Top PDF Influence of flanges on the shear-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement

Influence of flanges on the shear-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement

Influence of flanges on the shear-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement

T-beams are acknowledged as economic and efficient structural members widely used for floor slab construction systems. In many cases, according to practice in some countries, the beams do not present transverse reinforcement, and their shear strength is governing for dimensioning the width of the web. Although experimen- tal investigations have shown that the presence of the compression flange enhances the shear capacity with respect to equivalent rectangular cross sections, most cur- rent design codes neglect this phenomenon, which leads to the overdesign of these members. In this paper, the role of the compression flange of slender T-beams with concentrated loads is investigated with reference to its influence on the shape of the critical shear crack and to the associated shear transfer actions (STA) of the beam. The flanges are considered elements that allow the smearing of applied loads over a certain length of the web. This consideration, in combination with the mechanical model of the Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT), allows a consistent treatment of the phenomenon and leads to simple design expressions accounting for the role of flanges. The results of the proposed model are compared together with design codes (Model Code 2010, Eurocode 2, and ACI 318-11) and other shear design approaches to a database of 239 beams on T-shaped members. The comparison shows that the role of flanges is finely accounted with the proposal based on the CSCT, leading to consistent agreement and to strength predictions that are more suitable for design purposes than the other investigated design models.
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Influence of inclined web reinforcement on reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings.

Influence of inclined web reinforcement on reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings.

This paper reports the testing of fifteen reinforced concrete deep beams with openings. All beams tested had the same overall geometrical dimensions. The main variables considered were the opening size and amount of inclined reinforcement. An effective inclined reinforcement factor combining the influence of the amount of inclined reinforcement and opening size on the structural behaviour of the beams tested is proposed. It was observed that the diagonal crack width and shear strength of beams tested were significantly dependent on the effective inclined reinforcement factor that ranged from 0 to 0.318 for the test specimens. As this factor increased, the diagonal crack width and its development rate decreased, and the shear strength of beams tested improved. Beams having effective inclined reinforcement factor more than 0.15 had higher shear strength than that of the corresponding solid beams. A numerical procedure based on the upper bound analysis of the plasticity theory was proposed to estimate the shear strength and load transfer capacity of reinforcement in deep beams with openings. Predictions obtained from the proposed formulas have a consistent agreement with test results.
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The compression chord capacity model for the shear design and assessment of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams

The compression chord capacity model for the shear design and assessment of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams

equations. For the ACI318-11 provisions the ratio equals 1.44, 1.26 for EC-2, 1.35 for Model Code 2010 and 1.33 for CSA A23.3-14, using for the Model Code the better results obtained for the different levels of approximation. The CoV is 18.6% for the simplified model proposed in this paper. For ACI318-04, EC-2, MC- 2010 and CSA A23.3-14 the CoV equals 35.3%, 34.1%, 31.4% and 26.9% respectively. A recently published paper studied the scatter in the shear capacity of slender RC members without web reinforcement [46]. The authors concluded that the scatter of the shear capacity seems to be mainly due to the randomness of the tensile strength of concrete. Also recently, other authors confirmed that a comparison with different shear design models revealed that models that use the concrete tensile strength predict the shear capacity of continuous prestressed concrete beams with external prestressing more accurately [47] that the models that do not explicitly consider the tensile strength of the concrete. In this sense, the coefficient of variation of the predictions by the Compression Chord Capacity Model for the beam tests included in the four databases is not much higher than the coefficient of variation of the splitting tensile strength. In a published database of 78 splitting tensile tests [48], the coefficient of variation (COV) for the prediction of the tensile strength was 15.1%. This fact seems to indicate that the shear transfer mechanisms at failure have been well captured by the model.
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Influence of Fiber Content on Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

Influence of Fiber Content on Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

