and policing role. The situation in Ghana like many other developing countries is not so.Findings from the study indicate weakness in the monitoring and enforcement of H&S laws, low awareness of laws, and conflicts in roles as to who does what which confirms to the study of Kheni et al (2008) and Akorsu (2013). Whilst the Act 651 emphasizes on H&S at work, the administration and the enforcement of the regulations is very weak. Akorsu (2013) stated that, “we tend to have fine laws, we tend to ratify labour standards as quickly as they are adopted by the ILO but we hardly enforce these”. Research carried out by Akorsu (2013) show statistics of an inspection carried out by the Labour Department in 2008. It indicates that a total of 106 inspections were conducted nationwide whereas there are about 26,088 firms in Ghana’s manufacturing sector alone (of which construction is part). The Ashanti and Greater Accra regions were oddly among the regions with no inspections at all though these regions have the largest cities and largest number of manufacturing activities. Enforcement of H&S regulations remains a problem due to lack of adequate resources available to government institutions responsible for occupational health and safety administration (Kheni et al., 2008).
Brundtland’s Report that bothered on sustainable development. In 1992 another Earth Summit was held in Rio, where Agenda 21 was formulated as the international blueprint for sustainable development. Since then, all sectors of society have been in the process of interpreting and pursuing sustainability and sustainable development within their specific contexts. Chapters 6 and 7 of Agenda 21 specifically refer to the issue of protecting and promoting human health, and the role of human settlements in sustainable development respectively. The ability to meet most of our basic human needs relates in one way or another to the creation of human settlements and protection of human life including their performance. Therefore, in 1996 a second international action plan, The Habitat Agenda, was formulated specifically to address the role of human settlements in sustainable development. The construction sector has a major role to play in terms of the sustainable development of human settlements, as is highlighted in Chapter 4, Section C of The Habitat Agenda. The construction industry and its activities are responsible for a substantial amount of global resource use and waste emissions. It also has an important role to play in socio-economic development and quality of life. Consequently, the need for an internationally agreed Agenda on Sustainable Construction was highlighted early on, and in 1999 the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) published its Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction (CIB Publication 237) after an extensive collaborative research process. This first agenda for the construction sector was intended as a global intermediary between the broader international agendas, and national/regional agendas for the built environment and the construction sector. Its main objectives were to create a global framework and terminology that would add value to all national or regional and sub-sectoral agendas, and to provide a source document for defining research & development activities related to sustainable construction. The document provides a detailed overview of the concepts, issues and challenges of sustainable development and sustainable construction, and poses certain challenges to the construction industry (Du Plessis, 2002; OSEC, 2010).
Construction Sector is very essential and an integral part of infrastructure development which gives tremendous boost to our country’s economy. The construction industry has registered enormous growth worldwide in recent years. Although the development of technology is rapid in most of the sectors, construction work is still labour intensive, In India the construction sector employs around 33 million people, which is next to agriculture. Construction is unique compared to other industries. It has been repeatedly stated that each Construction project is different from another by presenting different situations and problems during its execution. Planning and execution under time and budget pressures, temporary workers with various skills, and works influenced by weather conditions and external environments are some characteristics that differs construction projects from projects in other industries. These characteristics make construction projects face hazardous conditions that are potential to cause accidents. Traditionally, safety in construction is the primary responsibility of general contractors and subcontractors, and not designers and construction managers.
The construction industry has been recognized as one of the most hazardous industries. It has a poor safety record when compared to many other industries. Although there is an improvement of the safety performance and increase in safety awareness in this industry, the injury rate is still one of the highest across all sectors. Besides causing human tragedy and economic losses, construction accidents also affect the productivity and reputation of the construction industry. The specific objectives of this research are to find out the opinions of construction workers about safety and health practices in construction projects; the factors causing construction accidents; and their knowledge about safety and health regulations. Within this context, semi-structured interviews were carried out among 35 Turkish construction workers. The companies they work for have been operating in the North-West region of Turkey. The interviews took place over a 3 month period between January and March 2008 and each lasted approximately 1 hr. The survey questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Based on the results, more than half of these workers experienced an accident in the past and the majority of them had never received any safety training.
