Top PDF Informal Carers and Employment: Summary Report of a Systematic Review

Informal Carers and Employment: Summary Report of a Systematic Review

Informal Carers and Employment: Summary Report of a Systematic Review

the apparent association between caring and reduced labour market attachment, the causal relationships between caring and the intensity and duration of work, remains unclear. In policy terms, an assessment of the evidence related to the relationships between care and work can inform future approaches to help carers stay active in the labour market. A clear understanding of typical trigger points where carer’s employment is likely to be at risk, can help to inform the content and targeting of any future interventions.

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Informal carers’ experience and outcomes of assistive technology use in dementia care in the community: a systematic review protocol

Informal carers’ experience and outcomes of assistive technology use in dementia care in the community: a systematic review protocol

Method: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, ALOIS, PsycINFO, Trial registries and OpenGrey databases will be searched for studies of any design that have investigated carer experience and/or outcomes of AT use for persons with dementia living at home. Manual searches from reference lists of relevant papers will also be undertaken. Outcomes of interest are carers ’ self-reported outcomes (which include perceived burden, quality of life and wellbeing) and carer experiences (such as usefulness, benefits and disadvantages of AT and impact on caregiver/care receiver relationship). Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers with pre-defined eligibility criteria and extract data using a bespoke extraction form. Discrepancies will be resolved in discussion with a third reviewer. A synthesis of eligible studies and summary will be provided.
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The unmet needs of informal carers of stroke survivors: a protocol for a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies

The unmet needs of informal carers of stroke survivors: a protocol for a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies

Methods and analysis A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies that report on the unmet needs of carers will be conducted. The following databases will be searched for relevant articles: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and Scopus. No publication date constraints will be applied. Studies will be limited to those published in English and conducted among humans. Eligible studies will report on the unmet needs of informal carers of stroke survivors, defined as family members, friends and other unpaid caregivers. Studies which focus on formal, clinical or medical caregivers will be excluded. A narrative synthesis and pooled analysis of the main outcomes will be reported.
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Adjustment and intervention needs in young carers of people with chronic illnesses or disability : a systematic review

Adjustment and intervention needs in young carers of people with chronic illnesses or disability : a systematic review

The need for informal carers has significantly grown, and continues to grow, with young people under the age of 25 years taking on the carer role for people (usually family members) with chronic illnesses. On average young carers can provide up to 20 hours of various physically and emotionally demanding duties per week. This provision of care is often associated with psychological distress and an increased risk of having a chronic illness themselves. This reduces their capacity to manage their own needs and provide quality care to a chronically ill person. Young carers who are not adequately supported with appropriate psychosocial intervention represent an especially vulnerable population with developmental concerns particularly faced by adolescents. This systematic review identified and evaluated quantitative research, focusing on the outcome of psychosocial interventions on young carers of people with chronic illnesses. CINAHL via EBSCO, EMBASE via OVID, Medline via OVID, PsychINFO via OVID, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were the selected and searched databases. Unpublished/grey literature was noted in Scopus and the World Health Organisation database. The systematic search revealed that only 4 studies met the inclusion criteria to be included in this review. Assessment of scientific rigour and risk of bias revealed methodological limitations of the included studies and results indicate minimal intervention efficacy. This review emphasises the need for gaining further quantitative evidence on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for young carers. Furthermore, there is a need to develop standardised protocols for age-appropriate interventions designed to promote psychosocial adjustment among young carers and assist in the development of governmental policies to better support these vulnerable individuals take better care of people with chronic illness.
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Exploring the evidence base for how people with dementia and their informal carers manage their medication in the community: a mixed studies review

Exploring the evidence base for how people with dementia and their informal carers manage their medication in the community: a mixed studies review

Anxiety about their competence in the role increased the burden “I really do wish you wouldn’t ask me how I’m coping because the word coping implies that if I’m not, it’s my fault” [25]. This may be related to issues such as the stigma of living with and caring for someone with demen- tia, due to the lack of public awareness and understanding of the disease. It is also wrapped up within a deep sense of responsibility that the carer feels in having to care for someone with dementia in the ‘ accepted ’ way. Carers found complex regimens confusing “And he was put on further more tablets. I don ’ t know what they are for or what they are” [24]. The transition between the person with dementia self-medicating and medication being man- aged by the informal carer could be particularly stressful. The informal carer needs to make a judgement that the person with dementia can no longer safely manage their medication, inform the person and take control. This need to balance safety with a person-centred approach can re- sult in conflict. “He said ‘what do you think!? Do you think I can ’ t manage medications!? ’” [24].
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Mobile applications for informal caregivers: a systematic review of existing mobile applications