Abstract: For shear-critical structural elements where the use of stirrups is not desirable, such as slabs or beams with reinforcement congestion, steel fibers can be used as shear reinforcement. The contribution of the steel fibers to the shear capacity lies in the action of the steel fibers bridging the shear crack, which increases the shear capacity and prevents a brittle failure mode. This study evaluates the effect of the amount of fibers in a concrete mix on the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams with mild steel tension reinforcement and without stirrups. For this purpose, twelve beams were tested. Five different fiber volume fractions were studied: 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. For each different steel fiber concrete mix, the concrete compressive strength was determined on cylinders and the tensile strength was determined in a flexural test on beam specimens. Additionally, the influence of fibers on the shear capacity is analyzed based on results reported in the literature, as well as based on the expressions derived for estimating the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams. The outcome of these experiments is that a fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 can be used to replace minimum stirrups according to ACI 318-14 and a 0.6% fiber volume fraction or fiber factor of 0.48 to replace minimum stirrups according to Eurocode 2. A fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 was observed to change the failure mode from shear failure to flexural failure. The results of this presented study support the inclusion of provisions for steel fiber reinforced concrete in building codes and provides recommendations for inclusion in ACI 318-14 and Eurocode 2, so that a wider adoption of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be achieved in the construction industry.
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Shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams using neural network

Shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams using neural network

failed shear span was the only output of the NNs developed. Table 1 gives the ranges of input data in training, validation and test subsets used to develop the NNs. In the database, beam width of deep and slender beams ranged from 20 to 300 mm and from 100 to 457 mm, respectively, effective section depth is between 80 and 1,559 mm for deep beams and between 110 and 1,090 mm for slender beams, and longitudinal reinforcement ratio ranged between 0.0011 and 0.066 for deep beams and between 0.0028 and 0.066 for slender beams. The maximum ver- tical web reinforcement indices for deep and slender beams were 0.964 and 0.14, respectively, and the maximum horizontal web reinforcement index for deep beams was 1.847. The test speci- mens were made of concrete having a very low compressive strength of 11.2 MPa and 14.7 MPa for deep and slender beams, respectively, and a high compressive strength of 120 MPa and 125 MPa for deep and slender beams, respectively. Training, vali- dation and test subsets had 50%, 25%, and 25% of all specimens in the database, respectively. The input data in each subset were selected at equally spaced points throughout the database so that the range of input in training subset would cover the entire distri- bution of database and input in validation subset would stand for all points in training subset as shown in Table 1.
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Experimental investigation on the shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP reinforcement bars

Experimental investigation on the shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP reinforcement bars

Since the beams were prepared with different shear span length, significant influence can be seen from two types of failure mode. It is clearly shown that the beams with lesser a/d ratio (i.e.; BSM-01 to BSM-04) experienced higher capacity compared to beams which have greater a/d ratios (i.e.; BSM-05 to BSM-08). Similar results was found in beams which reinforced with GFRP bars i.e.; BGM-01 with 1.6 a/d ratios exhibit high capacity up to 233.2 kN rather than BGM-05 with a/d=3.1 that only reached 99.0 kN when it failed. It is shown that the ultimate capacity increases as the shear span-to-depth ratios decreases. In addition, two modes of failure, shear and flexure were observed from the test results. Sudden formation of diagonal crack can be found in the shear span zone followed by beam failure (BSM-03, BSM-04, BGM-03 and BGM-04). Additionally, the inclination of shear cracks growth rapidly as the load increase. While, beam failed in flexure experienced by one of the following condition i.e.; rupture of tensile longitudinal reinforcement for beam BGM-01, BGM-05, BGM-06, BGM-07 and BGM-08 and also concrete crushing on the top of
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Finite Element Analysis of High Strength Concrete Beams In Shear - Without Web Reinforcement and With Fiber in Shear Predominent Regions

Finite Element Analysis of High Strength Concrete Beams In Shear - Without Web Reinforcement and With Fiber in Shear Predominent Regions

Concrete is known for its good compressive strength and low tensile strength. Researchers are continuously striving to improve its tensile capacity, as it is being the most accepted composite used for all structural applications. In this course, usage of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) emerged and many studies having been undertaken over the past four decades. Numerous research‟s (e.g. Narayanan. R et al.,[1]; Kwak et al.,[2] ) has been conducted on the shear behavior of FRC over the past decades and the general conclusion is that, with proper mixture design FRC is capable of considerably increasing performance in terms of shear strength and ductility when compared to plain concrete. From most of the reviews, it may be concluded that Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) is a composite material with significantly better tensile strength and higher resistant to crack formation and propagation. Research on the high strength concrete showed that the cube compressive strength has less significance than the fracture energy for the description of the material behavior of structural elements.
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Investigating the Use of Spliced Swimmer Bars as Shear Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Investigating the Use of Spliced Swimmer Bars as Shear Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Beams

