In regards to the clinical trials, the participation rates were con- siderably higher in T2 when compared to T1 (228–238% higher). The reason behind this increase in participation rates is probably associ- ated with an enhanced awareness of the parents to the problems of poor IAQ in schools in T2. Moreover, the fact that one of the schools sampled in T1 was closed due to IAQ issues may have increased the parents’ concern to this issue, thus resulting in a higher number of legal guardians consenting their children to participate in the sec- ond campaign. While there were no significant differences in FENO values and SPT positivity between the campaigns, both parameters were lower in T1. This is an interesting result since this tendency for a lower prevalence of atopicsensitization overlapped with an improvement of the IAQ. However, it is not possible to establish a causal relation.
In this study relative moderate to strong humidity was negatively correlated with total airborne bacteria in the afternoon (r = − 0.4014) and in the morning (r = − 0.7034), respectively. The RH in public primaryschools ranged from 21 to 62 % and 14–57 % in morning and afternoon, respectively. The negative correlation between relative humidity and indoor airborne bacterial load was not consistent with what is expected since a strict correl- ation between bacterial load and relative humidity was already reported by Br ą goszewska Ewa, et al. , Huang H, et al. . The possible explanation might be that if relative humidity decreases, bacterial load becomes de- creased because the viability of aerosols becomes inhib- ited if relative humidity is too low, because a dry environment decreases the metabolism and physiological activities of microorganisms .
volatile organic compounds in three primaryschools in Izmir, Turkey. Primaryschools accommodate children aged 7 - 14 for about 5 - 8 hours daily. Concentrations of VOCs were measured in spring, winter, and fall terms. A thermal desorption—GC-MS system was used to analyze VOCs where Formaldehyde analysis was performed us- ing an HPLC instrument. A health risk assessment was performed to detect odours, sensory irritation, chronic toxic effects and cancer. Results showed that Formalde- hyde appears to be the pollutant of greatest concern with high chronic toxic and carcinogenic risk based on the health assessment followed by naphthalene, benzene, toluene because of their chronic effects.
The FRESH study has been designed as an intervention study with two experimental groups and one control group. Differences between the two experimental groups were created using a cross-over design. Data collection for this study took place at 17 primaryschools during the heating seasons (October-April) of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. In the first school year, ten schools participated, in the second year eight. One school participated in both the first and the second year, but with a different student population. With this exception, per school, one classroom was studied, with repeated measurements during three consecutive weeks. The first week served as baseline period, with measurements of normally existing CO 2 levels and ventilation according to the
The samples were analyzed for total of 51 VOCs of which about > 50 % of these VOCs were detected both indoors and outdoors. The most common VOCs included benzene, toluene, trichloroethene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1.3.5- trimethylbenzene, naphthalene, 1.4-dichlorobenzene, 1.3 dichlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Most of these compounds were reported in some studies as most common VOCs detected in indoorair samples, indoor concentrations usually exceeding outdoor levels (Girman, et al. 1999, Lee, et al. 2002, Adgate, et al. 2004, Godwin, et al. 2007). Bozkurt et al. (2007) measured some of these most common VOCs (benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) in three schools in Kocaeli, Turkey. Concentrations of these compounds in our study were lower than the concentrations reported by Bozkurt et al. (2007). Furthermore, the VOC concentrations in outdoor air measured in this study were compared to the levels reported by Odabasi et al. (2001). They measured benzene, toluene, and xylene in outdoor air from different locations in İzmir. The average concentrations of these compounds were presented in his study as 45, 116.8 and 105.3 µg/m 3 for benzene, toluene and xylene respectively. The average outdoor concentrations of these compounds in this study were significantly lower than the study of Odabasi et al. (2001). Odabasi et al. (2001) sampled on streets with heavy traffic. The relationship between VOC concentrations in indoor and outdoor air was investigated in the present study; the results show that most of the VOCs had higher median concentrations in indoorair than outdoor air. As indicated in chapter three, generally, adequate ventilation was not available in classrooms in all three schools. Classrooms were cleaned everyday at the end of the school day. Chemicals contained in cleaning products might affect the indoorairquality of schools. However, no definite information about the chemicals contained in the cleaning products was available. Moreover, the indoor sources could be the materials in the classrooms as desks, chairs, computers etc. The studies that were carried on the varnishes, paints, and computers, wood based products to determine the emissions of VOCs were discussed in chapter three.