Mobile applications for informal caregivers: a systematic review of existing mobile applications

Furthermore, the literature and practice show that supportive interventions or other programmes are crucial for informal caregivers. A cancer diagnosis for example does not only affect the cancer patients, but also their close relatives (Tang, Chan, So, & Leung, 2014). Surprisingly, no German mobile applications for this target group were found although there is a growing number of informal caregivers in Germany too. The reason for this could be that there is no German term which describes an informal caregiver unlike the term “Mantelzorger” in Dutch. Also, the technological development in German healthcare is behind other countries such as the Netherlands. In 2015, 2.9 million people were in need of care in Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2017). From this almost three million people, 73% are cared at home, of whom who 1.38 million are cared for by informal caregivers (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2017). In comparison, in the Netherlands almost 15% of all Dutch people are giving care to a family member or friend (Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, 2015).
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Effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for family carers of people with psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for family carers of people with psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Most studies included carers of patients living in the community, excluding four trials which recruited carers of patients while they were receiving treatment in hospital (studies 9, 11, 18, 25). Five studies recruited carers of patients who experienced psychosis for the first time, and were under the care of Early Intervention in Psychosis Service (EIPS) (studies 7, 16, 20, 22, 31). The remainder targeted carers of individuals with a long term psychotic disorder, most commonly schizophrenia. In 75% of studies (k = 24), and where the relationships between the carers and patients were reported, parents, especially mothers, made up the majority of participants in 21 studies, and indeed were the only kind of family carers in three studies (studies 14, 29, 31). In terms of delivery formats, most interventions used the conven- tional face-to-face medium: three studies evaluated individual (carer or family as units) programmes (studies 11, 16, 25); 19 used groups where carers from di ff erent families undertook the programmes together (studies 1 – 6, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28 – 31); and four used a combination of individual and group sessions (studies 17–19, 32). Several studies included telephone- (studies 8, 13, 22) and/or email- support (study 20) to supplement text-based psychoeducational inter- ventions; one also included face-to-face group sessions, in addition to telephone-supported bibliotherapy-based intervention (study 7). One RCT evaluated a web-based psychoeducation programme which was provided to both patients and their carers (study 27).
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Systematic review of interventions for the secondary prevention and treatment of emotional abuse of children by primary carers

Systematic review of interventions for the secondary prevention and treatment of emotional abuse of children by primary carers

A further 42 studies were identified that were relevant to the treatment of parental behaviour associated with emotional abuse but did not meet the inclusion criteria. The most common reasons for exclusion were that (i) the intervention measured change in infant attachment (see meta-review by Bakermans Kranenburg et al., 2003); (ii) intervention was for parents considered to be at high risk because of their adverse life circumstances and personal history, rather than identified behaviours (e.g. Lieberman et al., 2006) 60 ; (iii) because the study assessed the effect of interventions on attachment or maternal depression (Beardslee, 2003); (iv) emotional abuse was indistinguishable from other forms of maltreatment (e.g. Gershater-Motlko et al. 2002a et al., 2002b); 61 or because interventions had no reported effect on children. This was the case with treatment of parent behaviour that causes children‟s missocialisation (male violence towards women, alcohol abuse) or factors that increase the risk of emotional harm to children (eg depression) but do not in themselves constitute emotional abuse. Results of systematic reviews on identification, prevention and treatment of domestic violence, antenatal and postnatal alcohol or drug abuse, and antenatal and postnatal depression, are included in Appendix 3.
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Informal employment in Bolivia: A lost proposition?

Informal employment in Bolivia: A lost proposition?

