Top PDF The Influence Of Friction Stir Welding Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

The Influence Of Friction Stir Welding Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

The Influence Of Friction Stir Welding Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

Conventional welding processes are unsuitable for welding the heat treatable alloy (AA6061), making it necessary for it be examined by other welding methods such as Friction stir welding (FSW). The friction stir welding technology is being widely considered by the modern aerospace and automotive industry for high performance structural demanding application. The problem arises here is that the heat treatable alloy (AA6061) used in our test is used to in the production of very critical applications or equipment such as aircrafts where there is no space for any compensation. So, this alloy should has the high mechanical properties. This aluminum alloy (6XXX) is challenging to weld via conventional welding processes, mostly owing to the poor solidification microstructure and the presence of porosity in the fusion zone, and the loss of mechanical properties. These factors make the connecting of this alloy via conventional welding processes unattractive. It is known that aluminum alloys are hard to weld, mostly due to its high thermal conductivity and the potential of forming defects, such as porosity and solidification cracking. This makes them unsuitable for aerospace or other similar applications.
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Influence of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar AA6061 and AA7075 Alloy Joints

Influence of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar AA6061 and AA7075 Alloy Joints

The main objective of this research is to conduct an investigation into the effect of welding parameters on the microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir (FS) welded butt joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7075. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. This will be used to join aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. In this process, two metal pieces, AA6061 and AA7075, 100 x 50 x 6mm thick, are welded under different welding parameters like tool rotation speed and transverse feed. The effects of welding parameters were evaluated by studying the resulting mechanical properties such as hardness distribution and tensile properties for axial welded zone.
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Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW) of 3 mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. Friction Stir Welding is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone). Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined.
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Corrosion behaviour of friction stir welded lap joints of 6061-t6 aluminum alloy

Corrosion behaviour of friction stir welded lap joints of 6061-t6 aluminum alloy

Actually, this comprehensive study is the first report attempting to quantify the corrosion evaluation of FSLW in AA6061-T6 aluminium alloy according to welding parameters and process sensitivity. The goals of the present study is to evaluate the influence of FSW parameters mainly ω and ν on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061-T6 and then corrosion behaviors of desirable AA 6061-T6 welded lap joints. In this study, parametric studies were performed involving a lap type of weld including process parameters such as rotation speed (ω, rpm) and welding speed (ν, mm/min). Different rotation speeds and welding speeds were determined according to predefine welding process parameters. Overlap shear tensile testing and micro- hardness measurement was conducted for evaluating the effect of the FSW process on the mechanical properties of weldments. Metallography examinations of weldments structure (i.e. macro and micro) was performed for investigating the influence of the FSW process on the microstructure of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. According to ASTM standards, corrosion behaviors of desirable AA 6061-T6 welded lap joints was examined by using various corrosion test methods including immersion test (i.e. intergranular corrosion test, ASTM G110) and potentiodynamic polarization tests (i.e. Tafel plots and pitting scans, ASTM G59 &G61). Optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with dispersive energy X-ray (EDX) analysis were utilized for characterizing the weldment microstructures.
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An Experimental Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameter on Friction Stir Welding of AA 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy using RSM

An Experimental Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameter on Friction Stir Welding of AA 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy using RSM

Response surface methodology (RSM) [14] is an interaction of mathematical and statistical techniques for modelling and optimizing the response variable models which several independent variables influence a dependent variable or response and the goal is to optimize the response [15] Experiments have been carried out according to the experimental plan based on central composite rotatable second-order design (CCD)matrix with the star points being at the center of each face of factorial space was used,. The upper limit of a factor was coded as +1, and the lower limit was coded as –1. The “face-centered CCD” involves 20 experimental observations at three independent input variables. The experimental Friction stir welding parameters and their levels in this study in the actual form is given in Table 2
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Influence of Welding Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 6061 T6 Launch Box

Influence of Welding Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 6061 T6 Launch Box

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a welding process which deals with joining parts in a solid state at low temperature to result in welded parts with excellent mechanical performance, such as low distortion and high tensile strength. Additionally friction stir welding is applicable to aluminum alloy products with precision dimensions. By using friction stir welding parameters, this research studies the tensile strength, hardness, elongation rates, and shrinkage of extruded 6061-T6 alloy. Results indicate that the joining strength of the extruded 6061-T6 alloy can reach 78% of the base metal after friction stir welding. Meanwhile, welding parameters can accurately predict and control the welding distortion of welded products. This research applies these results in the manufacturing of launch boxes to arrive at a technology that can be directly applied to welded products without expensive as-welded modifications. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.L-MRA2008829]
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Friction Stir Welding Process of Aluminum-lithium Alloy 2195