Concentrations and sources of IAQ parameters
According to Kotzias et al. (2005), toluene has been used as a solvent in a variety of household products such as paints, cleaning agents, adhesives, and print- ing products. Toluene levels measured in this study were far below the weekly average concentrations found in libraries, oﬃces, newspaper stands, and copy centers in Italy (Bruno et al., 2008), but were similar to those reported by Stranger et al. (2007) in primaryschools in Belgium, and by Martins et al. (2012) in Portuguese schools. Xylenes are widely used in the chemical industry as solvents for products such as paints, inks, dyes, adhesives, and detergents (Sarigian- nis et al., 2011). In the current study, indoor xylene concentrations were higher than those registered in previous studies involving 14 elementary schools in Lisboa (Pegas et al., 2011a). Terpenes, including d- limonene, are well-known substances emitted from cleaning products and room fresheners (Singer et al., 2006). Although in the current study the high propor- tion of d-limonene indoors agrees with other observa- tions made of the increasing ubiquity of this compound in indoor environments (Weschler, 2004), the entire d-limonene concentration range was much lower than the recommended limit value proposed by EU-INDEX project (450 lg/m 3 ) (Kotzias et al.,
DTU‟s conclusions correspond with international research results – that better indoorairquality improves learning ability. v
Based on DTU‟s data for performance under good and bad airquality, DTU and the consulting firm Slotsholm estimated that more ventilation in all primary and senior schools for children in ages 7-15 years (corresponding to Danish ventilation levels being raised to Swedish levels) would improve pupils‟ test results (reading, comprehension, maths, nature studies, sciences etc.) by ten points in OECD‟s PISA study. vi
Our findings from mediation analysis suggest that worry might act as a potential mediator and partially explain the relationship between IAQ problems and symptoms. These results are supported by several previous studies suggesting that environmental hazards and stressors are associated indirectly with increased symptom complaints 20,21 . We cannot, however, eliminate the possibility that symptoms might also act as mediators of the association between IAQ problems and worry because this study is based on cross-sectional data. Even though our results show stronger associations in the pathway from IAQ problems to symptoms through worry, it should be kept in mind that these two pathways are not mutually exclusive but coexist. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the causal relationships between IAQ problems in schools, worry, and symptom reporting.
Friday morning, 8:00AM coming into the
Thanksgiving extended weekend. Urgent call was received to respond to multi-story office building where the client was experiencing multiple IAQ complaints. Arrived and walked into a conference call with CalOSH. Believing I was an employee of the client, I was told by CalOSH director that I was incompetent, and knew nothing about indoorairquality.
Polluted indoorair can result in discomfort, reduced efficiency and even ill health amongst building occupants. Gases produced by cooking and heating, as well as emissions from building materials and many commonly used household products, all contribute to poor indoorairquality. Wool has been shown to chemically react with some of the more common pollutant gases, neutralising and, in some cases, binding them irreversibly in its structure. Similarly, there is now considerable evidence that chemicals emitted from wool carpets do not pose any threat to the quality and safety of the indoor environment.
The basis for choosing interior ambi- ent conditions is based on whether Deb Newell, Ty’s spouse and Ben’s mother, is comfortable. Her vote is the only vote that counts for comfort. During the win- ter, typical dress and metabolic activity are in the 1 to 2 clo and 1 to 2 met range (see Chapter 9 of ASHRAE Handbook— Fundamentals; 1 to 2 clo represents long sleeve shirts, sweater, pants while 1 to 2 met represents relaxed and sitting to a cooking level of activities). As de- scribed in previous columns, the level of wall and roof insulation in Equinox and modest window area results in radiant surfaces being very close to ambient air temperature. Air velocities throughout
Principals cannot sustain the workload and extra responsibility being put on them by outside agencies on an almost weekly basis now.
