The topic is related with the implementation of an InformationSecurityPolicy to facilitate the functions of e-government in SaudiArabia. The three major factors that need to be assessed in detail are the effectiveness, vulnerabilities, and threats of an InformationSecurityPolicy. It is a fact that the importance of InformationSecurity is very high for any Government Agency. The basic purpose of the InformationSecurity is to ensure the protection of data resources and uphold three pillars of data security. The three pillars include confidentiality, integrity and the availability of data. The adoption of an effective security mechanism also becomes necessary for the adequate protection of data. The usage of the e-government requires the usage of Information Technology to deliver its services to the citizens. The protection of e- government services is essential in order to increase the confidence of the people in using these services. In many countries, the implementation of e-government has proved useful in providing efficient services to consumers. Such a program increases work speed and causes no unnecessary delays. This study assesses the effectiveness of Yesser, the e- government program that SaudiArabia adopted in 2007. This study also provides recommendations to improve the security of the Yesser Program, to further professionalize IT specialists, and to increase the level of consumer participation, which will improve of the quality of life for Saudi citizens.
is defined as:“users’ overall assessment of quality in the virtual context and serves as one of the key factors in determining success or failure of e-Government” (E-service quality model for Indian government portals: citizens' perspective, 2012).E-government service quality focuses on user interface of the web site (also portal) and on overall user satisfaction. E-government service quality definition can be combined with e-service quality definition as the extent to which government website facilitates efficient and effective delivery of public services.Website Usability: Drawing from the International Standards Organization's (ISO)(Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary – ISO 9000, 2005) definition of usability, it has been defined as the extent to which a website can be used by citizens to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified-government service context (adapted from) .Moreover, defined web usability as a measure of the ease of accomplishing an intended tasks such as finding a given piece of information or buying a certain product (Web Usability. http://accessites.org/site/2007/07/web-usability, 2005). Security, Security of a website means protection of information and systems against accidental or intentional disclosure to unauthorized access, or unauthorized modifications or destruction (InformationSecurity: Design, Implementation, Measurement, and Compliance, 2007) . It refers to protection of the information architecture including network, hardware and software assets and the control of access to the information itself (E-government and Developing Countries: an Overview. International Review of Law Computers andTechnology, 2013).
3.5. Security Issues Concern for E-Learning by Saudi Universities E-learning is adapted by SaudiArabia to provide a proper infrastructure for education . This adoption has increased the number of registered students and has given them a chance to learn conveniently at their own pace. However, the students’ information availability online creates more threats and attacks for E-learning platforms security. The primary security concerns are varied starting from user authorization and authentication and ending with data integrity and non-repudiation. Ahmed et al.  have proposed some countermeasures that can be taken by SaudiE-learning providers to counter securitythreats related to user identification and authentication services. The Short Message Service (SMS) InformationSecurity, Biometrics InformationSecurity, Token Based Informa- tion Security Mechanism, Access Control List (ACL) Mechanism, Digital Signa- ture InformationSecurity Mechanisms are practical applications to protect data and maintain security and privacy to Saudi students. Passive and active attacks have to be considered, and prober cryptographic algorithms have to be designed and implemented to preserve students’ data.
Good communication strategy is also must for the success of the e-government. Because of this strategy citizens will be aware of the new ways of getting the governmental services online. The social culture and individual attitude are the two most important threats to the Saudie-government. This strategy will be helpful in eliminating the negative perception from the minds of people. Citizen awareness is also related to good communication strategy. Saudigovernment should encourage the people to use the online services and should adopt different means like print, radio and television advertisements to make the citizens aware of the new system. Security and privacy of personal information and people trust also play an important role in the success of the e-government adoption. Lack of trust in the e-government is the severe hindrance to its growth. SaudiArabiagovernment should develop a good legal framework for the e-government. A comprehensive legal framework should cover the overall aspects of the e-government from the delivery of service and provision of information to business process re-engineering within the different levels of government and its institutions.
While it is expected that listed companies will comply with the Code’s provisions most of the time, it is recognized that departure from the provisions of the Code may be justified in particular circumstances. Every company must review each provision carefully and give a considered explanation if it departs from the Code provisions. In summary, despite the fact that the establishment of audit committees is not mandated by statute in the UK, the self-regulation approach, which has been taken by government through the FRC, requires all listed companies to disclose in their annual reports the degree of compliance with the Combined Code on Corporate Governance. It is felt that a statutory regime would not be as flexible and adaptable as a self- regulatory system (Financial Reporting Council, 2003).
