the necessary competencies, as well as the skills and abilities that are needed to master the provided educational material. This allows you to create a model of the future student, more precisely, his behavior and further activities so that he does not make such mistakes in the future and does not have training gaps that he had before the test.  Development function is the use of methods of control and assessment activities, the teacher stimulates cognitive activity from their students.  Currently, there is a tendency in which teachers are to some extent prepared for the paradigm of evaluating educational results to change, but they still have insufficient information about how the current reality is evaluated using modern methods. Today, there are no clearly and regulatedly prescribed methodologies for testing the degree of formation of competence, and Russian practice justifies the fact that at present it is no longer possible to assess students' competence using traditional assessment methods, such as tests.  Consequently, new methods of assessment should be developed, which should take into account: key terms and approaches of modern pedagogy (taxonomy of educational goals, results of education, summing up and formative assessment); key principles of curriculum development depending on the targets; key concepts of assessment (educational results, feedback, control methods, and others); features of the educational activities of students.  The function of orientation and orientation is the use of methods of control and assessment activities, the teacher obtains the necessary data on how successfully a particular student or the entire study group as a whole copes with the curriculum, in
According to the sampled M & E team members, M & E planning strategy contributes to the performance of the DPCS in Murang’a County. In particular, involving stakeholders in the planning for M & E activities gained their confidence and attracting more membership in the DPCS; an indicator of improved performance of the dairy primary cooperative societies in Muranga County. In support of these findings, William, (2010) observed that M & E planning and coordination enhance knowledge on the measurements of projects’ attainments thus improving the work performance. Similarly, Horton, MacKay, Anderson and Dupleich, (2000) study findings on dairying projects in Netherlands, indicated that planning for M & E financial resource and skilled personnel enha nces dairy projects’ performance. Jacobs, Barnett, and Ponsford, (2010) advice that beneficiaries should actively participate in M & E activities in order to influence the project process based on their needs and their analysis. The authors reiterate that when participants are involved in the M & E planning process, they gain skills which strengthen their local capacities for planning, problem solving and decision making for improved performance. It is with empirical evidence that a well planned M & E of projects yields results for improved performance.
Past experience provides clear evidence that FPs boost scientific performance and increase international competitiveness. Firms participating in FP projects are more innovative and produce more patents. It remains unclear whether the more innovative firms are more likely to participate in FP projects and/or whether participation in FP projects increases the potential for innovation. Participants in FP6 projects are more likely to collaborate. Hence one can conclude that FPs support capacity building. However, capacity building without investment in long-term cooperation has little impact. Overall, past FPs supported the establishment of trans-national research collaborations and the integration of national research in the EU – and, therefore, the establishment of the ERA. Economic models were used to make forecasts of the micro- and macro-economic effects of the planned FP7. Expected impacts include increased turnover and profitability and a benefit of 4-7 € per 1 € invested in RTD. Impacts on GDP and employment were quantified for different FP7 funding scenarios. Assessment of the potential economic impacts of research programmes was not linked to any plan for ex-post evaluation to test if the assessments were appropriate. Numbers were given with a high level of accuracy without uncertainty boundaries.
Abstract- Social interaction between children and more knowledgeable members of society is essential for children to acquire ways of thinking and behaving. Although socio-cultural activities enhance learning in pre-school children, some teachers and parents in Kakamega South Sub-County have not embraced them in relevant learning areas such as language, poetry, outdoor activities and mathematics. This study aimed at establishing the influence between socio-cultural activities and pre-academic skills among ECDE learners in Kakamega South Sub-County. The specific objectives were: to determine the main socio- cultural activities affecting pre-academic learners and to evaluate existing strategies used to improve the use of socio-cultural activities for quality pre-academic skills. The study focused on learning theory of Albert Bandura and social cultural theory of Lev Vygosky. Descriptive survey design was employed with a sample size of 384 respondents. Simple random sampling was applied to the stratified samples to identify respondents among pre-school teachers and learners. The data collection instruments included questionnaires, interview schedules, key informants interviews and FGDs. Data analyses were done using both descriptive and inferential statistics by employing SPSS. The results obtained reveal that the main socio-cultural activities affecting attainment of pre-school academic skills include dances (18%), marriage ceremonies (17%), drama (17%), music festivals (16 %) and singing games (16%). The study identified planning socio-cultural activities outside school programmes (42%) and sensitizing communities on pre-school education (16%) as the main strategies needed for improving the quality of pre-academic skills in Kakamega south sub county. The findings of this study contribute to knowledge in addition to guiding teachers, parents and the Ministry of Education (MOE) in pre- school curriculum review at both County and National levels. These results will further be used to enhance nurturing of pre- school learners in Kakamega South Sub-County.
