Also Chauhan (2002) posited that, there is a positive correlation between poverty and crime involving very high earnings and very low risks. He observed that the highest percentage of criminals come from low socio-economic background. Furthermore, he observed that all persons who come from under-privilege class are criminals. The crucial factor in poor homes is that parents cannot fulfill the legitimate needs of their children. This financial incapability makes students vulnerable to the deceit of cultism, who deceives them that they will empower them and meet their needs only to end up being a cultist. On his part, Ekpo (2000) view socio-economicstatus as a complex phenomenon which exerts pervasive influence on all aspect of one’s life. He noted that socio-economicstatus is a liability that renders students vulnerable to the mischievous antics of cultists in order to make ends meet. Ukpong (1999) observed that socio-economicstatus has some sociological implication on the society. She e xplained that crime rates like cultism, gangsters, rape, street life such as hawking, prostitution and drug addiction are seriously on the increase because of poverty. Similarly, Essien
academic skills especially due to its mixed-age classes. The study further determined that numeracy competency differs with the quality of the pre-school environments. The amount of space, also influence the learning outcomes according to New Jersey Department of Education (2014). The report states that most of the children who are physically challenged, English Language Learners and from disadvantaged backgrounds do not have access to quality preschool environment compromising its quest to ensure access to quality education. Moreover, the report cites that there existed a social class line when analysis was done on parents’ choice of schools. Parents who were categorized as economically well were found to choose schools based on environmental quality and availability of resources despite the fact that such schools were more expensive than others. This implies that perception on quality of preschool environment has been a factor of consideration when German parents choose the schools where they take their children. The same case is reflected in India and China where overcrowding and limited space prevents access to the quality environment (Nores, & Barnett, 2010).
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of parents’ socio-economicstatus on schools in Keiyo North Sub County of Elgeyo-Marakwet The specific objectives of this study were; to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education, occupational status and level of income on absenteeism among secondary ols students in public day schools. The study was guided by Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of The study employed stratified random sampling to select 294 students. The instrument for data generation was questionnaires and document retest was used to determine the reliability of the Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive uencies and percentages and inferential statistics (Chi-square) was used to determine associations between variables. The level of significance for testing the null The study results indicated that indicated that the parent’s level of income was =13.237, df=4, p=0.010). On the other hand, the mother’s occupation was significantly associated with the mother’s absenteeism (χ2 =17.989, df=4, fathers and mothers attained secondary and primary education miss school compared to those whose fathers/mothers attained college or university education. The study recommends mitigation through school feeding programme (SFP) need to be y will be useful to parents, school and the community at large, to find ways of supporting the school in order for learners to achieve a better life in future.
In India, in a study carried out by Murphy (2005) on eliminating child labour through education had found that eradication of child labour was one of the effective strategies for improving pupils’ participation in school. The other strategy was starting programmes to address poverty which was one of the causes of child labour. Bonds (2012) also in India, in a study on evaluation of the impact of a feeding programme on educational attainment had found that feeding program lead to increased enrolment rates especially for children from low socio- economicstatus. This means that one of the strategies that could be used to overcome child neglect will be the introduction of feeding programmes to provide food to neglected children in order to retain them in school.
Economic policies and institutional structures should be modified to improve production, accessibility to the market, raise income and lower the vulnerability of the poor people (Tooley, 2012). The rural poor should be empowered. The pre-primary schools should be made basic education free and compulsory. The causes of poverty should be brought under control through subsidizing farmers inputs and provision of market for market produce and provision of insurance; provision of security; creation of job opportunities directly/indirectly; improving the terms and conditions of workers by declaring the least wages; provision of accountability and transparency in governance; instituting sound legal frameworks dealing with land tenures and adjudication systems; provision of adequate and good infrastructure; and provision of low subsidized cost of social services in education and health sectors (Adoyo, 2014).
The level of education influences the parents’ knowledge, beliefs, values, and goals about childbearing, so that a variety of parental behaviors are indirectly related to children’s school performance (Joan, 2009). For instance, higher socioeconomicstatus and high levels of education may enhance parents’ ability to become involved in their children’s education, and also enable parents to acquire and model social skills and problem solving strategies conducive to their children’s school success. Although parental participation has the greatest effect in the early years; its importance to children’s educational and literary outcomes continues into the teenage and even adult years (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). For instance, Feinstein and Symons (1999) found that parental interest in their child’s education was the single greatest predicator of achievement at the age of sixteen.
