Top PDF Innovation capabilities and governance in the agri-food sector

Innovation capabilities and governance in the agri-food sector

Innovation capabilities and governance in the agri-food sector

4.6.4 Networking as an organisational capability The model in Figure 4.2 confirms the strong relationship between the use of the network (sources), learning and absorption (Goes and Park, 1997; Powell et al., 1996). The findings from the present study support the conclusion from previous social network perspective studies that network cohesion (overlapping ties among mutual third-parties) and network range (relationships that span multiple knowledge pools) need not to come at the expense of each other, but approach an optimal network structure when elements of both are combined (Burt, 2000; Reagans and Zuckerman, 2001; Reagans et al., 2003). The current research confirms the importance of stronger ties for the transfer of detailed knowledge (Granovetter, 1982; Hansen, 1999, Reagans and McEvily, 2003; Krackhardt, 1992; Uzzi, 1997) by showing a positive relationship between networking frequency and pig farmers’ innovativeness. At the same time it shows that diversity of knowledge (Burt, 1992, 2005; Rosenkopf and Nerkar, 2001) is important, but confined to a specific range of actors. In the case of investment in pig welfare, frequent contact with Innovation Centre Sterksel and breeding farms in specific, but also with supermarkets, butcheries, governmental innovation and knowledge, education institutions and animal welfare organisations is important. In the case of planet-oriented innovations, it is important to maintain frequent contact with the same list of institutions, but including the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment and environment-oriented organisations such as Milieudefensie and SNM. The latter have a role in issues such as reduction of manure surplus and ammonia emissions. The list of frequent contacts of farmers who invest in people-oriented innovations resembles that of farmers who invest in planet-oriented innovations. The somewhat wider network of farmers who are engaged in planet and people-oriented innovations than of those who engage in pig welfare may be related to the somewhat higher interest of the planet and profit innovators in the efficiency aspect. While pig welfare also contributes to better and healthier pigs, innovations which are aimed at planet (environment) and people (labour) have a somewhat greater emphasis on efficiency and higher returns than the pig welfare innovations. The greater interest in efficiency in general may be the reason why the planet and people innovators explore a larger amount of possibilities in a wider network.
Show more

205 Read more

Assessing the Supply Chain Governance Scenario in the Agri-food Sector: Development of a Measurement Tool 1.

Assessing the Supply Chain Governance Scenario in the Agri-food Sector: Development of a Measurement Tool 1.

Defining a supply chain governance structure able to adapt to the supply chain technical and organizational characteristics positively influences the relationships between the agents and its overall competitiveness. The present study proposes a tool for the evaluation of the impact on the supply chain governance structure resulting from the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005) and (Hobbs and Young, 2000) are merged to provide a theoretical framework supporting the tool implementation. Gereffi et al., suggest that supply chains fall into one of five different governance structures, depending on the relative levels of three dimension: complexity of transaction,
Show more

10 Read more

Risk Management in the Agri-food Sector

Risk Management in the Agri-food Sector

3. Factors of governance choice The forms of risk management depend on the risk type, personal characteristics, institutional environ- ment, progress in science and technology, culture, so- cial education and preferences, evolution of the natural environment, etc. (Figure 1). Risk features such as the origin, probability of occurrence, likely damages, and scale are important factors for the choice of governance. For instance, local risk could be managed through pri- vate modes, while most market and environmental risks require collective actions at the regional, national or transnational level. For high probability and harm- ful risks, agents prefer more secure/expensive modes such as security investments, purchase of insurance, maintaining reserves, taking hostages, and interlinked organizations. However, many smallholders cannot af- ford the related costs and practice no or primitive forms of risk management, such as cash-and-carry deals and product diversification. In that case, there is the need for third party (government, international assistance) intervention, though insurance, support, safety nets, etc., to decrease the vulnerability of farmers.
Show more

18 Read more

Are in-house and outsourcing innovation strategies interlinked? Evidence from the European agri-food sector