Friction Stir Welding Process of Aluminum-lithium Alloy 2195

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, invented at the Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991 [6]. Joining takes place by means of a non-consumable rotating tool with a threaded pin to provide a combination of frictional heating by the tool shoulder, and stirring of the soft material by the pin along the joint line. It is important to avoid overheating since the temperature must be maintained to be below the solidus of the equilibrium phase diagram for the materials being joined. The main advantage is its ability to join metals without melting precludes the risk of traditional defects found in fusion welds such as liquidation cracking, solidification cracking, or oxide formation. Frictional heat generated by rotation of the tool due to the high normal pressure and shearing action of the shoulder along the joint line causes a softened zone of material without melting. This softened material cannot escape outside as it is under constrained extrusion by the tool shoulder. As the tool travels along the joint line, material is moved around the tool probe between the retreating side of the tool and the surrounding non-deformed material. The mixed and extruded material is deposited to form a mechanically mixed joint in solid state behind the tool [7]. After cooling, a solid phase bond is created in microstructure of metal that has been stirred and mixed together. This process requires low energy input and joins materials without consumable filler metals, sparks, fumes, or shielding gas, so it is a kind of green technology. It is energy efficient and produces reliable products with automated process and improved productivity [8]. In addition, in most cases the localized heat during friction welding results in a refined microstructure, which can provide improved strength relative to the parent material. Key process parameters include travel speed, rotational speed, normal compressive load, and fixture geometry. The details of the tool geometry are crucial for determining optimum condition and usually are proprietary. The purpose of the current study was to study the friction stir welding process on mechanical and microstructural properties of Aluminum alloy 2195-T0 and T8. Since FSW is both a deformation and a thermal process, microstructural evolution during FSW is evaluated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of weldments were investigated for different welding conditions so that the optimum welding condition is determined for different heat treated alloys.
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Friction Stir Welding Aluminum Alloy H20 H20 Conventional and Overlap Joints Mechanical Properties

Friction Stir Welding Aluminum Alloy H20 H20 Conventional and Overlap Joints Mechanical Properties

Optimizing the Process Parameters of FSW. The significant of this paper is to discuss mechanical properties of overlap and conventional joints for aluminum alloys for the first time. One of the common joint in mechanical engineering design is overlap joints the nature of the challenges in design process is how can we decide the type of joint in primary design for different application. Previous work in this field all compare welded joint with different tools and different materials work piece .in this project we want to compare the mechanical properties of conventional and overlap joints. The results will help design process in different situation. It is worthy to know that Excessive welding heat input of any high load may cause the peak load and energy absorption capability significantly reduce. Maladjustment of the process parameter may cause change in pullout failure location from base metal to weld nugget edge due to severe indentation[3].corrosion Resistance of aluminum alloy H20 is very good. Besides, its strength is quite satisfactory. Aluminum alloy H20 widely used by different industries like structural and platform manufacturing. Aluminum alloy H20 machinability is excellent with a good control in grain structure .these characteristics make aluminum alloy H20 excellent for FSW process Aluminum alloy H20 a medium Strength alloy with excellent corrosion Resistance. Alloy H20 is known as a structural alloy. In plate form, H20 is the alloy most commonly used for machining. As a relatively new alloy, the higher strength of H20 has seen it replace 6061 in many applications. The addition of a large amount of manganese controls the Grain structure which in turn results in a stronger alloy. It is difficult to produce thin walled, complicated extrusion shapes. The extruded surface finish is not as smooth as other similar strength alloys. In the T4 and T6 temper, alloy H20 machines well and produce tight coils of swarf when chip breakers are used [4].
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													Effect of tool pin profile on dissimilar friction stir welding of aluminum alloy aa 7075 t651 and aa 6061 t6

