This guidancereport offers seven practical evidence- based recommendations, relevant to all students, based on the key concept of disciplinary literacy. It aims to support teachers in all subjects with strategies to help students read, write, and communicate effectively. To develop the recommendations in this report, we not only reviewed the best available international research, but also consulted with teachers and other experts. It is part of a series providing guidance on literacy and provides a companion to the guidance presented in our reports on Preparing for Literacy , ImprovingLiteracy in Key Stage One and ImprovingLiteracy in Key Stage Two.
It is common for any one of the strands – speaking and listening, reading and writing – to be used as if it were synonymous with the wider concept of ‘literacy’. When those in the wider world – employers, for example, or representatives of national or local government – complain about falling standards of literacy, they most often have in mind spelling, punctuation and grammar. The blame is then directed towards schools, although examples are legion of businesses that subvert standard spellings and syntax in their trade names and slogans, and of official publications and signage that disregard standard rules of punctuation. The message for those still at school or college is that the rules and conventions they are being taught have little to do with ‘real life’. This was one of the more discouraging findings of the long English report in 2009: ‘Pupils who were less enthusiastic about the subject and made poorer progress said that it had little to do with their lives or interests outside school.’ 3
ICT literacy is mandated for all primary and secondary school students both by the African Deans Education Forum (ADEF) and its attendant UNESCO EFA (Education for All) goals for the African diaspora, as well as by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), the Economic Commission for Africa, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and by local Ministries of Education. All of the foregoing entities have stated that the ability to gain access to and use ICT is not a luxury, but a necessity for humanistic and economic growth; however, resources and funding for deploying ICTs with the limited appropriations largely allocated to urban areas with pre-existing infrastructure. In 2011, a United Nations report recognized the importance of Internet access, stating it should be a priority for all states to ensure citizens can get online: “the unique and transformative nature of the Internet enables individuals to exercise their right to freedom of opinion and expression, (and) a range of other human rights, and to promote the progress of society as a whole” (SOS Children’s Villages UK, 2014). Thus, schools in rural, underserved com- munities present special situations relative to meeting the mandate due to insufficient or nonexistent infrastructure, access, and training that requires ancillary initiatives over and above those currently provided in order to [bring them on] par with their urban coun- terparts. This paper provides the framework and strategies to address and correct the issue of disenfranchisement in ICT literacy and proficiency in Ghana’s rural primary and secondaryschools.
The findings indicate that effective CEIAG is an extremely important component of school provision as it impacts upon students’ aspirations, achievement and therefore potentially their life chances and social mobility. The report describes different curriculum models, with the integration of CEIAG across the curriculum as the preferred approach allied to a strong emphasis on partnership working. The leadership and management of CEIAG follow a distributed model with staff operating at a variety of levels to secure its development and implementation. There is significant evidence of this model combining the skills of both teaching and non-teaching staff. The importance of strategic vision, continuing professional development and monitoring and evaluation is highlighted as substantial. The report concludes with a set of key message for both school leaders and policymakers.
Sudlow (2018)  in a theory review proposed by Aoun related to the new literacy of the industrial revolution era 4.0 states that things related to humanity literacy that to succeed in the challenges of the globalization era a future workforce must show a higher order of thought. Critical thinking in the concept of education The 21st century is described as "the ability to design and manage projects, solve problems, and make effective decisions using a variety of tools and resources" (Fullan, 2013). Drake (2014) has the view that critical thinking is the ability to highlight challenges, design learning experiences to overcome local problems and real-world problems that may not have clear answers. Critical Thinking according to Bialik, et al (2015)  forms of critical thinking "intellectually as a disciplinary process in active, skilled conceptualization, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and / or evaluating information collected from, or produced by, observations, experiences, reflection, reason, or communication, as a guide to beliefs and actions. According to Greenstein, L. (2012)  critical thinking teaching can be done in various forms, from curricula that train students to identify and practice high-level thinking skills. Gardner (2007)  cites "thoughts that create" as one of the thoughts that will need in the future, the educational process requires displaying "exploration, challenging problems, and tolerance. According to Fullan (2013) " creativity includes concepts "Economic and social entrepreneurship and leadership to act." Upitis (2014)  argues that creativity in schools gives students experience with situations to find many solutions to problems, where tensions of ambiguity are valued as fertile ground, and imagination is highly valued. currently it is known that only a few professions are based on communication skills (such as therapists, public speakers, customer service), but basically all professions require various forms of communication activities such as negotiations, giving instructions, giving advice, building relationships, resolving conflicts, and so on (Hobbs, 2015). Hobbs (2015)  "Collaboration also requires participants students to develop collective intelligence and build meaning, become content creators and consumers. New skills and knowledge are needed to enable team members to collaborate digitally and contribute to the collective knowledge base, whether working remotely or in shared physical space. "
If parents are aware of and use the online gradebook system, they have increased involvement in their children’s learning immediately. Logging into the system affords parents an opportunity to access grades that were previously only available four times a year with a report card. Sixty‐five percent of parents who use the online gradebook system log on daily or weekly. With about 40‐weeks in an average school year, this effectively increases the frequency of grade access ten‐fold. Even if parents do not use this
Guidance and counseling programme in schools has some strategies in place for students’ social adjustment. These include appointment of teacher counselors to manage the programmes in schools, establishment of guidance and counseling policy for schools, training of teachers and peer counselors and supervision of the programmes in schools. The American School of Counseling Association (ASCA) recommends a counselor- student ratio of 1:250. The Association also recommends that professional school counselors should be educators certified with license with a minimum of Master degree in school counseling making them uniquely qualified to address all students’ academics, personal, social and career needs by designing, implementing, evaluating and enhancing a comprehensive school counseling programme that promotes students growth. Stone and Dahir (2006) report that professional school counselors are employed in elementary, middle, junior, high schools, in district supervisory positions and counselor educator positions. They also establish school counseling curriculum that consists of structured lessons designed to help students achieve competencies and also to provide all students with knowledge and skills appropriate for all development levels. The professional school counselors also create a mission statement supporting the schools mission and collaborate with other individuals and organizations to promote all students personal development. The department of Education has effective counseling programmes which are vital to the school climate and a crucial element on students’ social adjustment in schools. Based on the forgoing the present study tried to establish strategies put in place by the guidance and counseling programme in addressing students’ social adjustment in secondaryschools Siaya District.
