Delphi method is applied as the research technique. It is involved as the style of data collecting due to its competence to determine the factors encouragement in the current practice of decisionmakingprocess in housingdevelopment projects and the economicinformation essential for the dissimilar decisionmaking points. This application is where an arrangement and medium of a group of experts is extended after generating their views on a distinct issue and it depend on the “knowledgeable intuitive ideas of expert” . A mixture of expert opinions and theoretical finding technique can bring about the research aim. In addition, the Delphi technique also conclude a better quality response as structured questionnaire, expert opinions, iterative process, namely ‘rounds’, feedback (developer opinions mediated by team) and anonymity of developers . Total answers from the questionnaire are created into a list which will then be trimmed down in the second round of Delphi (R2). A smaller group of selected respondents were then given the second questionnaire form to review the answer of research aim and assistance to confirm the result. Figure 1 illustrates the process.
Despite the pleasant track record of the housingdevelopment, thousands of complaints received by National Housing Department in the year 2000 about the unethical practices of some developers or criminal house developers such as late delivery, compensation, cheating, non conforming to plan, low customer high- interest, high interest loan, late produce certificate of fitness, payment, contravene act or regulation and deposit ownership. The impact will face is on the house buyers where they have to pay high-interest loan payment for a long time without owning any house. The issue becomes more critical while the demand of housing is increasing and imbalance with the total of land in the country is worsened. This situation is worsen due to land decreasing and limited (Salleh & Chai, 1997).
an optimal period of time is possible only with managers from every hierarchical level, and with access to quality information“ (Silviu-Virgil, 2014, p. 599).
Luminita (2014) also doesn’t question usefulness of accounting information and
gives detailed information about users of accounting information within decisionmakingprocess including investors, lenders, business partners (customers and suppli- ers), the social partners (employees and unions representing them), the government. Author emphasis function of managers as information users. „Managerial team is the one that needs the information in determining the performance of the economic entity but also in making decisions for future activities. When we speak of a mana- gerial team we are talking about a user which can be the manager, the treasurer, the board of directors, the management team, etc., in other words whoever is staying at the helm of economic entity and is giving direction to the development. For them, the interest is to know the information on the operating activity of the entity, on the fund- ing and investment activity in order to make their decisions“ (Luminita, 2014, p. 675).
The understanding of the accounting information system, according to some experts are as follows: Wilkinson et al. (2000): Accounting information system is an integral structure of the entity, such as a business enterprise that uses physical resources and other components for menrubah economic data into the accounting information, with the goal of satisfying the information needs of a wide range of users. Jones and Dasaratha V. Rama (2006): Accounting information system is a sub-system of management information system that provides accounting and financial information and other information that is obtained in a routine process of accounting transactions. Moscove, et al. (1990) Accounting information system is a component of the accumulated organsisi, classify, process, analyze and communicate financial information relevant external and internal parties to parties in decision-making. Heogy (2003) Accounting information system is a delivery system for the purpose of accounting information: 1 / to meet the reporting requirements organizations, 2 / to provide reliable accounting inforamsi those who need it, and 3 / to protect organizations from misuse of accounting data or the system itself. Romney and Paul (2009) Accounting information system is a system that collect, record, store and process the data to provide onformasi for the decision maker. Bodnar and Willliam (2010): Accounting information system is a collection of source-source example of people and equipment designed to finance modify data and other data
Caspian Sea and Karakum Desert since 1954 ; In China, irreversible changes and serious sedimentation problems have frequently occurred in the main deep-water lanes of the Yangtze River, the effects of which were amplified by harbor construction and the shipping management measures since 1983 . Therefore, considera- tion of extremely adverse impacts and developing the relevant ERAs in response to this will help support deci- sion-making and the services derived from it. In that way, the ERA can play a more important role in avoiding and alleviating environmental risks that may derive from the process of decision-making. However, the adoption of ERA, as a formalized analytical process applied to environmental issues, and latterly as a policy tool to assist regulators in decision-makingprocess (DMP), is a relatively recent development, when techniques broadly sim- ilar to the ERA of today were used in 1930s to set permissible occupational exposure limits for chemicals in the workplace .