Constructive dialogue, and even polilogue, with students, and as a result - achievements of the ultimate goals - training of highly qualified specialist, competitive on a modern labour market that meets the current and future needs of society. Next, let 's look at the main, in our opinion, approaches to the organization of peer-to-peer mutual evaluation of their work by teachers themselves.
Many studies reported the importance of character education for students to support their future success. Currently, the countries have strengthened the implementation of character education in their educational system, including Indonesia. Related to the previous statements, this research aimed to describe the impact of character education implementation as well as challenges and strategies of teachers in implementing the character education. This research was an evaluation research type using a goal-free evaluation model (impact evaluation) with a qualitative approach. The participants of the research were principals, teachers, students, parents, and community members from three provinces in Indonesia; East Kalimantan, Special Region of Yogyakarta, and West Nusa Tenggara. Data were collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and also in-depth interviews. The data were then analysed using a model of Bogdan and Biklen to find out the refinement among themes and generate a detailed understanding. The findings showed that character education had a positive impact on increasing the students’ character values including religiosity, personality, social attitude, and competitive attitude. Role-modelling by teachers and other members of the school community and parents, character-oriented activities, and moral and material support from educational stakeholders are key factors in character education implementation. However, some improvements need to be made, such as improving the teacher training and workshops and giving financial support (funding) for character education implementation.
Both these words are inter related to each other and are specially adopted together as a task of management.(Peter .T.Schumi, 1991) The monitoring is the continuous collection of the information to know the prevailing system and to take steps to bring change in it. On the other hand, evaluation is to examine the effectiveness of the system and to provide decisions about the progress, improvement and its impact (Rengasamy, 2010). So the both words are used in the series, one give data while the other use that data changing into information and giving value. As both the words are totally different from one another, but they are collectively used and adopted as a management tool, so the difference between both words disappears (Bartle, 2010). As the monitoring provides data, so it is very sensitive, if the collected data is managed then the evaluation proves worthless and fruitless, so the collected data be accurate, meaningful and authentic to assign it value to improve the system in a proper way.
Abstract Assessment is one of the basic elements of teaching. However, there are not enough studies on the evaluation of divergent questions, particularly, in history education. Therefore, after reviewing the past and current literature on the topic, this study describes the design and implementation of a rating scale which can be used in the evaluation of divergent questions. The study based on action research examines history teachers’ views on divergent questions and how they evaluate the answers to such questions. The study was conducted with four history teachers who are working in different schools attached to the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and 68 high school students in Turkey. Interview and document analysis were used as data collection tools. The study consists of two parts. In the first part of the study teachers' thoughts about divergent questions were determined; and the second part involves the generation of a rating scale that can be used in assessing the answers given to divergent questions. The result reveals that the rating scale provides the sufficient reliability and validity value, and can be used by history teachers in terms of divergent questions.
An evaluation of the implementation of the School Monitoring, Evaluation and Adjustment (SMEA) System of the Department of Education (DepEd) was conducted to aid on the improvement and upgrading of the system. A researcher-made instrument was utilized to quantitatively analyze the implementation and interviews were conducted to identify the challenges and struggles of its implementation. Also, a close look at the SMEA questionnaires was done to identify the level of compliance with the established standards. The analysis showed high levels of implementation, however, the qualitative analysis showed gaps in the validity and reliability of results. The burden of too many indicators and the confusion by questions that are hard to quantify in a single questionnaire were identified as the major problem. The need for indicators, which consider the setting and context of each school, was identified as the primary need. A sense of ownership of the indicators and commitment building were among the recommendations. In addition, a systems approach of integrating established school systems such as School Improvement Planning, Results-Based Performance Management System and the Monitoring and Evaluation System was also suggested. The result of the study could contribute to the management of schools, enhancement of policies and improvement of DepEd systems.