Are in-house and outsourcing innovation strategies interlinked? Evidence from the European agri-food sector

2 Literature review on antecedents of innovation strategies Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) has been the dominant paradigm in the study of the “make or buy” decision across different contexts, including innovation governance (Arvanitis and Loukis, 2013; Gooroochurn and Hanley, 2007; Pascucci et al., 2011, 2012; Stanko and Calantone, 2011; Williamson et al., 1989). According to TCE, internalization (the “make” or “in-house” decision) minimizes transaction costs when uncertainty, asset specificity, and appropriability are relatively high (Teece, 1986; Williamson et al., 1989); conversely the market (the “buy” or “outsourcing” decision) is preferred (Williamson, 1985). Transaction costs include: adaptation costs, namely efforts to adjust contracts to changing conditions resulting from environmental uncertainty, safeguarding costs, i.e. the costs of preventing opportunistic behavior by a contracting partner after the contract is signed, and measurement costs, the costs to verify contract compliance (Stanko and Calantone, 2011). High asset specificity and uncertainty can lead to high adaptation, safeguarding, and measurement costs. Under these conditions firms may decide to internally control resources and outputs. Empirical studies find an unambiguous relation between higher asset specificity and internal innovation efforts and governance. The measures used to proxy asset specificity include sunk costs such as R&D (Gooroochurn and Hanley, 2007; Pascucci et al., 2011, 2012), the use of proprietary technologies and of skilled labor (Cruz-Cázares et al., 2013), and measures for firm diversification (Nakamura and Odagiri, 2005). Uncertainty is often analyzed through two main dimensions. On the one hand, scholars have investigated market uncertainty as uncertainty related to the unpredictable fluctuation of demand. However, no
Show more

28 Read more

‘Present realities’ and the need for a ‘lived experience’ perspective in Brexit agri-food governance

‘Present realities’ and the need for a ‘lived experience’ perspective in Brexit agri-food governance

7 Agriculture (tariff and non-tariff rate quotas) and domestic support and export competition (House of Lords, 2017). 3 The fourth theme is migrant labour and filling the labour gap. Of the four themes identified in the literature, this theme is where greatest recognition of the ‘present realities’ of Brexit and agriculture is evident, recognising the current struggle facing some sectors of agriculture to fill vacant positions (e.g. the soft fruits sector), as noted in witness evidence provided in the House of Lords (2017) report, for example. Witnesses highlighted important differences between ‘seasonal’ and ‘permanent’ labour needs (meat processing and the veterinary profession, for example) and challenged simplistic distinctions between ‘skilled’ and ‘unskilled’ labour. That said, the overriding concern is the ability of a number of sectors of UK agriculture and related food processing to access manual and skilled workers in the future (Lang et al, 2017). Data from 2013 showed, for example, that 15% of the UK farm labour force was seasonal and 38 per cent of labour in UK manufacturing was made up of overseas workers (Lang, 2016). Preventing the free movement of labour post-Brexit it is predicted will severely impact the UK agri-food sector. As Lang et al. (2017, p. 45) put it, ‘[t]he prospect of ending EU free flow of labour strikes horror into many a farm and food enterprise. What will replace it?’. Some sectors are particularly susceptible, especially horticulture, but several other sectors too. Evidence submitted to the House of Lords Brexit Agriculture and Food inquiry (2017, p. 68) from Dairy UK suggested, for example, that non- UK labour accounts for about 11 per cent of the processing workforce; British Egg Industry Council data indicated that 40 per cent of staff on egg farms and 50 per cent of staff in egg packing centres were EU migrants; National Pig Association and British Poultry Council data indicate that one in five pig farms would struggle without migrant labour; migrant workers also make up around 60 per cent of employees in the British poultry meat industry. The key concerns then are about how agricultural sectors will be affected, as well as the need to understand the reasons for local labour shortage and how the labour gap might be filled through alternative recruitment or technological solutions (ibid.).
Show more

