It can be argued that anonymity is what keeps the user somewhat secure. We can “crawl” and “surf” and “roam” around the World Wide Web under the (deceptively) invisible guise of anonymity. After all we can create scores of email addresses for communications, none of which necessarily bear our actual names, we can leave “anonymous” comments, and we can redefine our identities as with screen names such as “beautifulBlonde2007” or “savvyExec142” or even one reflecting a lofty career goal with “soulSinger”. Personally I would go with “BeautifulSavvySinger” any day, but the sad fact remains this wishful Internet ID has nothing to do with the reality for which I am actually accountable. The example given here is fairly harmless, however the factor of accountability is the foundation around which the premise of this paper exists. With the lack of accountability of the Web, we are opening up the realm of unending and damaging security threats that no amount of anti-virus software or cautiousness will solve. Web 2.0 enables anyone with access to the Internet to have a Web presence. An “anyone” who is easily anonymous and as easily unaccountable for their actions.
Facebook is a true social software. It is a place online where individual people create profiles to give out information about themselves, and where many people interact with messages that are both public and private. Facebook enables people to play games and share trivial communication in a way that keeps them in touch with far more of their friends and contacts than they might otherwise have done. Which is pretty much what other sites like MySpace, Bebo, Ning and even LinkedIn do, to some extend or another. But Facebook seems to have the highest profile in the academic sector, perhaps because it grew out of networks based around Universities. Facebook is used by students: it’s their space, they use it how they want to, and if we try to get involved then we’re in danger of just looking a bit silly. However, there were more than nineteen thousand members on the University of Warwick network within Facebook, as of December 2007, which is about four thousand more than when I first investigated in July. With so many students on Facebook, are we missing out if we don’t try anything? And are there ways that we can use Facebook professionally? I registered for a Facebook account with my work e-mail address. That means that I can be part of the University of Warwick network, so I can see what our students are doing and I can be seen by them. I’ve made “friends” on Facebook with some of my colleagues, and with other library and information professionals I’ve networked with. A Facebook friend is someone who can see information about you. This information appears on your profile page (that is the page with information about you), but also in their news feeds on their home page. My Facebook home page tells me news about my Facebook friends: when they change their profile pictures, when photos of them are uploaded, when they change their status lines, when they install new applications and so on.
In paper , the issue of recognizing and organizing defender framework vulnerabilities utilizing statistical and machine learning to investigate an expansive amount of information (e.g., digital, web based life) on lately identified framework vulnerabilities to "learn" classifiers that foresee the probability and time, when new vulnerabilities might be misused, has been discussed. This ensures computer systems against interruptions and various vindictive practices proactively through inferring two new methodologies intended for safeguarding system: 1.) a bipartite outline based exchange learning computation which enables information relating to past strikes to be exchanged for application against novel attacks, consequently increasing the rate with which secure systems can viably respond to a new attack, and 2.) a manufactured information learning procedure that encounters vital danger data to convey snare information for use in learning real secure activities, happening as expected in genius protections that are astounding against both present and (close) future assaults. Again an efficient approach is required to secure computer networks proactively which is missing in this study.
What we can now see is that one of the reasons for the end of this illusion lies in the way this ‘democratic information space’ was conceptualised. The web was thought of as emerging out of myriads of individualised website creators and surfers, whose joint activities would then add up miraculously to a new structured, yet democratic and open space. What was absent was a systematic approach to the need of organising collectives to systematise the processes that enables us to navigate this space. This absence, and with it the inherent ideology of individualism at the heart of the World Wide Web, was the opportunity search engines seized. They answered the question of how to navigate and organise such a space by creating algorithmically determined collectives, calling these processes of clustering, in a rather interesting twist: ‘personalisation’. In doing so, they became a force that not only enabled accessibility, but also commodified and monopolised access to information, stifled psychic and collective co-individuation and pushed instead the individualisation of the web even further. Whereas early net programmers and users with their ‘bulletin board’ postings, chat rooms or networks in the 1990s envisioned a ‘digital democracy’, instead a new form of censorship within political discourse emerged, creating what Matthew Hindman (2009) describes as ‘Googlearchy’. 17 The tragedy of the web is that ‘deliberative democracy’ has been prohibited by a flaw in the World Wide Web’s very own structure, recently elucidated by the UK referendum and the US election in 2016. The experience of setting up these experiments has opened up a view on what search could look like, offering ‘relevant’ search results with Tor, without the user being a ‘personalised subject’. After I conducted my research, the Tor browser switched its bundle to DuckDuckGo as its default search engine option and it is not clear whether it uses Google search results by default. However it offers privacy browsing and doesn’t track users because data (user IP) is not collected nor do they collect precise geo-location and assign it to a particular user. Tor then provides online protection in the form of anonymity, even though there are still risks to using Tor as it has been and could potentially be compromised by malicious actors in the future. Aside from its other merits in terms of challenging surveillance by
7 studies in depth by (Keith et al., 2013). Social networking users were found to show no intention to disclose personal information, yet to gain benefits they tend to do the opposite. Researchers found that their only defence against second party data collectors is to divulge data which may be accurate. Furthermore, when using socialnetworks, privacy concerns for other users (e.g. colleagues, friends and family members) present themselves as an extra personal information privacy dimension which has not previously been seen or studied in e- commerce. Recent studies have explored the factors that influence users to reveal their personal information to other users, that is, self-disclosure (Jiang et al., 2013; Lowry et al., 2011). Whilst overall, self-disclosure is seen as positive and beneficial in interpersonal communication and relationships (Lowry et al., 2011: 163), research shows that interpersonal privacy on socialnetworks could influence self-disclosure and threaten personal information privacy. We, therefore, extend the personal information privacy (PIP) model to include other parties in social media information sharing transactions (as shown in Figure 1). These parties include individuals/consumers and their interpersonal groups or networks, vendors/suppliers and providers, third party organisations with whom second party organisations share post- transactional data and, finally, malicious actors, that range from individual criminals to hostile governments.