Type 3. Reports - the result of the work of a specialized software that dynamically generates information-resources (evidence) by scheduling activities and places them in a digital repository for future use. Systems from accumulative functions suitable for attaching to different level from the model for quality evaluation should be designed for the automated accumulation and aggregation of information resources, suitable for attaching and up-to-date for different time periods for the quality evaluation of an object by a model. The set of data obtained as a result of the process of accumulating information resources related to the quality evaluation of a specific object in a time-period can be modelled as an information structure which contains three components. The first component is a computer model of the hierarchical model for quality evaluation of the object which represents the system of components/elements of the object for data accumulation and aggregation for its quality evaluation by a model. These components/elements comply with different level from the quality evaluation model, as to each level can be attached suitable information resources available in different digital repositories. The second component is a set of lists to each component/element from the model identifying information resources located in a repository or in the information infrastructure of the institution. The third component is lists of accumulative functions for all components/elements of the quality evaluation model, including functions for an accumulation of text, information resources from digital repositories, generated reports which depend by a parameter, etc. and a schedule for launching the accumulative functions. On the basis of the computer model of the multiple results of a data accumulation process, when initial times for starting data accumulation activities for individual components/elements from the quality evaluation model are set, these activities should be "started" in absolute time moments. Before starting the data accumulation process, the lists to each component/element contain only references to information sources that are not a product of the current process but are relevant (of interest) to it. Besides the periods to which the quality evaluation procedure will be done and the relative times for the start-up of the accumulative functions, the task for the automated accumulation and aggregation of data necessary for the quality evaluation of the object may also contain additional guidance for the overall organization of the procedure for quality evaluation. The accumulation of data and supporting documents (evidence) must be well organized
Abstract:- The research method used is the quantitative approach of explanatory descriptive type. Data collection techniques use Questionnaire, Interview, and Documentation. The results of the study show that: 1) Budget management planning of education funding In SMAs in Gorontalo city is in very good category, 2) Budget Management Program Budgeting in SMA in Gorontalo City is categorized well, 3) Implementation of education budgeting management program In Senior High School in Gorontalo City are categorized well, 4) Reporting of Budget Funding Management Program In High School as Gorontalo City is categorized well. Transparency in the Management of Education Financing In Senior High Schools throughout Gorontalo City is well categorized. It is recommended that: 1) School planning process should involve parents actively, although only provide advice and assessment on the policies made by schools related to education finance in SMA throughout Gorontalo City, 2) In the case of school finance preparation, it is necessary The identification of the actual needs of the school because the funding of education is very limited plus the absence of levies that can be done by the school to parents of students, 3) We recommend that the principal in the implementation process continue to work to communicate, coordinate and monitor each implementation so as not to happen The budget has been set. For example there is a deficit that makes insufficient funds from the budget and less optimum expectations can be suppressed by the school, 4) In the reporting process should be done as in the planning process by involving all parties because at the stage of reporting did. There is an overall element of evaluation of inputs, processes, and outputs of educational financing plans that have been developed and implemented by schools.
School physical education is the factor, which should con- tribute to level of physical activity. The current situation in the area of school physical education is unsatisﬁ ed and need changes, i.e. in organizing, staff, PE teachers’ qualiﬁ cation, methodical teaching. One of the main reasons is the fact, that school represents one of the basic socializing factors in the human development as well as family, peers, and consid- erably inﬂ uences human perception of lifestyle . We can ﬁ ght against this inactivity of children and youth by promoting quality school physical education and improv- ing predispositions for physically active lifestyle in adult- hood. Physical education represents one school subject, where there are compensated health risks. The underrat- ing of the physical education and the work of PE teachers can lead to deterioration of physical education and belit- tling of the importance of this school subject.
Based on the views of the participants, researchers concluded that the current inclusive education in place is straining SEN learners as they are being pressured up to learn like typical learners and to function in accordance with the standards of a dominant system (Snow, 2001), a mindset which needs to be overhauled if the dream of inclusivity is to be achieved in Zimbabwean tertiary institutions. However, inclusivity in its present state at Bulawayo Polytechnic, justifies the recruitment of specialist teachers in such institutions for specialist services meant to benefit SEN learners and enable them design their own destiny not to be enrolled as guest learners as is the case at the moment. Such teachers by virtue of the wide knowledge base they have on the subject would automatically become either change agents or resource persons in these institutions. This must be so because the use of effective and appropriate instructional methods in Tech-Voc is pivotal to effective acquisition and development of knowledge and skills by SEN learners.