Conclusion: Rational economic theory would have suggested that as every other variable between the different cases was constant, the customers should have chosen the Box of candy by the same margin of preference. However, the demand for Box of Candies declined when the price was zero. This was not consistent with the results obtained from the experiment conducted in the USA in which consumer demand increased significantly at zero price. When consumers were asked why they did not opt for a free box of candy, they responded saying that they were unsure of the quality. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that Indians might be more quality conscious and do not take “zero” at face value. Instead, they assess the reason for the price being zero; one of the main reasons being that the quality might be poor. This also proves that Indians tend to associate higher prices with better quality.
members used to develop new products/ services or to improve current products/services regarding the needs and the requirements of the customers. QFD tries to satisfy the customers at the initial production stage, namely the design stage, preventing correc- tive actions to be made after the product has been produced. QFD starts after the development team consisting of team members from all the divisions of the organization reaches a consensus in the identifi- cation of the Customer Needs (CNs), which will be used during the design process. This data, will be used to establish the ‘house of quality’, which is a king planning matrix transforming the CNs into measurable Product Technical Requirements (PTRs). During the developmentprocess, both the needs meaningless and the needs crucial for the cus- tomers are distinguished to ensure to remove or in- clude them according these finding. In order to categorize the needs as mentioned, the inner de- pendencies among the CNs, the relationships be- tween the CNs and the PTRs and lastly the inner dependencies among the PTRs should be measured. According to these relationships, it will be foreseen, how and in which direction, a modification in the design of the product could affect the CNs. The pro- posed approach tries to solve the problem of meas- uring the CNs and requirements which are usually expressed in customers’ own phrases. It consists of fuzzy logic theory integrated with Analytic Network Process (ANP), Compromise Programming (CP), linear regression and Goal Programming (GP) methods. The ANP is used to identify the importance ratings of the PTRs which will maximize the satis- faction of the CNs, with regard to the relationship between and among the CNs and the PTRs. The CP employed identifies the ideal and the anti-ideal per- formance values for the CNs and the distances from them for each product in the market. As the dis- tances for each CN are summed, the distance value indicating the performance of this product is de- fined. Fuzzy linear regression is integrated to the model to integrate the relationships between the CNs and the PTRs into the GP model. The GP model uses the best products distance value as the goal along with the budget limitation of the organization. The solution to the optimization model defines the target PTR performance values to be the best product in the market by satisfying the customers.
evidence • This
This chapter studies the literature review about the integration of AHP-MOORA approach in mid-end Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) machine selection. Secondary sources such as books, journals and online researches are used to get related information regarding the project. This chapter will provide detailed understanding about existing mid-end FDM machines used in rapid prototyping and their related machines’ specifications, as well as the method that is most appropriate for machine selection.
In economics, decision analysis under uncertainty has almost exclusively focused on the two extreme cases of purely subjective probabilities derived from a decision maker’s pref- erences (Savage, 1954) or perfect information about probabilities (objective lotteries) analyzed by von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944). With few exceptions 1 , the more recent literature on decisionmaking under ambiguity takes a purely subjective perspec- tive. Many economicdecision problems are, however, characterized by knowledge about the frequencies or probabilities of some events, yet not about all. Giraud and Tallon (2011) raise this issue and point to belief functions as a formal concept allowing one to combine objective, that is inter-subjectively verifiable, information about events, with purely subjective beliefs implicit in an individual’s preferences.