Some pre-primary sector institutions have practices that cannot help in access and retention of children in Kenya, many parents need their children to learn academics. They associate play with backwardness. They equate writing in exercise books thus use of the pen as learning. They have conditioned teachers. This has led to lack of play in our institutions. Children are pumped with knowledge at an early age which results them not liking schools. Children may prefer staying at home. Schools lack facilities and due to demand, anyone without knowledge on pre- primary school can start his/her institution for business purpose. This is an indicator of parents‟ ignorance reflected in their level of education, inability to fund the school needs due to low income and need children around them to support in household chores limiting children‟s enrolment and participation (Global Monitoring Report, 2012).
The principles of the Family Investment Model are outlined along with an extension of the model to include the relevance of parental educational achievements and occupational positions. The FIM branches from the concept that parents with higher Socio-EconomicStatus compared to lower- SES have greater access to financial, social, and human capital. Access to these three forms of capital is more specifically described as income, occupational status, and education, respectively. According to the FIM, families with higher income are capable of investing more in child development. These investments include provision of learning materials and a stimulating environment. The FIM proposes that parents with higher education place a priority on activities and experiences that foster their children's academic success. Conger and Donnellan (2007) stated that parents with more education are more knowledgeable and possess a greater understanding of ways to encourage the academic success of their children. In terms of occupational status, the FIM proposes that there is a positive correlation between work role prestige and provision of access to career-related activities for their child. Taken collectively, the FIM proposes that parents invest their economic, educational, and occupational capital in ways that aid the well-being of their children into adulthood. This investment of resources, as outlined in the FIM, was also reported by Conger, Conger, and Martin (2010). Conger et al. (2010) also reported a detailed overview of the FIM and research that has been conducted to assess its validity. The report provides findings of several studies that support the preliminary model of family investment, which considered only the influence of economic well-being. These studies outline the two most basic principles of the influence of income: (1) family income positively influences educational, financial, and occupational success during adulthood, and (2) family income influences investment of resources that foster the well-being of their children. Conger et al. (2010) stated the importance of extending the FIM to consider the influence of education and occupational status in addition to the influence of economic wellbeing.
Mathematics been the chief corner stone in the sciences is not left out in this issue. The results of WAEC from 2001 to 2005 in mathematics indicated that a high proportion of students recorded failure grade F9 and low pass grade of P7 and P8. Also from 2005 – 2011 the percentage of students who obtained five credit including English and mathematics ranges between 15% to 31% (Uwadiae, 2008 & All African. Com, 2012). Igbokwe (2003) stressed that without mathematics there will be no technology and without technology there will be no modern society. This implies that a strong background in mathematics is critical for the nation’s development. It is not surprising therefore the interest of WAEC, mathematics teachers, educationist, parents and government in finding solutions to the problems that militate against the teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.
The researchers are interested in mathematics because it offers what is perhaps the clearest and most concentrated example of intelligent learning, which is to say the formation of conceptual structures communicated and manipulated by means of symbols (Skemp, 1971). Besides, for young children or pupils who are in their most important developmental stage of life, what they learn now andwhat happens to them now would influence them for the rest of theirlives because the early years of their lives are the most determinant of their psychosocial and cognitive development (UNICEF, 2005).This period can be regarded as a period of a remarkable brain development which lays anamazing platform for subsequent learning since any stage not properly explored would reappear as a problem in future (Erikson, 1968). Regrettably, in the recent time, some students perform abysmally poorly in mathematics because, most of them have an erroneous belief that mathematics is difficult. This inability to learn mathematics or persistent failure in this subject has led to the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety or phobia among most students in Nigerian schools.