In this study, three reinforced concrete beams were tested using the new shear reinforcement swimmer bar system and the traditional stirrups system. Several shapes of swimmer bars are used to study the effect of swimmer bar configuration on the shear load carrying capacity of the beams (Al-Nasra et al 2013). Only three beams will be presented in this study. The first beam, BC, is used as a reference control beam where stirrups are used as shear reinforcement. The other two beams were reinforced by swimmer bars. Beam, WSB is the beam which is reinforced by two swimmer bars welded to the longitudinal top and bottom bars. Beam, SSB is the beam which is reinforced by swimmer bars spliced with the longitudinal steel reinforcement. Extra stirrups were used to make sure that the prepared beams will fail by shear in the swimmer bars side. In this investigation, all of the beams are supposed to fail solely in shear, so adequate amount of tension reinforcement were provided to give sufficient bending moment strength. This study aims at investigating a new approach of design of shear reinforcement through the use of splicing swimmer bars provided in the high shear region. The main advantages of this type of shear reinforcement system are: flexibility, simplicity, efficiency, and speed of construction. AlNasra and Asha (2013) studied the use of swimmer bars welded to the longitudinal steel reinforcement, and concluded that the beam reinforced with welded swimmers bars exhibit better shear resistance compared with the control sample beam reinforced with regular stirrups.
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Shear resistance of oil palm shell concrete beams with and without shear reinforcement

Shear resistance of oil palm shell concrete beams with and without shear reinforcement

Moody et.al [28 & 29] in 1954 presented experimental works on 40 NWC beams casted without shear reinforcement and 2 NWC beams casted with shear reinforcement, which were segregated into three series to observe the influence of the variables: (i) percentage of longitudinal and web reinforcement and method of anchorage, (ii) size and percentage of longitudinal reinforcement and cylindrical concrete strength and (iii) concrete mixture and method of curing. The concept of redistribution of internal stresses was introduced for the predictions of shear failure for NWC beams. For each of the 3 series, the sizes of the beams were different and the beams were tested with one or two concentrated load. It was observed that all beams failed in shear. It is observed that the shear capacity of the NWC beam specimens increased with the increment of concrete strength and percentage of longitudinal steel. It was also noted that the test results indicated that the beam strength tested at higher a/d ratio is governed by the first cracking load whilst the beam strength tested at lower a/d ratio is governed by the load, which caused destruction to the concrete compression zone. Hence, it is suggested by Moody et. al that instead of cracking load, ultimate load should be taken as the measured value for shear capacity.
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Diagonal Cracking Capacity and Ultimate Shear Strength of Slender RC Beams without Web Reinforcement

Diagonal Cracking Capacity and Ultimate Shear Strength of Slender RC Beams without Web Reinforcement

combined action of moment and shear taking the size effect into consideration is evaluated at the formation of diagonal tension cracks and at ultimate shear failure by using a method that combines both dimensional analysis and statistical analysis. Several sets of experimental data were carefully selected such that the influence of each basic variable (i.e., longitudinal steel ratio  , concrete compressive strength f c ' , shear span to depth ratio a / d or beam size d ) can be separately evaluated. Comparison with existing experimental results as well as with four existing models supports the validity of the two proposed models in predicting and explaining the observed behavior of slender RC beams ( a / d  2 . 5 ) without web reinforcement.
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Shear Capacity of Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforced Concrete Beams with Stirrups

Shear Capacity of Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforced Concrete Beams with Stirrups

Abstract—This study presents test results of simply supported concrete beams longitudinally reinforced either by steel or glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). A total of sixteen large-scale concrete beams with steel stirrups were constructed and tested under four-point monotonic loading until failure. Half of the beams were longitudinally reinforced with GFRP bars, while the other half was reinforced with conventional steel bars as control specimens. To examine the shear behavior of the GFRP reinforced concrete (RC) beams, the main parameters investigated in the study included shear span-effective depth ratios, longitudinal reinforcement ratios and stirrup ratios. Two modes of failure, namely flexure and shear were observed. Due to low modulus elasticity of FRP bars, it was found that lesser shear strength resulted in concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars compared to beams reinforced with steel bars. Moreover, the influence of the shear span-effective depth ratios and longitudinal reinforcement ratios significantly affect the distribution of internal forces in GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The test results correlated well with the prediction values provided by standard codes and design guidelines except in the case of GFRP reinforced concrete beams failed on shear.
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Influence of Shear Reinforcement on Reinforced Concrete Continuous Deep Beams