408 Other psychological processes may shape this judgment as well: a Justice conscious of the reaction of legal analysts might select the theory that best fits the Justice’s past reasoning in Fourth Amendment cases and that maintains the Justice’s esteem among Fourth Amendment advocates and scholars. Because of the myriad Fourth Amendment theories to choose from, a judge might form an instinctual decision first—in the vein of Haidt’s social intuitionist model—and then search for the particular theory of Fourth Amendment interpretation that best supports that instinct. This would be particularly true for new Justices who have yet to stake a position. Even aside from such considerations, each of the various tests has its own set of nuances that complicate a straightforward analysis.
the type N player in the penance side whose belief is higher than threshold level but lower than θ may willingly wait more periods in penance phase to earn higher belief about her opponent’s type. In (IC 3), the type N player of guilty side may compare her expected continuation payoff from immediate penance and deferred penance (OSD strategy) in the next period. In such situation, as η → 1, the expected continuation payoff from an original equilibrium path and that from deferred penance become similar while immediate benefit from avoiding immediate penance becomes rela- tively small. At the same time, marginal increment of expected continuation payoff from deferring penance action becomes smaller as λ → 0. As a result, penance equilibrium payoff will remain as a available one even at the asymptotic case while the other threshold equilibria fail in such case. This refinement of equilibrium was also considered by Hillas (1994) and McLennan (1985), but they considered similar notion of refinement only in the complete information environment. [Figure 1. 9] shows that infinite and finite punishment equilibrium may not exist even with low enough λ (i.e., high enough survival rate) and high enough δ . In the figure, multiple threshold equilibria can exist between red and blue solid curves. In the [Figure 1. 9], the blue line represents combination of the least 1 -λ and δ where infinite punishment equilibrium’s incentive compatibil- ity at the cooperation phase holds with equality. The red line similarly represents combination of the highest 1 -λ and δ where finite punishment equilibrium’s (with some n > 1) incentive com- patibility hold with equality. In the region where δ ∈[0.3, 0.78], existence region monotonously increases as δ increases. However, at the level of δ > 0.78 and high enough 1 -λ , the game does not have any infinite or finite punishment equilibria. Similar phenomenon is found around for 1 -λ ≈ 1.
This concept can be calculated by the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) [10, 15, 34]. Such calculation establishes a discounting factor to be used in the analysis of an investment by its net present value (NPV): the discount tax is increased to compensate the existing risk, beyond the value of the money in the time (which would be the tax free of risk). However, in the PDP, the risk variation has no linear relation with the expected returns: at phases transition, the project evaluation will drive to a decision whether the project goes on (if favorable conditions occur), requires changes (due to consumer needs changes, competition, technological change or a composition of diverse factors), or even be cancelled.
Actors Space: concerns the management and the representation of the different actors and their roles. There are three types of actors: individuals (that work independently in a private context), groups (dependent individuals that work together in the shared context and engaged to achieve a common goal) and organizations (groups that work collectively and collaboratively to achieve the organisational goals). Then, the development and the creation of the knowledge base must be considered to enhance the collaborative management -.
Pairwise comparisons on node level. Now, we should create the unweighted supermatrix. It is a square matrix of all nodes in the decision-making problem and contains local priorities. When making judgements in pairwise comparisons, we use Saaty’s fundamental scale of absolute numbers , just as with the AHP. The scale has nine different intensities: 1 means that two elements in a pair are equally important with respect to the higher level element; 9 means extreme importance of one element over another. All real numbers between 1 and 9 can be used. Because of the axiom of reciprocity, we use reciprocal numbers of 1–9 as well . When making the pairwise comparisons, we must take care of inconsistencies. If we say that element A is greater than element B, and B is greater than C, then, because of transitivity, A is greater than C. There is an inconsistency ratio, a measure that describes how inconsistent the decision maker was during the pairwise comparisons procedure. The allowed inconsistency ratios are all under 10%. See more in .