However, according to Olson (1971, p. 60), ‘a desire to win prestige, respect, friendship, and other social and psychological objectives,’ among others, can be incentives to act collectively. Similarly, Coleman and Coleman (1994, p. 274) observed that individuals’ attachment to a group of people indeed affects their behavior. They find that team athletes often work harder than athletes in individual sports due to the social pressure from teammates. Lent, Schmidt, and Schmidt (2006, pp. 74-81) found that group cohesion has a positive effect on collective efficacy, which refers to a group’s shared ‘beliefs about how they can perform as a unit’ (Lent et al., 2006, p. 74). Besides Lent et al., other scholars are also sanguine about the role of social cohesion when it comes to collective action. For instance, Uchida, Swatt, Solomon, and Varano (2013, p. 2) suggest that social cohesion, ‘when high, ultimately help[s] structure collective productive action.’ Similarly, Adger (2003, p. 389) points out that socialnetworks and flows of information between individuals and groups are essential conditions for collective action. Regarding emergent response groups, Blachman-Biatch et al. (2013, p. 10) propose that they traditionally rely on ‘preexisting relationships with neighbors, local friends, and other members of community organizations.’ Hence, the literature suggests that social cohesion is a necessary condition for collective action. However, what exactly is meant by the term social cohesion? Subsequently, I provide a literature review to give an overview of how the term is used in science.
Socialsecurity data management is an important topic both in application of information management and in social se- curity management. In the Web 2.0 era, more and more human information and healthcare information is released to the Internet through various approaches. This abundance makes managing socialsecurity data go beyond managing con- ventional socialsecurity database records. How to organize the conventional records together with the related informa- tion gathered from the Web is an interesting problem to solve to provide more convenient and powerful socialsecurityinformation service. In this paper, we introduce our initial work on building a Web-oriented socialsecurityinformation system named i-SSIS. I-SSIS is a database system which adopts a new object-role data model named INM model and deploys INM database system as its core. With the assistance of auxiliary tools to carry out socialsecurityinformation extraction, analyzing and query, i-SSIS can properly provide socialsecurity-related information gathered from the Web. We introduce the basic ideas of designing i-SSIS and describe the architecture and major components of the system.
In Figure 27: Occurrence of Information Quality Criteria in Media Provision websites we can see that the Process-Pragmatic Criteria are of relative importance. In this case, that is because most of these information quality criteria are expected factors in a Media Provision context. Latency and Response Time have additional importance when the Media provided in a Media Provision context become more data-intensive, as is the case with (HD) movies, songs and large pictures. With respect to Currency and Timeliness we see the opposite of what we saw in Collaborative Content Creation websites. In Media Provision we see a focus on Currency, as a substitute of a focus on Timeliness. This is to be expected, since Currency is an objectively measurable criterion, which makes it easy to implement methods which rank information objects according to Currency. Since information objects cannot be updated on an ongoing basis, Currency is a good indicator for the expected Timeliness. The last focus of Media Provision websites is the Relevancy, which is present at all websites. This is displayed by the fact that all websites have implemented some kind of Search Engine, but in the case of hedonic websites, Relevancy becomes of smaller importance. We observed that Understandability was of no concern to all Media Provision websites. This was expected for photo and video sharing websites, but a discovery for blogging websites. It turns out that the ranking of information objects according to
‘What can self-organised group therapy teach us about anonymity?’ – asks Paula Helm in a case study that explores anonymity in mutual support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous, groups that fundamentally rely on anonymity to prevent possible stigmatisation and discrimination. Her contribution focuses in particular on various functions of anonymity. Some of these functions structure the social dynamics and the social distances within anonymous therapeutic groups, others organise the political communication and the public relation between the group and the outside world, and some functions are about the formation of a specific subjectivity as well as a sense of belonging to a specific collective. Helm suggests a typology of forms of anonymity to facilitate future research and more differentiated discussions on the merits and dangers of anonymity in a digital age. In his contribution ‘Archaeology of no names? The social productivity of anonymity in archaeological information process’, Isto Huvila investigates the ‘labour of faceless individuals of the past and present’. He analyses the relations and overlaps between named and anonymous individuals and institutions as a control regime of information and draws specific attention to the role of writing in mediating between anonymous and non-anonymous work. While the productivity of anonymity – as a glue or enabler, for example – is in parts quite evident, other effects and outcomes of anonymity within archaeology remain hard to judge, meander between openness and vulnerability and remain ultimately dependent on specific situations and contexts.