When. there. is a lack of proper. EMS. it may. give rise. to even. small. issues. like release of hazardous substance or its spill which may have. an adequate amount of impact on the health of the. Environment and may pose a cost for its cleaning. too. It has been seen that many of the companies. do not consider Environment as an important issue. this may due to a number of reasons like. one being .lack of awareness or the other can be they do. refrain. from bearing on the additional costs which is. associated with the application and implementation. of the EMS. Being as unorganized sector, the fatal. injury rate for the .construction industry is higher. than the national average in this category. for all. industries. 1.1 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN
Early signs of an organizational commitment to safety policies are manifested in the safetyculture in that organization. Improving the safetyculture of contractors can reduce occupational accidents in construction industry projects. Many scholars tend to research on this concept in order to achieve an approach to reducing occupational accidents. Numerous studies have attempted to identify the components affecting the safetyculture using various methods and tools for measuring and assessing the safetyculture; nevertheless, none of these studies measured the impact level of each of the evaluated factors on the safetyculture. Hence, this study, assess the influence of each of these factors on the safe culture of contractors working in the construction industry. This study used a structural equation modeling approach to examine the safetyculture assessment factors. Accordingly, ten factors affecting the safetyculture were scrutinized to provide a conceptual model with ten predictable paths for evaluating the relationships between the variables. The data collected from thermal power plant construction projects were applied to test the hypothesized model experimentally using SEM-PLS method. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the factors of management commitment, appraisal of work hazards, supportive environment and communication among the factors influencing the safetyculture of contractors in the studied projects had respectively the most impact on the safetyculture of contractors operating in the thermal power industry, as well as the work pressure had the least impact on the safetyculture..
Figure 3 shows the evaluation factors used when giving away incentives. Most of the practitioners interviewed claimed that they distribute incentives during toolbox meetings and company occasions. The only group targeted for incentives was the workers with all the top managers evaluating their performance according to their own standards and criteria. Some of the interviewees reported that their company used a grading system to evaluate workers’ performance. In these cases, numerous evaluation criteria were taken into consideration to evaluate the workers’ performance. Some stated the criteria as the level of workers’ commitment and sensitivity towards safety issues. Other criteria included attendance and behaviour or discipline of the workers at the construction site. According to interviewee D, incentives or awards were given based on two categories which were “most contributions” and “the best contributor.”
The OH&S Act applies to all industries except mining, whereas the Mine Health & Safety Act applies to any construction work on mining sites as regulated by the Construction Regulations, under authority of the OH&S Act (RSA, 2008: 1). The scope of responsibilities includes provisions for workers to comply with the Act and its regulations, and with corporate H&S measures. If the contractor or employer fails to provide a reasonably healthy and safe working environment, the Act empowers the Chief Inspector to direct the employer in writing to rectify the situation (RSA, 2008: 52). Summerhayes (2010: 39) notes that it is a criminal offence to break H&S laws or regulations. The onus of proving innocence lies with the duty holder. Thus, an employer is deemed guilty of an offence until he or she can prove their innocence. Section 31 of the OH&S Act (RSA, 2008: 18) empowers an inspector to investigate any incident in which, according to his or her opinion, might have caused any harm to any person. Inspection reports are handed over to the Attorney-General for further investigation and potential prosecution (RSA, 2008, 21). Among the penalties introduced in amendments, are personal penalties of CEOs, irrespective of appointees that manage H&S on their behalf. Therefore, it is very important for employers to note that they can be criminally charged for breaching laws that regulate the H&S in the workplaces.
Any industry plays an important role in building up of a nation. India′s economy is based on Agriculture, Industry, and Services. The industry is a major source of income to our economy. According to the National Classification of Industry.,  the construction industry is under code 5. The workers of the building construction industry are placed in code 7 and 9 of the National Classification of Occupation.  About 340 million (roughly 92%) of the workforce is engaged in the unorganized sector, of which, around half of them are from the construction industry. ,,, The performance of a worker is usually accounted by the output. It is true that sound health is essential for proper functioning. To safeguard the benefits of the workers and their health, the Central and State Governments in India have enacted various Acts and rules.  For building and other construction workers, the Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service Act, 1996, has been promulgated, for their health and welfare.  The maximum stipulated hours of work by Factories Act 1948 is eight hours per day,  but the workers are working 10 - 12 hours.  This affects their health and they are prone to accidents. The rate of incidence of accidents is higher in the construction industry than the manufacturing industry. Various health hazards are associated with the construction industry. , Social security for unorganized sector workers is very meager
Anderson (1992) argues that, while some safety skills and knowledge can be used on site using a common sense approach, there is no substitute for targeted education and training, especially the specification and testing of basic competence. These problems need to be addressed by asking how safety training should be conducted, what should be the appropriate timing of that training, what methods need to be implemented to check and test the validity of training and that regular updates to the content are required (Anderson 1992). Knowledge of the accident and ill-health record of the industry is vital. Education and training of construction professionals is vital as they have a key role in the health and safety of site personnel. Langford and Webster (1986) studied the effect of the ‘Site safe ‘83’ campaign (HSE 1983). They believed the campaign was successful with the major companies but it had a poor response from the majority of smaller building companies and subcontractors. They found evidence to support this from among safety officers whom they interviewed. It was reported that the campaign did not get down to the right level, namely, the people having the accidents. Langford and Webster (1986) also believed that the implementation of the campaign occurred too late in 1982 to permit effective participation by the HSE and many companies. They also feel that a longer planning time was needed with more positive aims such as concentration on specialised safety training with regard to the problems which arise in practice in the application of safety rules and procedures.