At the highest level, the security goals of MANETs are not that different from other networks: most typically authentication, confidentiality, integrity, availability, and non- repudiation. Authentication is the verification of claims about the identity of a source of information. Confidentiality means that only authorized people or systems can read or execute protected data or programs. It should be noted that the sensitivity of information in MANETs may decay much more rapidly than in other information. In MANETs security goals of a system can change in different modes. The characteristics of MANETs make them susceptible to many new attacks. At the top level attacks can be classified according to network protocol stacks.
a. Denial of service attacks:Denial of Service (DoS) attacks consist of overwhelming a server, a network or a website in order to paralyze its normal activity. Defending against DoS attacks is one of the most challenging security problems on the Internet today. A major difficulty in thwarting these attacks is to trace the source of the attack, as they often use incorrect or spoofed IP source addresses to disguise the true origin of the attack.
While the software industry has made signiﬁcant investments in writing more secure code, it is widely recognized that software vulnerability problems cannot be completely solved ‘ex-ante’; it is virtually impossible to design software that is free of vulnerabilities. Hence software ﬁrms continue to try to discover vulnerabilities after the software has been licensed. 3 When vulnerabilities are identiﬁed ‘ex-post,’ software ﬁrms typically issue updates (or patches) to eliminate the vulnerabilities. Those consumers who apply updates are protected in the event that attackers (or hackers) exploit the vulnerability. 4 Applying updates is costly to consumers, however, and hence not all consumers necessarily apply them. 5 For these consumers, the issuing of updates has a downside. The release of updates enables hackers to ‘reverse engineer’ and ﬁnd out how to exploit the vulnerabilities. The reverse engineering increases the probability of attack – and hence reduces the value of software to consumers who do not install updates.
In terms of validity and reliability of the study instrument, Blunch stated that a research instrument is evaluated by its reliability. The reliability of a measuring instrument means its ability to provide identical results if it is repeated under identical conditions . This study used the internal consis- tency method to test the reliability with the use of Cronbach’s Alpha, see Table 1. With regards to the instrument’s validity, Bhattacharyya defined validity as "the degree to which a test measures what it intends to measure" . Validity of an instrument does not mean that the instrument is either valid or not but it is a matter of degree. The greater the evidence that an instrument produces valid results the greater the likelihood that we will get information that we need . Validity cannot be calculated or measured directly, it is judged by the existing evidence . This study utilised face validity and content validity methods to evaluate its validity degree. Face Validity method provides useful information about the measure instrument and determines to what extent the instrument meets the intended purpose . Test in which its purpose is clear, even for simple persons who have elementary knowledge, is judged to have high face validity. Where on the other hand, test in which its purpose is unclear would be judged to have low face validity . Most of the items developed in this study were accurately face validated during the pilot study phase by the participants in accordance to the model factors’ purposes, whereas some of them were not validated due to lack of understanding them clearly. Invalid items were either reworded if they were reported as unclear or deleted if they were reported as irrelevant. Furthermore, 5 academic members who are experts in interactive systems field have also reviewed the research instrument to have high content validity. Thus, it has been reviewed, tested and revised several times in order to have high validity.
Thus, overall situation seems favourable to initiate M-government services in SaudiArabia, with some reservations. People (i.e. the relatively well educated but representative sample) are aware of M-government services and intend to use them due to the convenience they offer. Most of them are already using some kind of E-government services, which is a good indication about the readiness of the people to use M-government services in the country and offers an opportunity for the government to take the initiative. However, regular internet users only comprise about 54% of the total population (World Bank, 2012). Therefore, it can be said that many people are still unaware about the usage of mobile devices in order to get the benefits of M-government. Hence, the government needs to create awareness among general public about mobile usage and about the benefits of M-government and to ensure accessibility to whole public (Al-Gahtani et al., 2007). Nevertheless, from the response of the interviewees about the awareness and intention to use, it can be concluded that the provision of M-government services would be a success in the country. This conclusion can be further supported through the awareness of the people about the benefits of using M-government service in SaudiArabia. Additionally, as suggested by one participant cited previously, the adoption of M-government by some users (e.g. educated regular internet users) would relieve the struggling bureaucracies of the burden those users would otherwise comprise, making access to traditional services easier for those not using M-government.
Trustworthiness plays a vital role in helping users to overcome the perceived risk and uncertainty involved in using online services. Trust issues can strongly affect the users’ intention to share their personal information and to perform online transactions when using e-Government systems. Al- though trustworthiness has been studied and has proved to be an important factor in the literature on technology acceptance, there is still insufficient research that investigates and analyses the influence of trust on e-Government adoption and utilisation . In this research, the trustworthiness factor will be investigated according to three aspects, namely trust in the Internet, trust in the e-Government system and trust in the e- Service provider. The importance of this factor is based on the fact that trust can be built from first impressions, and can also be affected by any later shortcomings. Moreover, trust is difficult to regain, particularly in an uncertain and virtual environment.