To reach this goal, two research questions were developed. The first research questions ‘what are the key concepts in the decisionmakingprocess’ is answered in the theoretical chapter using the model of Mintzberg (1976). The model is adapted to the subsidy market and with this model the second research question ‘what insight provides the decisionmakingprocess PremieAdviseurs in the subsidy market’ in order to give an answer on the research goal. In the conclusion that will follow is the second research question answered and simultaneously an answer is given on the research goal. As in the previous chapter, the structure of this chapter is that first each organization type is individual described and finally there will be a combined conclusion. After the conclusion, recommendations will be made for PremieAdviseurs their business.
The research approach was based on interviews of senior staff in three Arabic banks, each closely involved in making the strategic decisions which were crucial to long term survival. Four limitations of the present study may be discerned. First, the results are dependent on interpretation of interviews from participants who may, themselves, fail to perceive the role played by intuitive judgments, perhaps at the concluding stages of otherwise rational processes. This may lead to an under-reporting of intuitive aspects of process. Second, the participants were (deliberately) not questioned about their agreement, or disagreement, with the strategic decisions which were made. Their level of agreement or disagreement may have biased their responses to interview questions. Third, there is likely to be a process of post- rationalization of past judgments. Conducting interviews with more than one participant for each decision may serve to reduce these limitations. Fourth, the interpretations are open to the influences, values and biases of the researchers themselves. We remain circumspect regarding what to conclude definitively, bearing these issues in mind.
The Concept of Procedural Justice
At the foundation of organizational ethical decisionmaking is the applica- tion of the concept of procedural jus- tice—organizations should rely on a deliberative process to foster fairness through a clear understanding of all competing values in response to a par- ticular ethical conflict. The belief is that if the process is fair, the outcome will more likely be fair as well. To do this, decision makers must take into account the perceptions and values of those affected by the decision and explore various options and how the options are driven by underlying values. Once the options and their The management team of Memorial Medical Center must make a decision regarding the continuation of one of its outpatient clinics. To provide better community service, MMC developed three outpatient clinics throughout a large metropolitan area. Over the past several years, one of the clinics has consistently been a financial loser. The losses have grown even as the costs of maintaining the clinic have increased. A pri- mary reason for the negative financial performance is the high amount of nonreimbursed healthcare services—the clinic provides needed health- care to a low-income part of the metropolitan area. Several members of the executive management team believe MMC has no alternative other than closing the clinic. One member of the management team, however, believes that the situation raises ethical concerns, and that executive seeks an ethics-grounded response to the problem.
Simon (1945) attributes importance to the organization because its environment provides much of the force that molds and develops personal qualities and habits. Additionally, it provides the means for exercising authority and influence over others, particularly for those in higher posi- tions. Simon conceives the organization as a complex pattern of communications and other rela- tions within a group of human beings. An organization is, after all, a collection of people, since people collectively perform the activities of the organization. In a group, these human beings are capable of acting intelligently in many new or difficult situations, but they are likely to be less efficient on their own. He stresses that a single isolated individual cannot reach any high degree of rationality. Because of the great number of options and an unlimited amount of information, even an approximation to objective rationality is hard to conceive. When individuals evaluate options, they conduct a limited search for them along familiar and well-worn paths, selecting the first satis- factory option that comes along. This way, they can control the standards for satisfactory solu- tions, and they decline the situation; only to a limited extent are these standards up to individuals. An organization is a way to improve the quality of whole groups of actions performed by the members. In short, the key to the effectiveness of organizations is overcoming the "bounded ra- tionality" of each member with less cost.
“outbound services typically go first.. they are campaign based and requirements fluctuate making them hard [for clients] to manage” Supplier 3
Supplier 1 gave the example of a motor vehicle insurer that was only prepared to outsource customer service activities that were related to its recently established expansion into home insurance. All interviewees suggested that only those activities seen as non-core are outsourced. These vary considerably depending upon the focus of the individual organisation. The decision however appears to be more complex than a simple one time core/non-core assessment. As organisations become more comfortable with outsourcing they become prepared to outsource an increasing range of customer management related activities.