Top PDF Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Microscopic descriptions of tissues are supplemented with micrographs wherever necessary. Photographs of different magnifications were taken with Nikon lab photo 2 microscopic unit. For normal observations bright field was used. For the study of crystals, starch grains and lignified cells, polarized light was employed. Since these structures have birefringent property, under polarized light they appear bright against dark background. Magnifications of the figures are indicated by the scale- bars. Descriptive terms of the anatomical features are as given in the standard anatomy books (Esau, 1964).
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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced
nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

conjugation reaction of xenobiotics metabolism and may have increased the availability of non-critical nucleophile for inactivation of electrophiles and therefore might be playing a major role in metalloprotection. Some of the active constituents of S-Allylcystein from garlic have been reported to possess a bioactive compound which is act as phytochelating substance to nullify the toxicity effect on various organisms. Reports suggested that SAC has been known to have free radical scavenging effect and it could be a potential therapeutic or modulating agent for oxidative damage induced disease [10, 22] Lin, et al. (2008) also reported that garlic is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant due to the presents of flavanoids, phenol, acids, vitamins and sulphur compound, of garlic which contain the biological properties of garlic. The free radical scavenging effect of SAC has been reported in previous studies. SAC could enhance the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH in fact it has been shown that SAC have antioxidant properties in vivo conditions [1, 7, 9, 13, 18, 22].
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Effect of selenium and nano-selenium on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Effect of selenium and nano-selenium on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

In the present study, cisplatin caused tissue inju ry in the kidney through oxidative stress. The data obtained affirm that usage of cisplatin (CP) caused a critical increment of MDA level and de- crease of catalase, glutathione peroxi dase and super- oxide dismutase in the serum and kidney tissue of rats (Table). CP-prompted free radical creation and MDA in cylindrical cells have been recommended to be in charge of the oxidative renal harm [1, 3, 8, 14]. CP influences renal tissues where created free radicals can connect with layer lipids to deliver their peroxidation, influencing cell structure and capacity [2, 17, 18]. Also, CP could advance the expansion in lipid peroxidation in vitro [36]. Helpful impacts of CP depend on the interaction with DNA in the cell, forestalling expansion, and instigating apoptosis in tumor cells. Cisplatin-induced mitochondrial reac- tive oxygen species (ROS) generation activated an inflammatory response, cell passing and kidney bro- kenness/nephropathy [37]. Cisplatin at first triggers oxidative stress in the mitochondria of kidney proxi- mal rounded and endothelial cells, which is trailed by an optional flood of ROS/RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, disintegration of mitochondrial structure and capacity, an intense inflammatory re- sponse, histopathological damage and reduced renal capacity [33, 38]. Acute poisoning of rats with CP significantly reduced activities of antioxidant en- zymes (SOD, CAT, and GPX). The administration of cisplatin CP caused the decline of SOD and CAT activity in kidney tissue. The reduce SOD action is deficient to scavenge the superoxide anion, delive-
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IN VIVO AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF CAFFEIC ACID AGAINST HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

IN VIVO AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF CAFFEIC ACID AGAINST HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