20 Read more

Symposium introduction-ethics and sustainable agri-food governance: appraisal and new directions

Symposium introduction-ethics and sustainable agri-food governance: appraisal and new directions

the distributed responsibility framework, as well as private retail and institutional initiatives. Whilst there is some evidence of collaborative and market-based solutions, more work is needed to assess their impact, with responsibility in this case closely connected to cycles of public problematization about plastic waste. Tisenkopfs et al are more pessimistic in their assessment, suggesting that responsibility in food governance is currently limited to a small set of actors; however, their analysis of three ethical disputes highlights the potential of what they call ‘ethical alliances’ (e.g. public-private alliance for biogas) as enabling more shared responsibility in food system governance. Responsibility also features in Sharpe and Barling’s analysis of how the actors in the conventional UK food sector identify social sustainability in order to action it in the conventional UK agri-food sector. The actors include not only food and drink firms, but also the accompanying sustainability audit and measurement companies. These actors’ responses to how to do social sustainability are improvised and often borrow from others, and so implementation is selective and inconsistent. The analysis shows instrumental responsibilization, in the sense that responsibility actions are justified on moral grounds as ‘the right thing to do’ but must also be justified in business terms. They note a delegation of governance responsibilities to achieve sustainability from public authorities to the private sector, as public regulation of corporate reporting and accounting standards has mobilized these actions.
Show more

13 Read more

Transition and foreign trade: the case of the Ukrainian agri-food sector

Transition and foreign trade: the case of the Ukrainian agri-food sector

The transition process of the Ukrainian agro-food sector is slow and cumbersome. Some positive tendencies were asserted only in the second period of transition from 2000-2005. Further trade liberalisation associated with Ukrainian WTO access introduces enhanced competition and in this context demands more transparent, precise and consistence sectoral as well as macroeconomic regulations from governance. In order to increase the competitiveness of the Ukrainian agri-food sector and integration into the world economy it is important to increase quality, stability and efficiency of agricultural production. Modernisation of the processing industry, improvement of the investment climate, governmental programs to support innovative projects, development of an information network and access to market information and political stability are further factors for successful integration into the world economy.
Show more

15 Read more

Exploring dynamic natural-resource-based capabilities for sustainable agri-food chains

Exploring dynamic natural-resource-based capabilities for sustainable agri-food chains

& Martin, 2000). In some response to this, Teece et al (1997) produced dynamic capabilities; a theory which encouraged the continuous development of organisational competencies. Dynamic capabilities was largely well received, and in particular has been credited with overcoming one of the major flaws of the NRBV (Aragon-Correa & Sharma, 2003; Hart & Dowell, 2011). However, the theory was not without criticism, pertinently for lacking practical applicability and failing to define any concrete dynamic capabilities (Agragon-Correa & Sharma, 2003). Teece (2007) contests this in a later paper, arguing that dynamic capabilities by their very nature cannot be explicitly defined. Furthermore, Teece stresses that dynamic capabilities should not be seen as an ‘add-on’ to the NRBV, but rather should be used to describe and guide the diffusion of NRBV resources. In support of this, Teece divides dynamic capabilities into three categories: sensing activities that seek and shape opportunities; seizing activities that implement and manage new opportunities; and transforming activities that influence organisational evolution. Given this study’s intention to explicate NRBV capabilities and enhance practical applicability, Teece’s (2007) theory of dynamic capabilities is used to categorize the amalgamated NRBV, SSCM and innovation capabilities. Pertinently, high levels of repetition between NRBV, SSCM and innovation capabilities reinforce the feasibility of their amalgamation and add robustness to the framework.
Show more

19 Read more

SAM multipliers and subsystems: structural analysis of the Basilicata’s agri-food sector

SAM multipliers and subsystems: structural analysis of the Basilicata’s agri-food sector