Influence of Shear Reinforcement on Reinforced Concrete Continuous Deep Beams

Comparisons between test results and predictions obtained from the strut-and-tie model recommended by ACI 318-05 as developed above are shown in Table 3 and Fig. 11: Fig. 11 (a) for simple deep beams given in appendix A and Fig. 11 (b) for continuous deep beams including Rogowsky et al.’s and Ashour’s test results. In simple deep beams, the width of strut can be calculated from w t ' cos   ( l p ) E sin  , and the total load is 2 F E sin  . Although Eq. (7) proposed by ACI 318-05 is recommended for deep beams having concrete strength of less than 40 MPa, the load capacity of H-series beams were also predicted using this equation to evaluate its conservatism in case of high-strength concrete deep beams. The mean and standard deviation of the ratio,
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Shear capacity of non metallic (FRP) reinforced concrete beams with stirrups

Shear capacity of non metallic (FRP) reinforced concrete beams with stirrups

Abstract— This study presents test results of simply supported concrete beams longitudinally reinforced either by steel or glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). A total of sixteen large-scale concrete beams with steel stirrups were constructed and tested under four-point monotonic loading until failure. Half of the beams were longitudinally reinforced with GFRP bars, while the other half was reinforced with conventional steel bars as control specimens. To examine the shear behavior of the GFRP reinforced concrete (RC) beams, the main parameters investigated in the study included shear span-effective depth ratios, longitudinal reinforcement ratios and stirrup ratios. Two modes of failure, namely flexure and shear were observed. Due to low modulus elasticity of FRP bars, it was found that lesser shear strength resulted in concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars compared to beams reinforced with steel bars. Moreover, the influence of the shear span-effective depth ratios and longitudinal reinforcement ratios significantly affect the distribution of internal forces in GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The test results correlated well with the prediction values provided by standard codes and design guidelines except in the case of GFRP reinforced concrete beams failed on shear.
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Shear Strength of Normal and Light Weight Reinforced Concrete Slender Beams without Web Reinforcement

Shear Strength of Normal and Light Weight Reinforced Concrete Slender Beams without Web Reinforcement

Abstract There is no general consensus or accepted theory for evaluating the ultimate shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement as a result the requirements in most of Codes of practice are provided in the form of empirical equations for predicting the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams. In this paper, a study is conducted to evaluate the predictive accuracy of 6 empirical equations used in different Code of practice to predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete slender beams. Empirical equations used in some Codes are identified to be superior to other equations. In addition, a study was also conducted to assess predictive accuracy of 17 empirical equations proposed in the literature by several researchers to predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete slender beams. Among these 17 empirical equations some equations are identified to be superior to the other proposed equations. On the basis of experimental results of reinforced concrete beams having shear span to depth ratio a/d ≥2.5, empirical equations are proposed which include basic parameters i.e. concrete compressive strength , shear
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Energy Absorption Capacity Of Layered Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beams With Openings In Web

Energy Absorption Capacity Of Layered Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beams With Openings In Web

The effect of small circular opening on the shear and flexural and ultimate strength of beams were investigated. The main factors of the test are the diameter changes and the opening position. In this study, five beams were casted and tested using C20 concrete and Fy415 steel. The first beam was solid and was used as control for comparison with other beams with an opening. The second beam opened at distance of L/8 by 110mm (0.55D), third beam opened at distance of L/8 by 90mm (0.45D). Beam number four and beam number five had openings at distance L/4 as mentioned above. The tested beams were loaded with two concentrated and symmetrical load as simple beam. They conclude that the reduction of ultimate strength increased and cracking patterned as well as the beam failure mode when the opening diameter increased. To increase the ultimate shear strength of the beam, they recommended the use of diagonal reinforcement and stirrups in top and bottom chords of opening. They also concluded that the most critical opening position to achieve the ultimate strength in beams is near the support and that the best opening place in these beams is mid span (flexure zone) [18].
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Shear behaviour of steel fibre-reinforced high strength lightweight concrete beams without web reinforcement