“ Von Solms” (1996) identify that network security has been developed in three stages: In 1960’s, the first stage was started when network security refer to assure and check physical security of resources. In the mid of 1970’s, the second stage was started, network security was used to measure the specific. Security needs of organizations instead of the fact that the scope of informationsecurity had covered quickly. In this competitive world, if organization wants to survive and to work in connected and distributed networks of machines, its third step will be to link its IT services altogether and to move its system into complex environment accordingly. Things which make informationsecurity very important in the organization depend on the environment in which people work. Organization relies on computers and computing control has been put down to the individual desktop. Employees of the organizations use these computing techniques to complete their routine task and employees found dangerous threats because they have direct approach to organization’s resources. “Lampson”
This compound is referenced in 20 journal articles published in the last 5 years Similar compounds are associated with the words “toxic” and “death” in 280 web pages It appears to be covered under 3 patents It has been shown to be active in 5 screens Computer models predict it to show some activity against 8 protein targets
We should also note that by identifying networks of interactions and relations as having a central place in contemporary geography, this necessarily involves the temporal dimension. Traditional GIS is largely atemporal, representing locational structures at a single point in time. In so far as time has been involved, such systems simply represent a series of cross-sections in comparative static manner, with little functionality or science being developed to deal with processes that link these cross-sections through their temporal evolution. The problems posed by these limits on our use of traditional GIS for the study of networks become clear when we begin our discussion of ways in which geographic information scientists have attempted to adapt and extend GIS to embrace interactions. As we shall see, such extensions are invariably ad hoc, treating interactions between locations at a snapshot in time, often using GIS simply as a means to visualize resultant relational structures. GIS is not well adapted to treating interactions although its tool box nature does allow various plug-ins to be developed that deal with networks. However our main purpose here is to illustrate how new views of networks need to be incorporated within GIS and this means new forms of representation in time as well as space.
Findings shows that nowadays privacy concerns on socialnetworks are epidemic. Educating people to have knowledge about probable risk of information leakage and personal information disclosure could be recommended as an effective solution. Parents can play an efficient rule in their children perception of protecting privacy. Different societies have their own definition of privacy and its boundaries, to this regard, each person has her/his definition of privacy depend on her/his personality. Smartphones security is challenging and so many software and techniques have been analyzed.
Technologies have created a new service environment in every sphere of activities and have pushed conventional boundaries of all the organisations especially in libraries and information centres much farther with the risk and opportunities. This technology in combination with communication tools and information procedures facilitated in generation, acquisition, storage, organisation, searching, retrieval and transformation of information using electronic means. These electronic information sources, used initially to transport textual information, today transports other form of information such as images, videos, and audios. These electronic sources, initially served for specialised clients, now accessed by a wide range of users, ranging from computer specialists, discipline experts, laymen including the novice computer users and students at all levels. This trend has created an emerging important environment namely web environment. The web environment comprises of awareness on browsers, domains, internet security, internet threat, internet usage, resource identifiers and search engines.
In contrast to frequency analysis, which uses tag frequencies in a vector space, the structural analysis considers the tagging activities as a graph, described in the graph model, and utilizes graph-structural properties in the tag graph for discovering communities in a collaborative tagging system. Compared with the data used in the frequency analysis (i.e., frequency matrix), the representation of data in a graph structure is more intuitive and human-understandable. For this reason, structural analysis may help users to find other information that is not obtainable when performing the frequency analysis. Example properties we may want to find out are connectivity, connection distances between users, size of communities, and the degree of strength of a connection.