the fluid through the bile duct which is containing ALP and other substances. If the bile duct is damaged or blocked accumulating ALP and other substances were escaped or leakaged into the bloodstream. Naturally, the cell lining of the bile ducts in the liver is responsible for producing the ALP enzyme (Cholestatic) [46]. However, during hepatic cell damages, the accumulated ALP enzymes are released into the bloodstream (hepatocytes) along with aminotransferases rises prominently. Therefore, these biomarker enzymes are very useful to detect the liver damages or liver disease in animals by way of distinguishing the type of liver disease, either cholestatic or hepatocellular [47,48] Ramadan et al. also observed similar type of results in D-GalN/LPS treated rats, they suggested due to injury in liver cells the enzymes serum transaminases, ALP, LDH leak into the bloodstream, and results in the rise of serum level. The extent of the increase in serum levels is proportional to the extent of liver damage. It was found that there was a significant increase in the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH) and the total bilirubin level when compared to normal control groups. In the present study, it was also found that decrease in the level of enzymes transaminases, ALT and LDH due to pre- or post-treatment of rats with propolis extract indicated repair of hepatic tissue caused by D-GalN/LPS [49]. For hepatic function serum bilirubin is considered as the index and LDH is an intracellular enzyme. Normally, LDH is widely distributed throughout the body. In tissues, the availability of LDH is found to be at a high level. The main role LDH is to utilize the glucose molecule for energy production. As a result, enhancement of LDH in the bloodstream could indicate the cellular damage occurs in a number of different tissues (skeletal or cardiac muscle, kidney, and liver). LDH isoenzyme plays a key role to involved in energy metabolism in muscle tissues, facilitating the production of ATP through glycolysis process during the oxygen demand or energy demand. During the hypoxic conditions or stressful situation or energy demand leads to stimulated the secretion of LDH as an alternate anaerobic pathway to increase ATP production hence high levels of LDH available in bloodstream [50]. Another reason for the enhancement of LDH levels may be increased may be due to the formation of cell necrosis caused by heavy metal treatment. Normally, erythrocytes have high levels of LDH; therefore, even low-level hemolysis occurred in the tissues can alter the serum activity considerably. Continuous enhancements of LDH are also observed for megaloblastic anemia, shock, renal infarction, hemolytic conditions, leukemias, and liver disease [51]. The various isoenzymes of LDH can
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Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Male Swiss albino rats (Animal house of College of Phar- macy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) weighing 150–200 g were used in all experiments. Animals were main- tained under standard conditions of temperature and humid- ity with regular light/dark cycles and allowed free access to food (Purina Chow, Gray Summit, MO, USA) and water. All animal experiments were conducted according to the regula- tions of the Committee on Bioethics for Animal Experiments of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy.

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IN VIVO HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID ON MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

IN VIVO HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID ON MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

defense enzymes which scavenges harmful ROS. The main role of GPx enzyme is the removal and detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of oxidized GSH [45-48]. During this reaction, the GSH is rapidly converted into oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In normal condition, the ratio of GSH/GSSG plays a vital role in adjusting the cellular redox status in animals. The disturbance occurred in the ratio of GSH/GSSG has promoting an impact on normal cellular functions [49]. Daniel et al. also observed comparable type of result in methotrexate-treated rats, they suggested that this is due to hepatotoxic damage. Reduction in cellular GSH, in turn, reduces the effectiveness of antioxidant defense of the liver against the increased ROS and thereby leads to hepatotoxicity [50]. In fact, GSH metabolism is one of the most essential anti-oxidative protection mechanisms in animals. During the recovery period, post-treatment of CA (mercuric chloride treatment followed by CA treatment), the decreased level of GSH content was significantly increased to reach near normal level in liver tissues of mercury-intoxicated rat. This result suggested that an administration of CA can promote the non-enzymatic antioxidant in the respective tissues leading to maintain adequate amount of GSH content in tissues. An enhanced level of GSH content has the function of protection that could provide the first line of defense against the influence of toxic heavy metals [39,51]. Moreover, an enhanced level of GSH content may be related to stop or control the oxidative challenge [52]. In the present experimental study, the decreased level of LPO content was noticed in liver tissues of mercury-intoxicated rats when treated with CA support our results. Deshmukh [53] have also been reported that the administration of CA reduces the oxidative stress in liver tissues of ICV-STZ-intoxicated rats. They suggested that the role of CA attenuates ICV
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Effect of the ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats

Effect of the ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats

The alcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis was evaluated at two curative doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg ) and one prophylactic dose (400 mg/kg). Our experimental results suggested that supplementation of Scoparia dul- cis during cisplatin therapy reduces the risk of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in a dose dependent manner. The curative regimen showed significant amount of activity to prevent the effects of cisplatin, especially the higher dose of 400 mg/kg possessed significant pro- tection of p<0.01. The extract also showed significant preventive effect due to presence of sufficient amount of extract in animals to prevent the effects of cisplatin. Histopathological studies and lipid peroxidation studies support these findings.
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Comparative study on the influence of different drugs and nutrients against aluminium  induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

Comparative study on the influence of different drugs and nutrients against aluminium induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