We study participation and relative earnings in the formal, informal, and self-employed sectors in Bolivia. We estimate quantile earnings equations corrected for self-selectivity to address potential biases in the estimates of relative earnings gaps due to the endogeneity of sector participation. Selectivity is significant in all three sectors for all three years studied. The benefits of being more formal like at low quantiles of the informal sector vanish from 1997 to 2002 as the availability of formal jobs decreases. The human capital model is very well fit for 1993 and 1997. In 2002 it is best fit for the formal sector where education and experience explain much of a worker's earnings, and worst fit for the self-employed sector where education does not play a role and experience is only important at high quantiles. We exploit the semi-parametric nature of quantile regression to link the conditional returns to worker characteristics, obtained from the quantile regressions, with the poverty status of households to determine the extent to which unobserved earnings determinants interact with observed characteristics to penalize non-formal workers in poor households. We find that females in non-formal employment suffer the largest penalties. In unreported results (available from the authors upon request) we perform a counterfactual analysis of conditional earnings by sector, decomposing the earnings gaps into differences in endowments of skills and differences in returns to skills. The results suggest segmentation between the formal and informal sector at the lowest conditional quantiles, while higher productivity workers seem to have a choice of which sector to work in.
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Adolescent Health and Adult Education and Employment: A Systematic Review

Adolescent Health and Adult Education and Employment: A Systematic Review

Studies were first mapped to adolescent chronic condition (categorized by diagnosis and whether physical or mental health condition) and type of adult outcome studied. Many studies contained . 1 analysis, as they assessed multiple adolescent health conditions or adult outcomes. Odds ratios (ORs) for differences in adult outcomes between cases and controls were extracted as the main summary statistic for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, Cohen’s d was used as the summary statistic. For dichotomous outcome variables, where ORs were not given in text, they were calculated from (in order of preference where available): (1) risk ratios and outcome prevalence in the control group; or (2) 2 3 2 frequency tables.
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Formal Employment, Informal Employment and Income Differentials in Urban China

Formal Employment, Informal Employment and Income Differentials in Urban China

Many of the empirical studies in more recent years seem to indicate wage differences between formal and informal workers. Marcouiller, Ruiz, and Woodruff (1997) applied wage regressions to calculate unexplained wage gaps between the two sectors. The results showed that significant wage premiums are associated with work in the formal sector in El Salvador and Peru, whereas, in contrast, a premium is associated with informal work in Mexico. Tansel (2000) carried out an analysis for men and women workers separately, using the 1994 Turkish Household Expenditure Survey, defining uncovered wage earners and self-employed as part of the informal sector, while covered wage earners were considered part of the formal sector. The results indicated substantial earnings differences between the formal and informal sectors for men but not for women. Also, for Mexico, Gong and van Soest (2002) found that wage differentials between the formal and informal sectors are typically small for the lesser educated and become more significant with increasing levels of education. In addition, Pratap and Quintin (2006) find that, after controlling for selection, no wage premium remains and job satisfaction is not lower in the informal sector in the Argentinean data.
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Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures

Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures

gamble; the WHOQOL-BREF does not have preference based scoring. Three possible explanations for differ- ences in health state valuations between measures have been put forward: coverage of descriptive systems, sensi- tivity of dimensions and valuation methods [36]. Instru- ments which describe more health states will pick up smaller changes in health status and are more appropri- ate for research where smaller health gains are expected to be made [37], such as research involving carers. The HUI3 can describe 972,000 health states; the SF-6D ei- ther 7,500 or 18,000 depending on the version, while the EQ-5D only describes 243 health states. A ‘ceiling effect’ , where higher health states are chosen more frequently, is known to be a feature of the EQ-5D. In contrast, the SF-6D appears to have a ‘floor effect’ , with responses clustered at the lower end of the scale. The floor effect is amplified in population groups with more physical health problems, so may not be an issue when conduct- ing research with carers of people with dementia. This is because although many carers do have health issues, one may assume that they already have reasonable physical health to be able to cope with the physical aspects of caring.
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Informal employment in Kazakhstan: a blessing in disguise?

Informal employment in Kazakhstan: a blessing in disguise?