It is hoped that the proposed model for the development of dispositional evaluation will be of assistance as programs develop better dispositional evaluations. Implication for Action Teacher education programs across the nation are gaining increased concern with the “how to teach” as well as “how to” assess dispositions as an entity of knowledge and skills within NCATE and INTASC accreditation standards. Legal and ethical issues are also posing a challenge for many institutions. However, it is tantamount to be mindful of teaching and measuring dispositions when preparing quality professionals. This proposed model describes activities and processes that may be useful to develop assessment and evaluation practices related to dispositions in many teacher education programs. This will be followed by a discussion on the systemic inquiry techniques that were utilized to collect initial beliefs and ideas related to dispositions to develop the model. In the teacher education program that serves as the case for this model, a method used to document concerns about a student’s disposition for teaching throughout their program is also presented. Information on legal issues will also be addressed.
The scenario starts from the input block. It invokes encryption service through interface 8 to encrypt the message. According to the open structure of the system, the encryption algorithm can be produced through any single algorithm, or even another encryption SOA as an outsourcing process. The cover medium may be presented by the user or may be selected by the cover finder. Suppose there is no input covers, a request query triggers the cover finder to find an appropriate cover. It invokes evaluation service for the required details about the needed cover medium. Evaluation service makes use of network monitor and steganography services to form a cover attribute query (which may contain information about size, type, resolution, entropy, etc.) for media store to retrieve (the media store may search this cover in media store, or load it from the network). On the other hand, steganography services use converter services in a parallel process to accomplish the needed modifications on the secret or the selected cover. The last station of the scenario process would be the steganography algorithm services which apply the final manipulations and embedding processes to export the results to the external network.
Abstract: The principal issues that made this research topic is how to build a religious culture in schools (the study focused on the management of Islamic education curriculum in Building a Culture of Religious SMA and SMA BPI 2 Bandung STATE 7). This study aims to analyze and describe the activities carried out in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of the curriculum of Islamic education in realizing the religious culture in schools; as well as supporting and inhibiting factors. The theories used as the basis for the implementation of the research is primarily concerned with Cultural Education, Curriculum Management, and Islamic Education, equipped with relevant research results. This study used a qualitative approach with case studies. The main data source is the Principal, Vice Principal, teachers, school committee, and Students. Data collected through observation, interviews and documentation study analyzed qualitatively, through data reduction, organizing and grouping data, investigation, interpretation and verification. The final conclusion is that the Islamic education curriculum management starting from planning, implementation until the evaluation has been directed and designed to embody the religious culture in schools. In the implementation of management curriculum of Islamic religious education in realizing the religious culture in the school is demanding independence of teachers and principals to conduct participatory decision making and collaborative. Management of Islamic Education curriculum has also been developed by some of the main characteristics of the school, taking into account the principles of curriculum development. However, implementation is still found some inhibiting factors, such as the school environment is not yet fully support towards the realization of religious culture. Recommendations presented to various parties to undertake further study, and perform a variety of efforts to improve the management of Islamic religious education curriculum in realizing the religious culture in schools.
This study reported some major challenges to implementing higher education policy in ICT for many reasons. The challenges include the development of ICT infrastructure in every department and classroom, lack of government funding and reliable source of income of the university for the ICT project, unskilled staff and insufficient ICT training for staff particularly lecturers and professors, and unreliable electricity supply. The observation explored that the infrastructure including classrooms and furniture was not well managed with the technology although international projects (SHEP and NORHED) had contributed to solving these problems to some extent. Nevertheless, teachers’ limited ICT skills seem to be one of the major challenges to effectively integrate digital technology in teacher education and produce skilful teachers to transform the traditional education system to modern learning way in Nepal. For example, the head in the interview said: “All teachers especially those belonging to the old generation, soon going to retire, are reluctant to learn how to use ICT in teaching and learning.” However, the access to internet facilities provided by Nepal Telecommunication Authority, only the government agency and private companies for competitively reduced prices in the capital city and availability of mobile devices with 3G and 4G data in the daily life of teachers and students provide them with opportunities for learning new skills to use modern technologies (Rana, 2018).