To enhance the positive impact of agri-food production activities on the regional eco- nomic development, two basic strategies may be followed. The first consists in attracting increasing shares of non-regional demand towards Basilicata’s products. In this respect, the growth of exports in challenging times, like the recent ones, indicates that first steps in that direction have been made. But the scope for improvement and strengthening in this broad area is still large, encompassing the trade with the other Italian regions. Basil- icata’s agri-food system (in particular its agricultural component) invests a relevant part of its activities for the direct or indirect fulfillment of the final agri-food demand of the other regions. This is a segment of activity requiring a specific strategy to consolidate the comparative advantages to base them mostly on unique features of the regional system, including the quality of the environment, the specificities of the varieties produced, and the knowledge of the context related to production traditions. If the participation in the market of agricultural commodities (like in the case of cereals for the pasta industry) is an important business segment in Basilicata’s agri-food system, it can and must be made sta- ble by innovation processes aimed at increasing product qualitative differentiation.
Show more

20 Read more

Has the global financial crisis had different effects on innovation performance in the agri-food sector by comparison to the rest of the economy?

Has the global financial crisis had different effects on innovation performance in the agri-food sector by comparison to the rest of the economy?

in Spanish agri-food firms has a positive effect on innovation performance. However, firms have opportunities to cooperate with different kinds of partners, namely national, international, industrial and institutional partners. Cooperation with a specific type of partner is generally more likely to be chosen if that type of partner is seen as an essential source of knowledge for innovation success. Belderbos, Carree, and Lokshin (2004) used Dutch data on innovating firms and found that competitor and supplier cooperation is associated with incremental innovations, whereas customers and universities are important sources of knowledge for firms pursuing radical innovations. Similarly, Harhoff, Mueller, and Van Reenen (2014) highlights the fact that collaborations with customers are intended to adapt existing products to new markets and can boost sales of products abroad. Due to international economy integration, R&D cooperation is not limited by national borders. Some studies have found a positive impact of international R&D cooperation on innovation performance. Arvanitis and Bolli (2013) analyzed the differences between national and international innovation cooperation in five European countries: Belgium, Germany, Norway, Portugal and Switzerland, and found that innovation performance of firms improves with international cooperation but remains unaffected by national cooperation. Miotti and Sachwald (2003) studied French manufacturing firms and showed that innovation performance is not affected by innovation cooperation agreements with national partners but is positively influenced by cooperation with foreign partners. However, Jaklic, Damijan, and Rojec (2008) find positive effects of national but not of international innovation cooperation in Slovenian firms. During the latest years of crisis, cooperation has become a more attractive strategy to cope with it for Spanish business; this is particularly the case with SME firms, which have considerably increased cooperation. Given the double aim of the collaborative strategy; pooling knowledge and sharing development costs, this strategy should increase in periods of economic downturns (Laperche, Lefebvre, & Langlet, 2011) so as to preserve the innovation capacity of firms. In line with the empirical studies above, we expect that an economic crisis will lead to the development of collaborative strategies (Laperche et al., 2011). Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:
Show more

36 Read more

Sustainable rural development: What is the role of the agri-food sector?

Sustainable rural development: What is the role of the agri-food sector?

Ray’s approach could be programmatic for much rural research. We should still analyse internal strengths, weaknesses, dynamics etc. Local initiatives are the salt that creates engagement, local pride, and joy of countryside living. But these conditions need to be seen in a closer context with exogenous political- administrative, economic, cultural and other factors influencing both town and rural areas. Together these should be synthesised in analyses of inter-territorrial conditions for two reasons: Because it reflects driving forces of reality and because rural research in this way contributes to improved policy development. A concrete example is the focus in many countries on growth drivers as innova- tion, entrepreneurship, human resources and ICT. However, can we conclude that growth promoters in metropoles also are drivers in the rural economy? Or do we need to develop a specific understanding of innovation processes and entre- preneurship in a rural context, for instance develop specific policies for creating networks and linkages between SMEs and knowledge institutions in towns? A first answer came from Bryden and Hall in a major international project on dynamics in rural areas (D ORA ). They concluded that place-based and ‘soft’
Show more

304 Read more

Agri food manufacturing sector in Romania –internal sizes and in the European context

Agri food manufacturing sector in Romania –internal sizes and in the European context

Abstract: The sustainability of the food supply of the population in all Member States is a priority objective of the current CAP, with important implications both for ensuring food security and for developing the rural economy. In this context, the European sustainable development economic model promotes based on competitiveness, innovation and knowledge, where a key role lies with the small and medium-sized enterprise sector, due to its great flexibility in adapting the business to new market requirements.