Shear behaviour of steel fibre-reinforced high strength lightweight concrete beams without web reinforcement

and SFRC members are shown in order to clarify the differences. The ratios based on theoretical values calculated by predicted equations showed an approximate uniform consistency while the rates based on the codes calculations a great gap. This is due to the fact that the codes neglect the effect of steel fibres in their equations whereas the predicted equations by investigators were specifically designed for SFRC beams. It can be noticeable from 5.6 that the average ratios of the experimental shear strengths to the theoretical code values are conservative for all beams. All ratios are highly conservative for SFRC beams in particular for the reason mentioned previously about ignoring the effect of the presence of steel fibres. ACI and CSA codes slightly underestimated the nominal shear strength for all beams except NNB sample that showed lower experimental shear strength than ACI result for the same beam. ACI and CSA did not consider steel fibres in beams in predicting shear strength. Therefore, experimental shear resitance values of beams with steel fibres were noticeably greater than the codes predictions. This is definitely attributed to the higher flexural capacity gained by the presence of steel fibres in those beams. Those samples in fact failed in flexure without even knowing how much shear stresses they could resist. That is, the actual shear strength of beams failed in flexure is highly greater than codes prediction. On the other hand, the underestimation predictions by codes for reference RC beams are purposely reduced by codes for safety reasons in order to keep the designed beams in the safe side.
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Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Different Shear Reinforcement by Using CFRP

Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Different Shear Reinforcement by Using CFRP

Asghari et al. (2013), presented an experimental investigation on shear strength enhancement of reinforced concrete lightweight deep beams externally reinforced with vertical CFRP sheets. The shear span/depth ratio was taken equal to 1, and the percentage of shear strength improving by strengthening was 30%. Khudair and Atea (2015), studied the shear behavior of self-compacting concrete deep beams strengthened with CFRP sheets. The experimental work includes testing of reinforced concrete self-compacting concrete (SCC) deep beams with shear span/depth ratio of 2. The tested results show that the specimens strengthened by vertical CFRP sheets provided enhancement in ultimate loads reached 30%.
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Experimental investigation on the shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP reinforcement bars

Experimental investigation on the shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP reinforcement bars

In this study, the failure modes of BSM are governs by steel yielding before the concrete strain at the compression area reached the maximum permissible value of 0.0035 [11]. For shear reinforcement, 2-legged steel stirrups of 8 mm diameter (mild steel) were spaced at 50 mm and 150 mm centre to centre at the shear region. These two kinds of spacing were calculated based on BS8110 code provisions in order to investigate the shear performance of the beams with minimum and adequate amount of stirrups. In each specimen, strain gauges were position at selected locations at longitudinal bars, stirrups and concrete which were labelled as X (see Fig. 1). The deflection of the beam was measured by at mid-span and two loading points.
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Stepwise Regression for Shear Capacity Assessment of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

Stepwise Regression for Shear Capacity Assessment of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

Moreover, in order to picture confirmation of the SR development model, a parametric analysis was accomplished based on the procedure that proposed in [41]. The mentioned procedure examines the response of the developed formulae to a set of assumed data. Based on this method, one input is changed while the other inputs are remained constant at their average. If this analysis yields conformed results to the underlying of problem, the strength of developed formulae is proved. For this study, the results of the mentioned parametric analysis show in Fig. 3. In fact, Fig. 3 illustrates the tendency of the shear capacity of SFRC beams to the variations of 𝑉 𝑓 , 𝑙 𝑓 ⁄ 𝑑 𝑓 , 𝜌 𝑙 , 𝑑, 𝑎 𝑑 ⁄ and 𝑓 𝑐 ′ . Therefore,
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Shear behaviour of macro-synthetic fibre-reinforced concrete beams GFRP reinforcement

Shear behaviour of macro-synthetic fibre-reinforced concrete beams GFRP reinforcement

The test results revealed that the inclusion of different volumes of macro synthetic fibre enhanced the shear failure behaviour of GFRP reinforced concrete beams, and [r]

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