The study into the Management Health & Safety effective implementation on sites stems out of the fact that accidents and deaths are becoming very endemic and this makes the construction process expensive to the detriment of both the clients and contractors. The aim is to investigate into the management of Health and safety on the construction sites. The objectives are to identify the major kinds of injury on construction site; to identify some of the management health and safety principles used by contractors and to determine the relationship of management of health and safety principles improves project time delivery. In view of this, a review of available relevant literature was carried out to have theoretical and first hand information on the subject matter after which questionnaire were distributed, field survey carried out and practicability of the literature in relation to the companies concerned. Convenience sampling technique was adopted to select three (3) companies out of which two (2) responded in Greater Accra Region-Ghana to be representative of both medium and large-scale contractors. The research was able to establish five kinds of injury on construction sites and these are Falling; Being struck by a falling/moving object; Collapse; Being hit by a moving vehicle and Electricity. The research was able to conclude that that most contractors under price their bill when it comes to safety issues, and this goes a long way to affect their project time delivery.
Globally, the construction industry experiences one of the highest rates of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities when compared with other industries. The global importance of the construction industry in producing facilities that support various economic activities and contribute to the delivery of social and environmental needs of a nation makes constructionsafety a crucial subject of concern. In the construction industry workers are exposed to hazards that are difficult to quantify because work locations for any group of workers often change and each work site evolves as construction proceeds, changing the hazards workers face on a regular basis . Poor safety for construction sites affects workers and their relatives in physical and psychological ways which impact on the project financially by increasing direct and indirect costs. There are many different safety programs, techniques, and initiatives that can be implemented to enhance safety performance. Some companies consider many means of enhancing safety performance and select one that is regarded as most promising or cost effective, whereas others implement many safety practices. Each practice that is implemented will result in a cost, which involves initial development, tailoring the strategy to company operations, and ongoing implementation. Details of program implementation must be drafted, supervisors and workers must be trained and informed about the new practices, and the practices must then be monitored to evaluate their success. Hazard recognition and the accurate perception of safety risk are fundamental to the success of any safety program. When hazards remain unrecognized, or the associated safety risk is underestimated, the likelihood of catastrophic and unexpected injuries dramatically increases. To improve hazard recognition and the accurate perception of safety risk, employers adopt a wide variety of training programs. However, the prevalent use of ineffective and un-engaging training methods has significantly impeded training efforts in construction. The rating system provides an opportunity to rate worker based on safety performance and degree of implementationof safety and health elements on construction site. This rating system can be used as an effective tool to develop and plan constructionsafety and health programs and evaluate the potential safety performance of worker on construction projects.
emerging challenge for many within the profession. Within the current global, economic and political climate, nurses have no choice but to embrace, and prepare for, the needs and aspirations of all patients. Mental health nursing should begin to accept that concepts of 'care' and 'recovery' denote different processes to different people, and this is particularly significant when such concepts are increasingly being defined by service users themselves. The Department of Health has recognised that fundamental changes are needed to improve services for members of BME communities. It has provided NHS managers and clinicians with a framework and action plan, which is outlined in Delivering Race Equality in Mental Health Care (DH, 2005). This framework was used by the Sheffield crisis assessment and home treatment team to develop a pilot project, Enhancing Pathways in Care (EPIC). This has resulted in a partnership that has yielded much success so far.