The following quote really captures the challenges being faced trying to lead and teach from afar. Our PrimarySchools tend not to have the same supports as our second level schools. Many second level schools have moved to blended learning where schools had introduced platforms for students to access work from home, especially in schools where all students have devices such as iPad or surface pros. There are schools using platforms such as Schoology and Google Classroom, however, the move to integrate technology in PrimarySchools is not as advanced leading to extra challenges in this sudden move to distance learning during school closures. In 2016 McCoy and colleagues indicated three policy concerns for integrating technology in second level schools, supporting school leaders and ICT co-ordinators in ICT- integration; investment in infrastructure; and addressing structural and curricular constraints. These policy imperatives also exist for PrimarySchools. Research consistently highlights how effective leadership is crucial to the smooth and effective integration of digital technologies in schools (McCoy et al., 2016). To lead this move to distance learning while not being in school is a mammoth task and the stress of doing so is evident in leaders responses in the comment section on wellbeing.
X.2.1 Outdoor Air Intakes. Minimum separation dis- tance between exhaust air/vent outlets as defined in Table 5.2 and outdoor air intakes to mechanical ventilation systems or operable windows, skylights, and doors that are required as part of natural ventilation systems shall be equal to distance L determined in accordance with section X.3. Exception: Sep- aration distances do not apply when exhaust and outdoor air intake systems do not operate simultaneously.
From a logic perspective, if the VAC system is design properly, the recirculat- ing STC unit operates dry, providing sensible cooling only. Thus, at this unit, there should be no danger and thus no concern for creating an environment that encourages microbial growth. This then becomes a simple, inexpensive air handling unit with no problems of freeze protection or damper interlocks. Furthermore, if the VAC unit discharge air is ducted directly to the space, the STC unit is smaller by the amount of air provided by the VAC unit. Also, the STC unit has a much lower pressure drop than a more “conventional” unit because it doesn’t require pressure losses through the mixing dampers, preheat coil, eliminators, wet cooling coils, and filters designed to remove atmospheric impurities. Being able to reset the sup-
Table B-1 presents selected standards and guidelines used in Canada, Germany, Europe, and the United States for accept- able concentrations of substances in ambient air, indoorair, and industrial workplace environments. These values are issued by cognizant authorities and have not been developed or endorsed by ASHRAE. The table is presented only as back- ground information when using the IndoorAirQuality Proce- dure. Specialized expertise should be sought before selecting a value for use in estimating outdoor airflow rates using the IndoorAirQuality Procedure or for building design or diag- nostics purposes. Meeting one, some, or all of the listed values does not ensure that acceptable indoorairquality (as defined in this standard) will be achieved.
first time that IP sensitization augments EC sensitization by directly comparing the inflammatory response with and with- out previous IP sensitization. More significantly, our results support the notion that the atopic march is not unidirectional. The early onset of AD may simply reflect its increased suscep- tibility to barrier disruption and allergen sensitization. This may underlie scenarios in which clinical AD appears later in life and/or after the appearance of respiratory or gut allergies or in which skin disease is exacerbated by cutaneous exposure to classically respiratory or food allergens.
Odours are associated with occupancy, cook ing, bathroom activities, waste etc. Odour pollu tion is more often associated with discomfort rat her than serious health effects. The human sense of smell permits perception of very low concen trations of odours (a few ppb). P.O. Fänger intro duced in 1988 two new physical units, namely olf and decipol, the airquality units which enable the evaluation of different pollutants on the same scale 141. He quantified air pollution sources by comparing them with a well-known source - a standard sedentary person in thermal comfort. One olf is defined as the emission rate of air pollutants from a standard person. The decipol unit is defined as the perceived intensity of air pollution caused by one standard person located in the room which is ventilated by 10 litres/s of