The data analysis demonstrated strong evidence of the impact on the e-government project posed by a shortage or lack of qualified personnel. We captured this issue in different ways. Firstly, government organizations suffer from the low availability of technical professionals to maintain the project. As a result, many government organizations are almost exclusively reliant on outsourcing this function to foreign manpower or the private sector. Both of these options are potentially beset with issues. Foreign qualified professionals may potentially leave at any time if they receive a better job offer, whether that in SaudiArabia or in another country. This can put the organization in a precarious position, as those jobs are vulnerable. Also, the researchers noticed that most elements of the IT project within public organizations are maintained by private sector companies. This is not an issue in and of itself, but it can become so when the contract comes to an end, and there is a lack of available funds to renew the contract. In addition, the researchers observed the need for administrative project managers to lead the project and provide strategic planning. This issue links directly to the insights provided in Categories 1 and 2 covered earlier. The e- government project requires both technical and administrative efforts to succeed. Since there is a shortage of manpower, government organizations may consider providing continuous training for employees and reduce their dependency on third parties. This will certainly ensure a more sustainable project against future challenges that may be encountered.
To summarize, our analysis provides evidence that increases in government spending significantly increase non-oil GDP in SaudiArabia, whether spending is measured in the aggregate or in terms of capital and current expenditure. These results are consistent with studies by Al-Yousif (2000) and Kireyev (1998), who also find positive effects of government spending on non-oil GDP in SaudiArabia. They contrast with those of Al-Jarrah (2005), who finds a negative effect of military spending, and those of Ghali (1997), whose results are inconclusive. Interestingly, the findings show effects of current expenditure on growth to exceed those of capital expenditure, contrary to commonly held views. Conceivably, this may reflect public investment patterns that are not optimally growth-promoting -- for example, due to non-economic criteria used in the selection of investment projects and/or problems with managerial incentives that undermine returns to public investment. 13 This suggests that, from a growth perspective, it may be preferable to allocate public spending to maintaining and improving existing infrastructure, rather than starting new projects with uncertain returns. Unfortunately, because procedures for classifying capital expenditures do not differentiate between types of spending (but rather are just broken out by project and government agency), it is not possible to identify components of public investment that drag down its contribution to growth. This suggests that reforming the budget classification system could be valuable for ensuring that public investment enhances the country’s non-oil productive capacity.
Abstract. The paper discussed an exploratory study of government employees’ perceptions of the introduction of biometric authentication at the workplace in the Kingdom of SaudiArabia. We suggest that studying the factors affecting employees’ acceptance of new technology will help ease the adoption of biometric technology in other e-government applications. A combination of survey and interviews was used to collect the required data. Interviews were conducted with managers and questionnaires were given to employees from two different government organisations in the Kingdom of SaudiArabia to investigate the employees’ perceptions of using biometrics. The results of this study indicate a significant digital and cultural gap between the technological awareness of employees and the preferred authentication solutions promoted by management. A lack of trust in technology, its potential for misuse and management motives reflect the managers’ need to consider their responsibilities for narrowing these gaps. It was apparent that overcoming employees’ resistance is an essential issue facing biometric implementation. Based on the research we recommend that an awareness and orientation process about biometrics should take place before the technology is introduced into the organisation.
adolescents. The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia .The result of the study showed distribution of weight status .Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. So as a conclusion, thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight about right. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less likely to desire to get fitter or be encouraged to exercise. Both extremes of the spectrum of weight, from underweight to obese, may have serious health consequences for the individuals, as well as for public health policy. 