8 Read more

Innovation policy in Canada’s agri-food system: The functional food and natural health products’ segment

Innovation policy in Canada’s agri-food system: The functional food and natural health products’ segment

By 1998, my work was taking me in the direction of the health and wellness segment (functional food and natural health products) of the sector and to a lesser extent industrial bioproducts. Universities were attempting to determine if technologies developed or bioactives identified by their researchers and targeted at this segment had market value. More companies in this segment were springing up throughout Western Canada. Industry associations such as the Saskatchewan Nutraceutical Network and the British Columbia Functional Food and Natural Health Products Network were being formed to support the growth of the segment. Commodity- specific, agricultural organizations (e.g. canola, flax, sunflower, pulses, etc.) were attempting to identify attributes of their crops that would result in increased health if consumed or used – health for the population and/or health for the environment. The system stakeholders were all looking for an answer as to whether there was a
Show more

431 Read more

Should I Make or Should I Buy? Innovation Strategies and Governance Structures in the Italian Food Sector

Should I Make or Should I Buy? Innovation Strategies and Governance Structures in the Italian Food Sector

The  relation  between  firm  complexity  (size)  and  innovativeness  was  originally  analysed  by  Schumpeter  (Schumpeter,  1934  and  1942).  The  studies  following  this  theoretical  perspective  emphasised  the  role  of  size  and  the  capacity  to  allocate  financial  resources  to  research  activities  and  to  new  technologies  and  products development (“in  house” innovations)  trough  hierarchies  (vertical integration of  R&D  activities).  In this sense, large firms operating in a context of a strong market power should show higher investments  in innovation activities than the  small ones,  due to larger cash  flow generated by monopolistic power and  to  a  better  access  to  capital  market  (Teece,  1996;  Arundel  and  Kabla,  1998).  Other  authors  deeply  contested  this  point  of  view,  according  to  the  idea  that  small  and  medium  firms  (SMEs)  are  more  adaptable  to  the  market  conditions,  more  opened  to  “innovation  joint‐venture”  and  “contracting  strategies”  (“buying”  innovation  activities)  (Omta,  2002;  2004)  and  less  constrained  by  the  transaction  costs  of  “bureaucratical”  and  managerial  structures  (Williamson,  1975;  Mansfield  1981;  Teece,  1996).  Moreover,  SMEs  show  a  higher  internal  flexibility  (related  to  the  organization  of  the  production  and  to  decision  making  processes),  a  better  flow  of  internal  communication,  greater  specialisation  possibilities,  as well  as a higher informal and strategic  control  (Galende  and  de  la Fuente,  2003). Since the relationship  between size and sourcing strategy is ambiguous, we derived a general hypothesis. 
Show more

14 Read more

The Role of Innovation Poles in Agri‐food System  Development: The Case of Abruzzo’s Model 

The Role of Innovation Poles in Agri‐food System  Development: The Case of Abruzzo’s Model 