Education is a process by which the mind of human being develops through learning at homes, streets, religious institutions like churches and mosques, schools, colleges or universities. It is also a process whereby a person develops attitudes and abilities that are considered to have value and relevance in the society. It is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. Every nation hoping to have bright future needs to emphasis education because it is the only way to much development. Yusuf and Al-Banawi (2013) noted that education must be considered as a key investment in modern economies because, as previously seen within the framework of a knowledge-based economy, there are strong and positive correlation between economic activity and education in explaining economic growth. Asiru (2014) stated that education is a catalyst to the development of individuals, society and the nation as a whole. Dagbo (2014) also opined that education in an important tool for social growth, development and interaction of all elements in the society for it economics, social and political well-being. Olayanju (2014) posited that education plays a critical role in human capacity building and skills acquisition.
Many government and international agencies in the world are increasing becoming interested in finding ways to boost learning outcomes and get maximum benefit from their education investment. Education quality continues to be very low in community secondary schools due to shortage of staff, teaching materials, lack of environment conducive to implement SEDP and high rate of students’ dropout (URT 2010). During 2005 it became more common for both urban and rural students to access secondary schools places since WSS were being built closer to the students homes. Besides, failure of children to have interest in schooling, some parents practically engage their children during school hours to contribute to their survival needs, as these parents believed that education has no benefit so no need of allowing their children to go to schools. Children were engaged by parents to mama Lishe to wash cooking utensils and serve customers, also to dry chips. These were further worsened by the cultural belief system of few parents that female children should not be allowed to go to school since any time their education will be useless since they will be given out in marriage and their duty is that of child bearing and home making, so education for female will be wastage of time and money.
Parent involvement in homework is a key area of research in the field of home and student connections with schools, as it is a primary way that parents are involved with their children's education. Hoover- Dempsey et al (2001) examined a broad body of literature to understand the parameters of parents’ involvement in student homework and the influence of that involvement on related student outcomes. They suggest that the body of empirical work on homework help might be strengthened by more theoretically grounded research focused specifically on the content, process and outputs of parents’ involvement in homework. In particular, they suggest that research should explore parent motivations for engaging in homework helps, the dynamics of effective parent-child interactions during homework, involvement and the specific mechanisms of involvement that influence students’ outcomes. Observably the different interpretations of what constitute the home involvement may likely lead to discrepancy. Kihl et al, (2000) opine that parental and teacher school connections have been measured inconsistently across studies, without adequately capturing the full picture of these connections and their results in research outputs on the subject matter.
Success is not cheap; it is a function of hard work. To this end, it is believed that students with a strong desire for success work hard to achieve it. High achievers respond more effectively to tasks at the workplace, in academic settings and make better grades than their counterparts with lower achievement needs. McClelland (1961) expanded his analysis and concluded that with an increase in individuals who are highly achievement motivated so also is the increase in the economic growth of the nation of such individuals. Lack of motivation for learning is a big challenge responsible for the deterioration in education standards of students in schools. With the various findings, it is of utmost importance to explore the variables that would influence students' motivation and improve achievement standards of students at the university level. Theoretical Framework of the study Theories of achievement motivation are of great importance because they help
It is on the basis of the above that Ogunbameru and Rotimi (2006) pointed out that the home begins the process of education satisfying the physical and psychological needs of the child and transmitting culturally accepted behaviours through learning and social training. The child learns the basic skills, behaviour and attitudes. This means that by the time he/she enters school, he/she has formed some habits as he/she is conscious of the family’s status and position in the society, his/her personality is formed. The child has acquired some education but the quality and extent of education depend on the parents’ income and overall environment in which he/she lives (Field and Smith, 1998; Thomas, 2003). The financial support of parents from home may influence his attitudes towards school and academic achievement. From the above instances of child’s support and provision, the home and the school play complementary roles in the education of the child. It is obvious that no other involved in the upbringing of the child is so closely linked with the school as the home. By the time a child enters elementary and secondary school, he is already conscious of his father’s status and his personality is almost formed. This is why Musgrave (2005) in his psychoanalytic theory put so much emphasis on the first few years in the life of a child because whatever happens later in adult life has a root in the early critical periods. The type of education depends on the social class he comes from and this may later determine how well he will perform in school.