Mobile devices are the fastest growing consumer technology, with worldwide unit sales expected to increase from 300 million in 2010, to 650 million in 2012 . Mobile applications are always booming over period of time. In June 2011, for the first time ever, people on average spent more time using mobile applications (81 minutes) than browsing the mobile web (74 minutes) . While once limited to simple voice communication, the mobile device now enables also sending text messages, access email, browse the web, and even perform financial transactions. Even more significant, applications are turning the mobile device into a general- purpose computing platform. Apple i-phone SDK was introduced in 2008, within a short span of three years Apple boasts over 425,000 applications for i-OS devices. Similarly explosive growth of Android Market also now contains over 200,000 applications after only a short period of time . As mobile devices grow in popularity, it will be the incentives for attackers. In addition to financial information, mobile devices store tremendous amounts of personal and commercial data that may attract both targeted and mass-scale attacks. Security is a vital challenge for IT departments as mobile devices, primarily smart phones and tablets, become key productivity tools in the workplace. Protecting mobile devices is critical because they are part of a company's network. Maintaining the
information, this study excludes the impact of subjective norms. Only factors contributing to the other two determinants, namely ‘Attitude’ and ‘Perceived Behavioural Control’ are enumerated. The research principle was based on the simple but crucial assumption that if Internet focused business initiatives such as eCommerce and online banking are perceived by individuals and businesses as facilitating economic progress, there would be a much more favourable inclination to adopt these new technologies. Hence the overall objective is to decide which of the above determinants has the most influence on these perceptions. Three characteristics from the DoI theory are included in our model. These include relative advantage, complexity and compatibility. The factors Trialability and Observability cannot be used in this study as eCommerce has not taken off in the country as of yet, and correspondingly survey respondents would not be able to relate to any experiences. The rest of this section below identifies and elaborates on the influencing factors that have been considered in this study.
management and team work and the transition from concentration and model and the transition from closure to openness and transition from the long cycle of production to the competitive acceleration are the most important factors to build information society. In their study about building an information society, Mahan and Misnikov (2004) pointed out, in terms of information and communication technology, that there is no consistent definition or clear concept that suits all policies. The researcher through her study of this subject fully agrees with this opinion. However, they emphasised that most nations desire to benefit from the financial aftereffects of an information society by using current national endowments and resources. Success also depends on how well the new technology services can be absorbed by existing institutions and successfully installed throughout society. They argued that, in order to build an information society, even if it has a different starting point, there are still some common principles for successful national policy creation and programmes. However, they added that there are some basic points that any society must meet in order to make the transfer to an information society. These points include the employment of ICT instructors to teach skills and use, especially in education sectors. From the perspective of the researcher believes that the results of this study give a clear idea of the information society and how to build it. Salam (2010) discusses, the chance that Saudi society will have if it becomes an information society; also, he discusses the obstacles that Saudi faces in the information sectors and how that affects SaudiArabia in becoming an information society. For him The characteristics of the information society have been identified in culture, education, scientific innovation, the Internet and knowledge as the most important sources of wealth and power in the information society, the use of information as goods and services.
Apparently, there is a myriad of factors that have made the higher education institutions to be at high risk of being attacked by hackers and identity theft. All organizations should take into account the importance of informationsecurity measures to curb the consequences and high costs that relate with security breaches and computer crimes. Due to the increasing rates of informationsecurity attacks, most organizations in the contemporary world have improved their level of contemplation concerning the importance of inquiring the cause of cyber-attacks as well as understanding why the organizations are exposed to such threats. Despite the fact that most informationsecurity attacks emanate from external sources, the internal attacks are more detrimental when they occur. Overall, the higher education institutions should focus more on the prevention and defense strategies. The detection of cyber threats as early as possible is one important step in mitigating the perils with the highest risk. After analyzing the survey, it is obvious that information leakage is threat with the highest risk and it needs more attention in Saudi Arabian higher educational information system. Surveyed IT employees mentioned that confidential information requires more protection against unauthorized or premature disclosure. This survey analysis provides a strong basis for future works which aims to protect universities databases from insider threats and identity thefts that could cause data breaches. A cryptographic system will be applied in cloud database server to solve the leakage of confidential information and guarantee the best security services.
For the handful of hospitals which have not yet been accredited by MOH, the results of this study could also show that these hospitals are not only below standard but also lack any E-Health services to offer patients and the general public as a whole. However, social media and websites appear to be a basic means that hospitals that least practiced to boost their E-Health service ratings, as shown in (Table 1) on the percentage of feedback and social media. Clearly, E-Health programs that provided a way for customers to give feedback about services as well to interact through social media was a popular practice among most hospitals in KSA. Hospitals from Table 1 also displayed a high rate of E-health usage for Patient Education (59.3%) and Appointments (53.49%), clearly showing that most hospitals focus on E-Health services that manage interactions with patients only. In fact, when used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer the potential to promote individual and public health, as well as professional development and advancement . Nevertheless, these should not be the only form of E- Health services that hospitals in KSA can offer. This is more so the reason why there is a need for clarity of terms such as E-Health because the absence of clarity may lead to fewer opportunities for shared discourse and to fewer resources for full E-Health implementation . MOH implementations of E-Health services in hospitals should not fixate on software apps, wearables, social media, the Internet, and Web-based portals and programs. Instead, they should also focus on practical applications of eHealth technologies for remote service provision, health monitoring, care planning and coordination, communication, information storage and exchange, precision and predictive health care, professional support and development, and consumer empowerment . Although