The regional strategy of Abruzzo identifies innovation hubs, in compliance with what is established by the "Discipline", as synergic coordination structures between the different actors of the innovative process characteristic of a specific technological and application domain and the provision of services to high added value and infrastructure for innovation. Agire (Agri-industry, Research, Eco-sustainability) is the denomination of the consortium selected to represents the dominium of agri-food Innovation Pole in Abruzzo; Abruzzo Innovation Pole “Agire” Consortium (A.I.P.A.C.) comprehends over 100 members that represents about 60% of the regional agricultural and agri-food production; its companies members employ approximately 6.000 employees and generate a turnover of over 2.4 billion euros; with these numbers A.I.P.A.C. is the largest consortium active in the Agribusiness sector in the Abruzzo region. Despite having a common origin and similar structure, each Innovation Pole has different characteristics and dynamics; in fact, every territory or region has a specific potential for the absorption of the results from the Innovation Pole activities, deriving from different historical traditions, specific needs and local economy (Taddeo et al., 2017); obviously, the core business of these structure is the innovation; some authors, like Goldsmith and Foxall (2013), reserve this term exclusively for “new to the world” products such as modifications or line extensions, for other new products: the majority of Cluster for Innovation follow this principle and the research and innovation activities are devote in particular to new product or process innovation; the consequence is that various models of hub for innovation showed an orientation to research and innovation in strictly sense, as emerges from the literature analysis (e.g. Fundeanu and Badele, 2014; Geissdoerfer et al., 2018). But some other authors emphasize the multi-dimensionality of innovations; for example, Cooper (1998) proposes a model of innovation that has three-dimension: product-process, incremental- radical and administrative-technical. These factors can materialise in the form of innovative projects as novel forms of knowledge and/or different types of innovation: new products, technological innovations, innovative processes, organisational innovations and attitudinal innovations (e.g. promotion of cooperation, development of more resilient models to face new challenges, etc.), as are presently analysed in this study.
Show more

17 Read more

SUPURBFOOD project report of the case study Zurich: Agri food dynamics and governance of the urban food system

SUPURBFOOD project report of the case study Zurich: Agri food dynamics and governance of the urban food system

Market (farmers and retailers) and public sector actors see a great potential in bringing more local food into city public canteens and private restaurants. As mentioned, the interviewed farm- ers do not see themselves in the position to start new cooperatives to e.g. meet the criteria for public procurement awards of the city. However, intermediaries are needed to coordinate such activities. Although farmers mentioned that vegetable growing does not play a huge role around Zurich due to its soils nevertheless there are a few rather large vegetable producers near the city, which are main providers of vegetables at least for one of the large retail chains (Migros). But potential is seen in terms of eggs, milk, beef and apples/apple juice. Retailers and also the civil society organisation with a focus on sustainable consumption see a growing demand for specialties. What is however missing is the information about what kind of, and to what extent, the city farmers could provide food. An inventory of the current crops and marketing activities is needed.
Show more

53 Read more

On Improving Automation by Integrating RFID in the Traceability Management of the Agri-Food Sector

On Improving Automation by Integrating RFID in the Traceability Management of the Agri-Food Sector

by a tightly aligned food supply chain and by the important role of information and communication technology (ICT) [4]. Usually, these enterprises use spontaneously a traceability system, which typically is very efficient and fully automated. Instead, small enterprises that have an efficient traceability system often add the traceability management to their normal operations, decreasing the efficiency and increasing the costs. The lack of assets and the difficulties to see the benefits due to the use of an effective traceability system, bring them to implement the traceability management in the most simple way, often manual or semiautomatic. Presently one consider- able challenge in the agri-food business is the developing of appropriate traceability technology for small-scale farmers [6]. One of the most important novelties in supply chain man- agement technologies is the availability of the Radio Fre- quency Identification (RFID) technology. An RFID system [7] typically includes a reader and some tags. The reader is able to access tag memories by means of a wireless communication. The memory, which plays an important role in the tag architec- ture, contains the unique identification number (ID) and may have up to several kilobits of storage capacity. Normally RFID tags have not cryptographic capabilities, however solutions to avoid security and privacy threats are under study [8][9]. It is important to note that, for the adoption of an RFID system by a company, the acceptance problem should be considered [10]. RFID is a mature technology, and in the last decade its applications increased in number and diffusion, due to the high reduction of its costs. As for supply chain management [11], RFID could be properly used for traceability management.
Show more