Additionally, the current results revealed a more significant decrease in renal TNFα level in vinpocetine followed by CoQ10treated groups when compared with other treated groups. These results came in accordance with Jeon et al. (2010) who reported that Vinpocetine exerts an anti- inflammatory action inhibiting (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and the induction of pro- inflammatory mediators. In accordance with these findings also, Schmelzer et al. (2007) suggests that CoQ10 has a number of independent anti-inflammatory activities. The novelty of the present results of nephroprotective evaluation that the histopathological examination of kidney revealed that the most nephroprotective drug was CoQ10 as, no histopathological alteration was observed which suggest that CoQ10of prominent protection against the nephrotoxic effects of Al toxicity. In contrast with other drugs which showed thickening in the renal capsule by oedema and inflammatory cells infiltration. These results came in accordance with several studies which suggest the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CoQ10 by reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in monocytes and lymphocytes after an inflammatory stimulus through an influence on the expression of NFκ-B -dependent genes(Sohet et al., 2009, Bentinger et al., 2010 and Mohseni et al., 2014). Furthermore, in a series of reports in patients with coronary artery disease, CoQ10 used as a treatment(60–300 mg CoQ10/10day for 12 weeks), to reduce oxidative stress and improve the antioxidant enzyme activity as well as lowering inflammation as assessed by plasma levels of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 (Lee et al., 2012a, 2012b and 2013). Similarly, dietary CoQ10 (diet supplemented with 0.07%–0.7% (w/w) CoQ10 for26 weeks) was accompanied with a decline in plasma oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (Kunitomo et al., 2008). There are also, a lot of animal studies which suggest that antioxidant activities of CoQ10have beneficial effects on kidney disease (Manning et al., 2005, Nagase et al., 2006 and Liu et al., 2009).
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PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

Mercury is used widely in agriculture as the anti- fungual agent, in medicine as a topical purificator, disinfectant and insecticide for parasites 5 . The most frequent chemical form to which humans and animals are exposed to mercury is elemental mercury vapor, mercury salts as mercuric chloride and organic mercury compounds such as methyl mercury. Poisoning can result from inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through the skin 7 .

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 NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS: A BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

 NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS: A BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

Histological study in CYP induced nephrotoxicity supported the findings of other parameters analyzed in different treatment groups. For the normal kidney, occasional blood vessels were seen in both cortex and medulla. Treatment with Mentha longifolia dose dependently inhibited CYP induced renal damage by preventing the focal degenerative changes in the renal tubular epithelial cells. Mentha longifolia predominantly in higher dose (500 mg/kg) was able to retrieve the pathological changes associated with CYP in renal epithelial cell.
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ALOE VERA ATTENUATES GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES

ALOE VERA ATTENUATES GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES

The A. vera plant extract was prepared as per the procedure described by Lawrence et al. (2009) [17] with slight modifications. In brief, the fully expanded leaves of A. vera were selected from the plants; washed with distilled water and were subjected to surface sterilization with 70% ethyl alcohol. The parenchymatous covering of the leaves were peeled and the gel drained out. The slurry was prepared with the help of pestle and mortar. For the preparation of ethanolic extract, fresh leaf gel was dried in the oven at 80°C for 48 hrs and then powdered. 20 g of this powder was soaked in 200 ml of ethanol for 24 and shaker was used to prevent sedimentation. It was then filtered through Whatman Filter No. 1, and the filtrate was concentrated by heating at 40°C, until complete evaporation of the solvent was achieved. 100 mg of this concentrated extract was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, and the resulting solution was administered to rats.
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Evaluating the nephron protective activity of Argyreia nervosa wholeplant against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino Wister rats

Evaluating the nephron protective activity of Argyreia nervosa wholeplant against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino Wister rats

In this work adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 150–200 g were purchased from the Sainath agencies, Basheerabadh, Hyderabad-48. The animals were housed in polypropylene cages under hygienic condition at room temperature 25 ± 4°C with relative humidity of 50–60%, on 12 h. Light/12 h. Dark cycle with standard rodent diet and water ad libitum, they were allowed to acclimatize to the conditions in the animal house of A. M. Reddy Memorial College of pharmacy. [19]

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PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA L  EXTRACT AGAINST GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR MALE ALBINO RATS

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA L EXTRACT AGAINST GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR MALE ALBINO RATS

In renal diseases, the serum urea accumulates because of the rate of serum urea production exceeds the rate of clearance 26 . Marked increase of urea and creatinine levels in serum was considered as the marker of nephrotoxicity 26, 27, 28 . Creatinine derives from endogenous sources by tissue creatinine breakdown. Thus serum urea concentration is often considered a more reliable renal function prediction than serum creatinine. Anyhow the level of uric acid is non-significantly increased in the toxicant group when compared to control. Oral dosing of plant extract marked reduction of the uric acid level in both treatment groups compared to the disease control group.
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HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) AGAINST CARBON TETRA CHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) AGAINST CARBON TETRA CHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