1. Effect of tool pin profile on dissimilar friction stir welding of aluminum alloy aa 7075 t651 and aa 6061 t6

Abstract- Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process where in two materials are joined without melting the material. The process is well suited for non ferrous materials such as aluminum, copper, magnesium, zinc etc. It is an effective technique for joining dissimilar metal and alloys and finds its application in various fields such as aerospace and automotive industries. In this attempt is made to join aluminum alloy AA 7075 T651 and AA 6061 T6 condition by friction stir welding technique under different process parameters such as tool rotation speed (750 rpm to 1250 rpm), welding speed (90 mm/min to 110 min) and using five different tools pin profiles –threaded cylindrical (TC), triangular profile (TP), conical profile (CP), square profile (SP) and hexagonal profile (HP). The outcome of the experimentation indicated that square tool pin profile and hexagonal tool pin profile at the tool rotation speed of 1250 rpm and the welding speed of 110 mm/min respectively yielded good quality welds in contrast to other tool pin profiles.
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Experimental Investigation on Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6 Using Multi Profile Tool by Friction Stir Welding

Experimental Investigation on Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6 Using Multi Profile Tool by Friction Stir Welding

Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties. Among all aluminum alloys, AA 6061 alloy plays major role in the aerospace industry in which magnesium and silicon (0.3-1.5 w%, Si, Mg) are the principal alloying elements. Aluminum alloys 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy with a strength higher than 6005A. It has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability although reduced strength in the weld zone. It is widely used in the aerospace applications because it has good formability, weldability, machinabilty, corrosion resistance, and good strength compared to other aluminum alloys.
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Design and Experimental study of Friction stir welding of AA6061 T6 Alloy for optimization of welding parameters by using Lathe Machine

Design and Experimental study of Friction stir welding of AA6061 T6 Alloy for optimization of welding parameters by using Lathe Machine

welding process for joining metallic alloys and it is useful in serve industries for joining aluminium, magnesium and copper alloys. The various parameter such as rotational speed, transverse speed and tool tilt angle play important roles in FSW process and quality weld. The aim of this study is to know the relation between the effects of different transvers speed and tool profile on the weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminium. The geometry of the pin tool along with the process parameters plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. The tool geometry was carefully chosen and fabricated to have a nearly flat welded interface pin profile. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of various tool profiles on mechanical properties of aluminium alloy. Various tool profiles have been used to fabricate joints by using varying thickness work piece of Aluminium alloy. Numerical techniques particularly, the finite element method for the simulation of FSW for thermal, mechanical and thermo-mechanical modelling has been investigated. The current studies also aim to understand mechanical properties during the FSW.
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Friction Stir Welding of a Commercial 7075 T6 Aluminum Alloy: Grain Refinement, Thermal Stability and Tensile Properties

Friction Stir Welding of a Commercial 7075 T6 Aluminum Alloy: Grain Refinement, Thermal Stability and Tensile Properties

subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) 18) exhibits max- imum elongation more than 1250% at a temperature of 753 K and the thermal stability of fine-grained microstructure developed during FSP up to 773 K. The distinction between the present results and data reported by Mishra et al. 16,17) may be resulted from different techniques used for the develop- ment of a fine-grained microstructure and experimental conditions, such as tool sizes, tool rotation and traverse speeds, phase composition, etc. These conditions may have a significant influence on fine-grained microstructure devel- oped, mechanical properties and thermal stability of such structure. Effect of conditions mentioned above need further investigations.
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The Influence of Parameters Affecting Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Semi Solid Metal 7075 Aluminum Alloy by Using Friction Stir Spot Welding

The Influence of Parameters Affecting Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Semi Solid Metal 7075 Aluminum Alloy by Using Friction Stir Spot Welding