9 Read more

Conflict Resolution in Vertical Collaborations in the Agri-food Sector

Conflict Resolution in Vertical Collaborations in the Agri-food Sector

Vertical collaborations in supply chains imply the achievement of mutual benefits for the participating partners such as increasing sales, reducing costs and risks and improving the overall performance. However, the benefits are sometimes difficult to gain due to existing differences in interests and goals of the individual chain members. Each firm tries to maximize its own profit and to minimize its own costs which may occur at the expense of other actors' profitability. Simchi-Levi et al. (2000) named two important reasons for these existing difficulties: the heterogeneity of business partners and the dynamics of the whole system. Since members are different from one another in many ways (resources, objectives, capabilities, etc.), the conflicts are inevitable. Examples of conflict between supply chain members may include such issues as disputes over maintenance of inventory levels, discount merchandising, representational policies, prices (Stern et al., 1973) or product quality, customer relations, hours of operation (Lusch, 1976). One can say that conflicts in supply chains and marketing channels have been dealt with as a pervasive phenomenon.
Show more

12 Read more

On Improving Automation by Integrating RFID in the Traceability Management of the Agri-Food Sector

On Improving Automation by Integrating RFID in the Traceability Management of the Agri-Food Sector

by a tightly aligned food supply chain and by the important role of information and communication technology (ICT) [4]. Usually, these enterprises use spontaneously a traceability system, which typically is very efficient and fully automated. Instead, small enterprises that have an efficient traceability system often add the traceability management to their normal operations, decreasing the efficiency and increasing the costs. The lack of assets and the difficulties to see the benefits due to the use of an effective traceability system, bring them to implement the traceability management in the most simple way, often manual or semiautomatic. Presently one consider- able challenge in the agri-food business is the developing of appropriate traceability technology for small-scale farmers [6]. One of the most important novelties in supply chain man- agement technologies is the availability of the Radio Fre- quency Identification (RFID) technology. An RFID system [7] typically includes a reader and some tags. The reader is able to access tag memories by means of a wireless communication. The memory, which plays an important role in the tag architec- ture, contains the unique identification number (ID) and may have up to several kilobits of storage capacity. Normally RFID tags have not cryptographic capabilities, however solutions to avoid security and privacy threats are under study [8][9]. It is important to note that, for the adoption of an RFID system by a company, the acceptance problem should be considered [10]. RFID is a mature technology, and in the last decade its applications increased in number and diffusion, due to the high reduction of its costs. As for supply chain management [11], RFID could be properly used for traceability management.
Show more

10 Read more

The Pursuit of External Knowledge in Eco-Innovation. Analysis of the Agri-Food Sector in Spain

The Pursuit of External Knowledge in Eco-Innovation. Analysis of the Agri-Food Sector in Spain

According to Laursen & Salter (2006), negative relationships can also be observed in the long run, in cases of excessive breadth in the network of contacts. Ideas reach a firm to be taken into account in the development of new products, and a certain level of attention and effort is required to manage the implementation of these ideas. As we have seen, the institutionalization and assimilation of external innovation, the combination with internal R+D, and the development of a product or service in line with the agents concerned, requires the attention of resources such as time, cost, and the human factor (Goerzen & Beamish, 2005). This attention is the key element based on the theory of limited rationality proposed by Simon (1947). This theory holds that attention is the most important and valuable factor within an organization, and that optimal resource management in particular activities is a crucial factor in explaining why some firms are capable of adapting so efficiently to an environment. For Ocasio's (1997), organizational theory, decision-making is an action that requires “concentrate their energy, effort, and mindfulness on a limited number of issues and tasks”(Ocasio, 1997, p. 203). This theory suggests that poor distribution of company direction can result in too many (or too few) connections with external sources, and anticipates that there will be an optimal point of external sources of collaboration, and any excess or shortage thereof will precipitate inferior performances.
Show more

23 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...