The purposes of guidance and counseling (G&C) programs for school children are many folds. Empirical evidences showed that G&C programs had significant influence on improving discipline problems (Baker & Gerler, 2001), enhancing students grades (Gerler, Kinney & Anderson, 1985), strengthening social skills (Verduyn, Lord & Forrest, 1990), helping students make wise decision on career development and college choices (Whiston,Sexton & Lasoff, 1998) and developing positive study habits and study skills (Abid Hussain, 2006). The Ethiopian government designed 70:30 strategies of higher education intake ratios in favor of science & technology. Accordingly, science and mathematics (S&M) secondary education is put to the spotlight (Federal Ministry of Education, 2010). It is the writers believe that guidance and counseling play significant role in the implementation of this strategy.
Assessment of outcomes of EE efforts in terms of students’ achievement is an issue that is of paramount importance in EE (Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education, 2007). EL, considered a major outcome of EE, is a fundamental goal of EE (Cullen, 2005; Disinger, 2005; Cutter-Mackenzie & Smith, 2003; Hsu, 2004; McBeth &Volk, 2010; Orr, 1990; Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education, 2007; Stapp et al, 2005; UNESCO-UNEP, 1983). Students are expected to “acquire knowledge, skills, and perspectives that foster understanding of their fundamental connections to each other, to the world around them, and to all living things” (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009, p. 11). To further highlight the place of EL assessment in EE, the Tbilisi declaration called for the assessment of content, literacy and programs in EE “in order to encourage and improve them and to extend them to other educational institutions and programmes” (UNESCO-UNEP, 1983, p. 21).
In addition to experts' review and discussion, forward and backward translation of the questionnaire items was made to minimize meaning differences in the two local languages used during data collection (Afan Oromo & Amharic). Hence, first the English version was translated to local languages with the help of both language experts. Then after the local languages versions of the questionnaire items were translated to English language so that valid instruments used for the collection of the required data for the study. Furthermore, to obtain additional information on the practices and the major challenges hindering the effective implementation of guidance and counseling services, interviews were conducted to collect data from key informants because they encourage exploration of the issues and allow pursuing information related to the practice and challenges of guidance and counseling services. Interviews were held only with the higher officials of the zonal/weredas educational bureau, guidance and counselors, and school principals. Following the completion of data collection, the coding was done for the completed questionnaire. Data analysis was made in line with answering the research questions raised. The data obtained from questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 20 to report descriptive statistics such as frequency of student visit to counselor, percentage, mean scores and standard deviations. The qualitative data collected by interviews was also analyzed by thematic analysis approach. Qualitative data analysis was done for data collected from counselors, school principals and zonal/weredas educational bureau experts using the oral interview method.
we also need to ensure that they are learning. Education builds a strong sense of self- esteem, self-confidence and realization of potential. So education is considered as a social instrument for developing human resources and for human capital formation. Despite the importance of education globally, Tanzanian education sector has been facing the problem of mass failure especially in our government schools. This is evidenced by MEST report, (2009) that students are not doing better in their final examination at ordinary level (CSEE). Many factors have been identified as the sources of massive failures: such as shortage of teachers, lack of enough books, students’ low entry marks, poor teachers’ supervision, poor teachers’ working condition (see, Haki Elimu Journal Report (2011). Different from other sectors education sector is not paid special attention with most administrators as it revealed by employee of this special sector (education) both their living and working condition.