The current welding technology is more diverse than ever since the different forms of products are manufactured to serve various types of industries. The choices of welding processes are also different and depend on the types of materials used, mechanical properties as well as the specimens for being welded. During the past 4 decades, solid state welding technique has been widely used [1], especially friction stir welding [2]. This interesting welding provides many advantages such as no filler adding, no melting, environmentally friendly process, etc [3]. However, friction welding technique is also available in many ways such as friction welding [4-6] or friction stir spot welding [7-9]. This interesting welding is applicable for welding parts of automobile and boat building industries[10]. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) was originally developed by friction stir welding at the Welding Institute in Great Britain [11]. The welded specimen relies on the heat derived from the friction of the surface of the specimen and tool shoulder. Then, the tool pin is employed to drag the soft heated material to be welded together. The significant variables of the FSSW are rotation welding speed, welding time and depth of plunge [12]. Furthermore, there are also other variables such as smoothness of surface, cleanliness of weld surface or even the shape of the welding tool [13-14]. However, most of the automobile and boat building industries usually use light weight material to produce the automotive and boat components or parts. Aluminum alloy is one of raw materials employed to manufacture parts and components since its light weight, high strength and corrosion resistance. Especially, Semi Solid Metal 7075 (SSM 7075) aluminum alloy is also used in automobile and boat building industries [15]. Thus, it is necessary to provide the best welding alloy or steel for manufacturing the premium grade products. For the aforementioned reasons, this led to the study of the influence of some relevant variables affecting mechanical properties and microstructure of SSM7075 aluminum alloy by using FSSW. The parameters included mechanical properties (strength, shear tensile strength and hardness) as well as microstructures. Then, the results were statistically analyzed to find the relationship between microstructures and mechanical properties of each variable in the experiments for determining the statistical reliability for engineering work.
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STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY (6061) BY USING DIFFERENT TOOL SHAPES IN FRICTION STIR WELDING

STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY (6061) BY USING DIFFERENT TOOL SHAPES IN FRICTION STIR WELDING

Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state welding process was invented and experimentally proven by Wayne Thomas and a team of his colleagues at the Welding Institute UK and patented by the TWI in 1991, emerged as a welding technique to be used in high-strength alloys that are difficult to join with conventional technique . The process was developed initially for aluminum alloys, but since then FSW was found suitable for joining a large number of materials. In aeronautics, for instance, riveting is the preferred manufacturing process for aircraft fuselage structures; nevertheless, In FSW process, a non-consumable rotating tool, consisting of a shoulder and profiled probe or pin, is forced down into the joint line under conditions where the frictional heating is sufficient to raise the temperature of the material to the range where it is plastically deformed as shown in figure. In friction stir welding (FSW) a rotating cylindrical, shouldered tool with a profiled probe penetrates into the material until the tool shoulder contacts with the upper surface of the plates, which are butted together as shown in
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INFLUENCES OF TOOL PIN PROFILE ON THE MECHANICAL AND METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDING OF DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM ALLOY R.PALANIVEL

INFLUENCES OF TOOL PIN PROFILE ON THE MECHANICAL AND METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDING OF DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM ALLOY R.PALANIVEL

A lot of research has been already done towards understanding the effect of tool pin profiles, tool dimension and process parameters on the material flow behavior, microstructure formation and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints. Finding the most effective parameters for FSW, as well as realizing their influence on the weld properties, has been the major topics for researchers [7-10].

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The investigation of structure and mechanical properties Dissimilar joining of aluminum 5052 sheet to titanium alloy by friction stir welding

The investigation of structure and mechanical properties Dissimilar joining of aluminum 5052 sheet to titanium alloy by friction stir welding

[2] M. I. Costa, D. Verdera, C. Leitão, D. M. Rodrigues, Dissimilar friction stir lap welding of AA 5754-H22/AA 6082-T6 aluminium alloys: Influence of material properties and tool geometry on weld strength, Materials & Design, Vol. 87, No. 11, pp. 721-731, 2015. [3] B. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Shen, W. Hu, L. Luo, Dissimilar friction stir

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Influence of Temperature on Fatigue Life for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy Materials

Influence of Temperature on Fatigue Life for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy Materials

researchers. Therefore, the following papers followed the same investigation for frication stir welding characterizations, At, (2003), Y. J. Chao et al. [2], investigated the heat transfer between the tool and the well through frication stir welding. The investigation included the experimental and numerical techniques, by using finite element method, the heat generation due to friction stir welding are evaluated. The results showed that the heat flow with 5% through the tool and 95% flow through the work-piece. Also, H. J. Liu et Al, [3], presented evaluating of mechanical tensile properties for fracture location of friction stir welding of aluminum alloy types (2017-T351). The mechanical tensile properties for fracture joint are evaluated by using experimental techniques, where, the tensile properties are calculated with various parameters to investigate the effect of friction stir processing. In addition, the results showed that the maximum properties for friction stir welding joint obtained at frication stir processing with parameters as, 0.07 mm/rev pitch, 100 mm/min welding speed, and 1500 rpm rotation speed.
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Effect of Heat Treatment T6 on the Friction Stir Welded SSM 6061 Aluminum Alloys