The liver regulates many important metabolic functions, detoxification, and secretory functions in the body. Hepatic injury is associated with distortion of these metabolic functions [1]. Thus, liver diseases remain one of the serious health problems and its disorders are numerous with no effective remedies. Despite, considerable progress in the treatment of liver diseases by oral hepatoprotective agents, search for newer drugs continues because the existing synthetic drugs have several limitations [2-4]. So, the search for new medicines is still ongoing. Because liver performs many vital functions in the human body and damage of liver causes unbearable problems. [5, 6]. Keeping this fact in view, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Malachra capitata (L.) leaves against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatic damage in albino rats.
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Protective Effects of Boerhaavia Diffusa Against Acetaminophen-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Protective Effects of Boerhaavia Diffusa Against Acetaminophen-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

In the present study, acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity was characterized by marked elevations in the circulating levels of BUN and serum creatinine in control (group II) rats. However, these changes were attenuated by pre-treatment with extract. In nephrotoxicity and renal disease, the serum urea and creatinine accumulates because the rate of production exceeds the rate of clearance due to compromised renal function [23]. The acute elevations in the measured biochemical parameters in group II rats, could also be attributed to increased catabolic state of the rats due to the prolonged anorexia associated with acetaminophen nephrotoxicity [24]. The anorexic state of the control nephrotoxic rats could account for the significant and progressive weight losses recorded for the acetaminophen treated rats. The weight gain in extract treated rats probably due to restoration of normal feeding pattern by the extract and its nutritious value, as B. diffusa contains a large amount of amino acids.
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Prophylactic Effect of Butea monosperma against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Prophylactic Effect of Butea monosperma against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

The acute toxicity study was performed for Butea monosperma extract according to OECD (423) guidelines. Wistar rats were selected randomly. The test groups include four treatment groups with dosages at 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Individual doses were calculated on the basis of body weight of the animal on the day of treatment. The animals were observed almost constantly for behavioral changes, mortality and appearance during firstly for first 4 hours, periodically during the 24 hours and then every day for a period of two weeks.
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EFFECTS OF SOME CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS AGAINSTS CCL4-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

EFFECTS OF SOME CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS AGAINSTS CCL4-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

increases the permeability of plasma membrane to calcium ion, resulting in severe disruption of calcium homeostasis and necrotic cell death (28, 29). The extent of kidney damage was assessed by the alterations in serum levels of Urea, Creatinine, potassium, sodium, and by histopathological examination. The aim of the study was to evaluate, the effects of selected calcium channel blockers (nifedipine and amlodipine) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute renal injury in

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Ameliorating potency of Chenopodium album Linn. and vitamin C against mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress in testes of Sprague Dawley rats

Ameliorating potency of Chenopodium album Linn. and vitamin C against mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress in testes of Sprague Dawley rats

the molecular level. For this, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry would provide evidence regard- ing signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of testicular damage and protection afforded by the plant extract. Additionally, the effect of plant extract at different doses will provide understanding on the more appropriate pre- scribed amount because for natural plant investigations, the dose used, especially content of antioxidants, is al- ways blurry, not to indicate the shift dose for humans. In animal study, antioxidants are given to animals via oral or intraperitoneal injection. Bearing in mind, ROS and oxidative stress act positively in certain circumstances and the variance between animals and humans, the ef- fective dose and safe dose, duration of treatment, ab- sorption, and bio-availability of antioxidants require thorough investigations. Therefore, in the future, large- scale samples and appropriate duration studies against various organ toxicities and protective influence of C. album should be performed.
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NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF PHYSALIS ALKEKENGI (SOLANACEAE) FRUIT AGAINST CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF PHYSALIS ALKEKENGI (SOLANACEAE) FRUIT AGAINST CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

After the collection of blood for the estimation of the hematological parameters, the rats were anesthetized under deep ether anesthesia then sacrificed and their kidneys were removed, weighed and washed with normal saline. Kidney tissues were collected in 10% formalin saline for proper fixation followed by routine Hematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining.

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ALLEVIATION OF CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS BY ROOTS OF Catunaregam uliginosa

ALLEVIATION OF CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS BY ROOTS OF Catunaregam uliginosa

Healthy Wistar strain male adult albino rats between 2 and 3 months of age and weighing about 150-200 g had been used in the present study. They were maintained in a 12 hrs light/dark cycle at a constant temperature 25°C with free access to standard rat pellet diet and water ad libitum. All experiments were carried out according to the guidelines for care and use of experimental animals by committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animals. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee.

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