Education is an instrument par excellence and the means of developing human intellect, technical skills, character and effective citizenship for self-reliance and national development. This underscores the value being placed on quality and standards which encompasses quality learning resource inputs, instructional process, teachers’ capacities development, effective management, monitoring and evaluation, and quality learning outcome in secondaryschools. The quest for quality improvement in education service delivery necessitated the application of quality system management standards in the education sector. The adoption of quality assurance in education as an emerging policy perspective in the contemporary world emanated at the World Conference on Education for All led by UNESCO at Thailand in 1990. Representatives of the international community agreed that all countries should pay greater attention towards improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all. This is to ensure substantial achievement of recognized and measurable learning outcomes in schools, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills (UNESCO, 2002). Quality assurance, therefore, is one of the most critical tasks facing every nation’s educational institutions, so that the societal demands for improved education service delivery would achieve the best learning outcomes that enhance the quality of life of the citizenry (Ayeni, 2010).
and preventive manner which ensures that all students can achieve school success through academic, career, and personal/social development (American School Counselor Association, 1997). Guidance and counseling service at schools is believed to be effective when it solves the students academic, social and personal problems and also contributes in improving academic performance. High quality school counseling services can help to address students' mental health needs. As discussed by Arudo, Tobias Opiyo Okeyo (2008), school guidance and counseling interventions positively contributes to school behaviors; specifically, students on-task and productive use of time and students in-class discipline. Therefore, guidance and counseling services play a pivotal role in helping students gain the knowledge and skills necessary for them to be able to make good decisions regarding their post-secondary plans.
As with all EEF guidance reports, its publication is just the start of how we aim to support schools in implementing these recommendations. We will now be working with the sector, including through our colleagues in the Research Schools Network, to build on them with further training, resources and tools. This report is well-timed for school leaders to consider alongside the recent Timpson report on exclusions, and to be part of professional conversations around behaviour that will be central to the Department for Education’s Behaviour Support Networks. And, as ever, we will be looking to support and test the most promising programmes that put the lessons from the research into practice. Our hope is that this guidance will help to support a consistently excellent, evidence- informed education system in England that creates great opportunities for all children and young people, regardless of their family background.
• Appoint members of staff to be reading advocates or coordinator/s. They should work closely with the school librarian and teachers in all subject areas, leading on and evaluating whole school initiatives. As a National Literacy Trust Network member, your school can use the whole school reading for enjoyment audit for guidance and support: www.literacytrust.org.uk/our_network/evaluation_tools. • For further ideas, consult Ofsted case studies such as Good Practice Resource – promoting reading in a
“The ability to draw inferences predetermines reading skills; that is, poor inferencing causes poor comprehension and not vice versa” (p. 6). The report states that inferencing can be practised outside the domain of reading with pupils of all ages and that one way of cultivating these skills in young readers and reluctant readers is to do it in discussion, orally. It suggests using ‘reciprocal teaching’ and ‘think-aloud’.
The Scottish Executive has published guidance on outdoor excursions ‘Going out there: Scottish framework for safe practice in off-site visits’ 1 – and this should be consulted in the first instance. The aim of this ‘Travel health guidance for schools’ document, is to provide additional practical advice on health issues for those going on an overseas excursion, especially for those intending to visit a country where health hazards not found in the UK exist. Advice and information on health considerations to be included in the planning stage of overseas excursions will help organisers, parents and pupils alike, and lead to a more consistent and effective approach to healthcare for school travellers. Crucially, this guidance does not take the place of an individual travel health risk
Public authorities, and other organisations when they are carrying out ‘functions of a public nature’, have a duty under the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) not to act incompatibly with rights under the European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (‘the Convention’). Courts and tribunals have a duty to interpret primary legislation (including the Equality Act 2010) and secondary legislation in a way that is compatible with the Convention rights, unless it is impossible to do so. This duty applies to courts and tribunals whether or not a public authority is involved in the case. So, in any discrimination claim or any claim relating to the public sector equality duty arising under the Act, the court or tribunal must ensure that it interprets the Act compatibly with the Convention rights, where it can. Because of the close relationship between human rights and equality, it is good practice for those exercising public functions to consider equality and human rights together when drawing up equality or human rights policies.
Six (75%) of the deputy principals suggested that the Ministry of Education has to ensure that it facilitates the training of teachers on guidance and counselling matters. Five (62.5%) of the deputy principals also suggested the need to have guidance and counselling teachers motivated to so as to feel having an enjoyable task. On the other hand, 5 (62.5%) of the school principals suggested the need to allocate more resources to the guidance and counselling department. Three (37.5%) of the principals also suggested that more time has to be provided for the guidance and counselling sessions as well as teacher counsellors being motivated. Five (62.5%) of the principals suggested that parents have to monitor their children while at home since they feared that some of the indiscipline cases have their genesis being at home. It was also suggested by 5 (62.5%) of the principals that NGOs should facilitate funding to support seminars and workshops offering guidance and counselling training. The church according to the respondents has to ensure the values acceptable in the society are instilled among the students. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education has to play a role in ensuring that trained teachers are hired to facilitate guidance and counselling programmes.