Effect of Heat Treatment T6 on the Friction Stir Welded SSM 6061 Aluminum Alloys

manufacturing. In this work, semi solid metal was obtained from a new Rheo casting technique called Gas Induced semi-solid (GISS) [1,2]. It was clear that the joint between cast Al alloy has increasingly expanded in the usage of casting component in automotive such as suspension, driveline and engine parts. Conventional fusion welding of SSM aluminium die casting alloys is generally difficult due to the formation of blowholes in weld. In addition, the microstructure is also altered [3,4]. Therefore, a new welding method is required to overcome these problems. In recent year, friction stir welding (FSW) was developed as a solid conditions joining process in which materials are joined by the frictional heat [5]. This process is effective for the welding of aluminium alloys. However, only a limited number of studies have been carried out on SSM cast aluminium alloys. In the case of conventional A356 alloys, the mechanical properties of the joints are improved in comparison to the base metal [6]. Another study of ADC12 [7] shows that the stir zone is comprised of a fine recrystallized zone without dendritic structure. Previous studies also reveal that the strength of friction stir welds mainly depend on the heat treatment condition before and after joining [3,6,7,8,9,10]. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect that FSW has on the mechanical properties of the SSM 6061 alloy in as cast and heat treated condition. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of the weld joint have been studied and the results are reported.
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Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welding – A Review

Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welding – A Review

of joints of AA6061 and AA7075 are investigated. The tensile strength of the dissimilar joints increases with decreasing heat input. When welding was conducted at highest welding speed and AA6061 Al plates were fixed on advancing side, the high strength of the joint was observed. The joints were failed at positions in HAZ on AA6061 side where the minimum hardness is located and observed that very good tensile strength and ductility. The tool process parameter plays a significant effect on the micro structural evolution [10]. The tools used for FSW of aluminium alloys are straight, cylindrical, taper, triangular made of HSS [4]. The process parameters can influence the friction stir welding joint quality such as welding speed, rotational speed, tilt angle, vertical downward force applied between the tool shoulder and the surface of the work piece [6]. The CNC operated Milling machine suited for friction stir welding process at low cost for joining heat treatable aluminium alloys for aerospace and automobile industries. A detailed review is given on how to convert a conventional milling machine into a CNC milling machine to perform the Friction stir welding. To join a couple of 3-mm thick AA2219 and designed suitable tool and analysed the performance of welded joint. They concluded that the tool profile plays an important role of friction stir welding.The load bearing capacity of tool pin of L80 steel and AA7075 alloy and used a three dimensional heat transfer and visco-plastic model to observe the influence of pin length and diameter on traverse force during FSW. With increase in pin length the total traverse force increases significantly [5].
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Material characterization and optimisation of friction stir welds of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy

Material characterization and optimisation of friction stir welds of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy

In this study, the effect of rotational speed and traverse speed on the micro – and macrostructure, and mechanical properties (tensile and microhardness properties) of friction stir butt-welded 6061-T6 aluminium alloy has been investigated. A number of research studies have been conducted on friction stir welding of various aluminium alloys, the rotational and traverse speeds were noticed to have a greater influence on the formation of a quality weld. In this study, welds were fabricated from different parameter combinations by varying the rotational and traverse speeds during the welding procedure. The rotational speeds employed representing the low, medium and high settings are 700, 900, and 1100 rpm respectively while the traverse speeds utilised were 60, 80, and 100 mm/min traverse speeds. To ascertain the joint integrities, the welds were characterised through hardness, microstructure, and tensile tests. The hardness test was performed along the cross-section of the welds. The changes in the microstructure and hardness were analysed and further correlated to the tensile strength of the 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope were used for microstructural analysis. Instron machine and Vickers hardness machine were used to perform tensile and hardness tests, respectively. The results showed that the grain size decreased from the heat affected zone (HAZ) towards the centre of the nugget zone (NZ) due to the stirring during the FSW process. The average hardness in the NZ decreased when the rotational speed varied from 700 rpm to 900 rpm, and then increased with a further increase in the rotational speed to 1100 rpm at constant traverse speeds of 60, 80 and 100 mm/min.
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