Nearly 18 years since the de-facto end of the transition period, the informal economy has become a structural feature of many transition regimes in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Gimpelson and Zudina (2012), using productivity-based definition of informality, find that 20– 25 per cent of employment in Russia consists of informal jobs. Like Johnson et al. (1997), the authors argue that the low quality of institutions directly contributed to the growth in informal employment. Gimpelson and Slonimczyk (2013) show that informal activity hovers around 50 per cent of economic activity in Russia, and that weak labour market institutions (low minimum wages, low-pay public sector work, weak trade unions and inadequate enforcement of regulation) explain the movement of labour from formal to informal employment. More recently, Gimpelson and Kapelyushnikov (2014: 17–22) highlight an important point: the quality of institutions is a critical factor which affects the informal economy and explains the rise in informality in Russia in the 2000s. Some recent evidence from transition countries finds labour market segmentation for dependent employees within informal employment: there are no barriers in the lower tier of informal employment but large wage penalties exist and that informal workers earn more than the formally employed in the upper rationed tier (Lehmann and Zaiceva, 2015). Staneva and Arabsheibani (2014) report that around 65 per cent of Tajik workers are informally employed, and that they tend to be less qualified. Their analysis make an interesting comparative case, since formal sector workers in Tajikistan face a wage penalty across the entire earnings distribution. Using Nopo’s decomposition method, the authors find that formal workers earn 43 per cent less than a typical informal worker and that 32 per cent of the observed earnings differential is attributable to the unexplained component of the wage gap.
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Enterprise gamification systems and employment legislation: a systematic literature review

Enterprise gamification systems and employment legislation: a systematic literature review

An enterprise gamification implementation of particular significance was undertaken in Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim (Lopez, 2011) to increase employee motivation, work output, and engagement. Digital screens displayed employee’s work speeds on a leaderboard. Almost immediately, the opposite effect was observed: some workers insisted that publicly displaying ‘work efficiency’ generated undesired competition among staff, with those less proficient fearing that their performance would displease management. Another concern raised by the employees was their behavioural changes around bathroom breaks; to maintain a competitive edge over others on the virtual leaderboards, some staff felt it important to forgo these otherwise basic human necessities of bathroom breaks. It was blasted as an “electronic whip”. One commentator has claimed that ‘gamification’ is ‘exploitationware’. Bogost (2011, para. 58) asserts that “[g]amification replaces these real, functional, two-way relationships with dysfunctional perversions of relationships. Organizations ask for loyalty, but they reciprocate that loyalty with shams, counterfeit incentives that neither provide value nor require investment.” Gamification principles can change dynamics in employment relationships in ways that may not only be ‘offensive’ to employees, but which may fall foul of employment law.
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Unmet care needs of advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers: a systematic review

Unmet care needs of advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers: a systematic review

perspective of informal caregivers, and one from the per- spectives of both patients and informal caregivers. Twelve studies [9, 30, 32, 35, 39, 40, 49, 51, 52, 57, 62, 64] explored the unmet needs of informal caregivers, and five other [48, 56, 59, 63, 67] studies investigated the unmet needs of pa- tients with advanced cancer and their informal care- givers. With regards to sample sources, six studies [32, 40, 45, 46, 49, 61] reported no information regard- ing the recruitment setting, while in the remaining studies patients, and/or caregivers were mainly recruited from outpatient departments (n = 16), inpatient departments (n = 11), home/home-based care units (n = 10), and mixed settings (n = 7). In terms of cancer sites, 29 studies focused on patients with mixed cancer site and/or their caregivers, 11 studies focused on specific patients with cancer and/or caregivers (3 studies on prostate cancer [57, 69, 73], 5 studies on breast cancer [41, 48, 58, 60, 75], and three on lung cancer [35, 42, 71]), while 10 other studies [47, 50, 51, 53, 59, 64, 66, 68] reported no information about can- cer types. The diagnostic criteria of advanced cancer were presented in 13 studies (13/50), with five studies [6, 30, 31, 60, 61] adopting the criteria of cancer with metastasis, and seven studies [9, 41, 42, 45, 58, 63, 75] using the stage III/ IV criterion according to TNM staging system. With regards to geographic distribution, nine studies were con- ducted in the USA [38, 40, 46, 49, 52, 57, 59, 70, 74], seven were in mainland China (six of which were conducted in Shanghai) [9, 53, 63–67], five in Australia [6, 54, 55, 60, 68], five in the Netherlands [29–31, 34, 44], four in Canada [47, 50, 56, 73], three in Japan [33, 39, 41], three in Taiwan [35, 42, 62], two in the UK [69, 71], two in Denmark [45, 72], two in Hong Kong [58, 75], and one each in Italy [28], France [61], South Korea [32], Spain [37], Indonesia [36], Czech Republic [43], India [51], and Bangladesh [48]. Characteristics and main findings of all included studies are presented in Table 2.
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Knowledge and information needs of informal caregivers
in palliative care : a qualitative systematic review