Morehouse (2017) posits that the four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing. This implies that reading is a language skill that is passive in nature. It requires the use of the eyes and brains to comprehend the written equivalent of spoken language. Reading habit is best formed at a young impressionable age in school, but once it is formed, it can last for one’s lifetime (Green), cited in Owusu – Acheaw and Larson (2014). Learning which starts right from birth entails acquiring knowledge about various phenomena and understanding them. The more one reads, the more he learns. Reading fires the imagination of the child. It encourages quick learning and widens his views, expand horizons and helps him learn about different people and places. It encourages imagination and curiosity. En Espanol (2012) posits that reading and writing are important to help function in the reading and writing are important to help function in the school, on the job and in the society. In school, children with communication disorders are more likely to struggle with literacy skills. Reading and Parental Educational Level
classroom and that students’ academic performance depends entirely on their ability and effort to learn at school. According to Udo (1990), many educational psychologists and sociologists have also opined that socio-economic factors (educational background and marital status) are strong determinants of a child’s performance in mental activities. Sequel to the above, Douglas in Udo (1990) asserted that child up-bringing practices, utilization of educational opportunities as well as how resources are organized in the family to meet the child’s needs tend to differ between the upper, middle and low class strata. He further asserted that students who come from non-educated parents hardly have time for their school work. The child may have acquired some education but the quality and extent of education depend on the parents’ educational background and overall environment in which he/she lives. The education level of parents may influence his attitudes towards school work and academic performance (Biachi, 2012; Lindgren, 2014). On the influence of marital status, Ogunbameru and Rotimi (2006) pointed out that marital status has a lot influence on the child’s performance in school. In-deed, the home begins the process of education in satisfying the physical and psychological needs of the child and transmitting culturally accepted behaviours through learning and social training. The child learns the basic skills, behaviour and attitudes from parents. This means that by the time he/she enters school, he/she has formed some habits as he/she is conscious of the family’s status and position in the society and also his/her personality is formed. These could only be possible when such home is peaceful, united and harmonious contrary to a divorced, separated and quarrelsome home (Nwachukwu, 2011).
MAR-APRIL 2017, VOL- 4/30 www.srjis.com Page 4688 education, poverty, and poor health, ultimately affect our society as a whole. Research indicates that children from low-SES households and communities develop academic skills more slowly compared to children from higher SES groups (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, & Maczuga, 2009). Initial academic skills are correlated with the home environment, where low literacy environments and chronic stress negatively affect a child‟s pre academic skills (Aikens & Barbarin, 2008). Family factors, school factors, and peer pressure are the main factors which influence the educational attainment of the student. The environment at home is a primary socialization agent and influences a child‟s interest in school and aspirations for the future. Family background has also been found to influence the educational attainment of the student. Family background is the key to a students‟ life and outside the school, influences student learning and includes factors such as socio-economicstatus (education of parents, occupation of parents, income of parents), parental involvement, and size of the family. Families from low-SES communities are less likely to have the financial resources or time availability to provide children with academic support. Children‟s initial reading competence is correlated with the home literacy environment, number of books owned, and parent distress (Aikens & Barbarin, 2008). However, parents from low-SES communities may be unable to afford resources such as books, computers, or tutors to create this positive literacy environment (Orr, 2003).
Socio-economicstatus is the most important variable in determining the Academic Achievement of students. Increasingly, researchers examined educational processes, including academic achievement, in relation to socio-economic background (Bornstein and Bradley, 2003; Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997; Coleman, 1988; McLoyd, 1998).The Socio- economicStatus of a child is most commonly determined by combining parents’ educational level, occupational status and income level (Jeynes 2002). Studies have repeatedly found that SES affects student’s outcomes. (Baharudin and Luster, 1998, Jeynes 2002, Eamon 2005, Majoribanks 1996, Hocschild 2003, Mcneal 2001, Seyfried 1998).
(%). Odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of diabetes were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis across household income and education level quartiles. Co- variates known to influence diabetes risk, including age, sex, family history of diabetes, BMI, smoking status, alcohol in- take, physical activity, residence, daily energy intake, daily carbohydrate intake, stress and depression, were adjusted to assess the independent associations between SES and dia- betes. 12-15 The results are presented as ORs with 95% confi-