New technologies help experts to connect people and things to each other anytime and anyplace using any network and service. In another words, world and virtual entities communicate in order to achieve a target. They can share information resources, services and create a new group or network. Objects can negotiate and adopt to their environment and extract patterns and information. They can learn and make decisions. They have the abilities to self-replicate, control, create, manage and even destroy. However, aside from the many advantages for us that this new revolution brings, there are some challenges that should be addressed by experts, such as:
Abstract - As users of networks increasingly aware of their privacy needs, the importance of anonymity is gaining popularity. The reason behind it is that anonymity can hide the actual identity of end users while allowing their to access services of network or web site. More over they are allowed to do so without being traced. This usage is prevailing in P2P systems and also payment based networks like e-cash. Achieving anonymity and being able to trace misbehaving users are the two conflicting requirements. This paper proposes a security architecture that is aimed at providing complete anonymity to honest users while tracing misbehaving users thus resolving the conflict between anonymity and traceability requirements. In addition to these, this paper also focuses on basic security requirements such as nonrepudiation, data integrity, confidentiality, and authentication. The empirical results revealed that the proposed architecture is effective and can be adapted to real world systems
Applets seem to be some of the most insecure pieces of software. Most developers take no consideration of the fact that these can easily be decompiled and give up huge amounts of information. Applets are essentially thick clients that contain all the code needed to communicate with the server. Multiple times we have seen an applet send straight SQL queries directly to the application or the applet use a special guest account to do certain functions and the username and password will be embedded in the code. Always rejoice if you see an applet that is used for sensitive types of actions, as nine times out of ten you will find some really good security issues once it is decompiled. If the applet cannot be decompiled due to the use of some good obfuscation techniques, then reverse engineer the applet by studying the communication stream to the web server. Most applets will follow the proxy settings in your browser, so by setting them to point to your handy proxy tool, most of the applet’s communication will be visible. In some cases, the applet will not follow the browser proxy settings. In this scenario, falling back to old-school methods will work, so pull out the trusty sniffer program.
of Professional Archaeologists ‘linked directly or indirectly to the government, it is impossible to influence public policy without the anonymity granted through a professional society’. The collective body anonymises an individual opinion by granting it a collective identity. As in the case of the Saskatchewan Association of Professional Archaeologists, the identity that bestows anonymity can be a specific named body but it can also be a more obscure collective label like archaeology or archaeologist. Zorzin (2010) refers to an opinion piece published in an Irish newspaper by an anonymous archaeologist who could identify herself as a member of the collective body of archaeologists but stayed anonymous as an individual. Morgan and Eve (2012) make similar remarks on how anonymity can help junior (or female, as Scott (1998) notes) archaeologists in fighting back the lack of transparency of employment processes by anonymously publishing information on the progress of their applications, or when government-employed archaeologists are releasing information about negative policies of the current regimes in their home countries. Under this anonymous but professionally anchored identity the writer of the opinion piece, underrepresented or disadvantaged groups, and archaeologists under threat can express their critique of the situation in the commercial archaeology in Ireland, unveil the possibly unjust employment processes and report on the current developments in their home countries for both their own and their colleagues’ benefit. Similarly to how Griffin describes the usefulness of anonymity for literary authors, anonymity can be ‘commercially useful’ (Griffin, 1999) for archaeologists by providing protection not only for an individual archaeologist but also for the entire profession. An anonymous archaeologist as a writer of an opinion piece or a report is simultaneously an archaeologist without being a named individual. A relative namelessness can help secure one’s personal integrity, support and increase the impact of the claims made by an archaeologist versus those presented by a named archaeologist, and facilitate spreading the information as a part of a particular genre and discourse.
In the words of Joo et al. (2011), the determinants of informationsecurity that are affecting the adoption of web-based information systems are analyzed. For this reason, a theoretical model was designed to examine the relationship between organization factors deterrent efforts and severity; preventive effort and individual factor of informationsecuritythreat; security awareness and intention to actively use the web-based IIS. The outcome of the analysis stated that deterrent severity is not related with proactive used intention of ISS while the preventive effort has a relationship with proactive use of intention of IIS. Stephanou et al (2008) and Casmir (2005) examined the insider misuse of information system resource. According to him, the information system misuse has been posing a great challenge to organizations. Their aim was to present the extended deterrence theory model that consists of study from criminology, information system and psychology. The model shows that the awareness of security countermeasures directly influences the perceived severity and certainty of punishment that come with information systems misuse which can make the information system to reduce misuse intention. The outcome of the study suggested that three practices deter information misuse, training and awareness program; user awareness of security policies, security education and computer monitoring. The outcome also suggested that the perceived severity of sanction may be more efficient in bringing down the informationsecurity misused more than certain sanctions.