Knowledge and information needs of informal caregivers in palliative care : a qualitative systematic review

The following databases were searched for the period Jan- uary 1994 – November 2006: Medline, CINAHL, Psy- chINFO, Embase, Ovid, Zetoc and Pubmed, using a meta-search engine (Metalib®). This period was selected as it allows coverage of the time period in which electronic journal publishing became more widespread in addition to allowing a focus upon recent practice developments with regards to carers, which have developed in particular over the last decade. Keywords included: carer, caregiver, pal- liative, terminal, end of life and related phrases. This approach was supplemented by hand searching of leading journals (Palliative Medicine, Journal of Palliative Care and International Journal of Palliative Nursing) and sys- tematic checking of the reference lists of all identified papers. Included papers were peer-reviewed English lan- guage, journal articles within the search period. Review papers, commentaries, editorials, letters, books, reports and theses were excluded from the study.
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Risk attitudes and informal employment in a developing economy

Risk attitudes and informal employment in a developing economy

We formulate a model of an urban labour market in a developing economy in which work- ers’ risk attitudes play a role in determining their labour supply decisions and we illustrate the model diagrammatically. Whereas in the Rauch (1991) model risk is excluded, with choices being made purely on the basis of ability, in our formulation trade-offs between ability and risk aversion matter. For example, when risk is excluded from the analysis a worker’s first preference might be self employment (maximizing expected income); but, incorporating risk into the model, given that self employment income is uncertain, the worker’s risk aversion may be sufficient to make him or her prefer formal wage employ- ment. Similarly, the results of the search-and-matching literature on informality would be modified if risk aversion were taken into account. For example, in the model of Albrecht et al. (2009) workers who are relatively productive in formal-sector employment reject informal job offers to wait for a formal-sector job. But if risk aversion were allowed for, these workers might not take the risk of rejecting the informal job offer. Parallel to our analysis, it is therefore possible that a worker with higher ability would take an informal job, while a worker with lower ability would get a formal job.
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Systematic Review of Bariatric Surgery LITERATURE REVIEW REPORT

Systematic Review of Bariatric Surgery LITERATURE REVIEW REPORT

8 The authors reported that weight loss alone (P < 0.001) was responsible for the difference in outcomes observed between trial arms, with LAGB patients losing significantly more w[r]

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Women In Informal Employment (Invisible Care Work)

Women In Informal Employment (Invisible Care Work)

male employment-to-population ratio stood at 72.2 per cent, while the ratio for females was just 47.1 percent (ILO, 2014). A woman enters into the paid work to meet the growing needs of the family, but the demand on women money and time is intensified. Their schedule is so complicated that it is not that much easy to perform so many responsibilities daily for the others without taking care of own. Women are so much dedicated to their work that no one can perform it so nicely and precisely. She provides care for their family because of emotional attachment to them. She works with such a great affection and love that she did not find guilty even in doing odd works for them. Despite of providing so much to the productive activities from morning till evening with their family and outside it, their contribution gets neglected.
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Literature Review Report: Services to Support Carers of People with Mental Health Problems

Literature Review Report: Services to Support Carers of People with Mental Health Problems

What is a cause for concer n, how ev er , is t he r elat iv e paucit y of r esear ch ev aluat ing t he int er v ent ions and ser v ices t hat ar e flagged up in r ecent policy docum ent s as pot ent ially useful in suppor t ing car er s of people w it h m ent al illness ( or carers per se) . Respit e car e is an obv ious ex am ple. As st at ed in Sect ion 1, t he governm ent has m ade ring- fenced m onies av ailable t o local aut hor it ies ov er a t hr ee- y ear per iod in t he for m of t he Car er s Special Grant t o help t hem pr ovide a w ider r ange of br eaks for car er s. Less t han one- fift h of t he UK r esear ch st udies included in t he r ev iew look ed at r espit e ser v ices, and only one econom ic evaluat ion addr essing t his issue w as found. Ot her exam ples highlight ed in r ecent policy as beneficial for ( som e) car er s ar e suppor t gr oups and counselling. Again, t he pr opor t ion of st udies look ing at t hese t y pes of int er vent ion w as m inim al ( 2 per cent for each cat egor y gr oup) and no
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