formation, surface sorption reactions at mineral surfaces, precipitation of pure solid phases and solid solutions. Characterisation and quantification of all those processes requires the availability of thermodynamic data and a comprehensive understanding on all processes at a molecular scale. Relevant radionuclide concentrations in natural groundwater lie in the nano-molar range which is infinitesimal small in relation to the main components of the groundwater. Quantification of the chemical reactions occurring in those systems calls for the application and the development of innovative methods and experimental approaches, which provide insight into the chemical speciation of radionuclides. Laser and X-ray spectroscopic techniques are developed and applied at INE. Quantum chemical calculations are currently being applied as an additional tool to confirm the experimental results and to estimate data, which are difficult to derive experimentally. The long term safety assessment of a repository for nuclearwaste has to be demonstrated by application of modeling tools being applicable to geological time scales. The experimental research programme at INE aims to acquire fundamental knowledge on model subsystems and to derive model parameters. Geochemical models and thermodynamic databases are developed as a basis for the description of geochemical behaviour of radionuclides in complex natural aquatic systems. The radionuclide migration behaviour in the geosphere becomes predictable by coupling geochemistry to transport. Transferability and applicability of model predictions are examined by designing dedicated laboratory experiments, field studies in underground laboratories and by studying natural analogue systems. This strategy allows to identify and to analyse key uncertainties related to the accuracy and the relevance of the developed models.
levels of radioactivity for hundreds of thousands of years, geological disposal has been preferred from the outset. The first thoughtful scientific review by Earth scientists of what would be required was by John Bredehoeft and colleagues in 1978. This prescient paper recognized the importance of different waste types, the challenges of site characterization, the perturbations that the emplaced waste would impose on geological formations, and the time frames over which geological isolation would be required. Many ingenious, alternative ways of disposing of some, or all, of the nuclearwaste inventory have been proposed, but geological disposal remains the only one that appears to offer safe, long-term disposal of all waste types. The report by the UK s Committee on Radi oactive Waste Management (CoRWM 2006) provides a comprehensive analysis of alternatives. Nuclear nations in western Europe and elsewhere had also begun to plan for geological disposal during the late 1970s and 1980s. Most countries have interacted through the International Atomic Energy Authority, which has established safety requirements for the disposal of radioactive waste (IAEA 2011a) and guidance on how geological disposal facilities should be developed (IAEA 2011b). A history of ten national programs was published recently by the NuclearWaste Technical Review Board (2015) and, in part, is summarized in the article by Metlay (2016 this issue).
The measurements of toxicity have been car- ried out for three different waste samples from different stages of industrial production of MCPA in the Organika Sarzyna Chemical Company (No- wa Sarzyna, Poland), gamma-irradiated with a 10 kGy dose. They include raw waste after chlorina- tion of 2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MPA), a final waste from MCPA production line prior to the ad- sorption of its constituents on activated carbon, and the final waste after adsorption on activated carbon. As it is illustrated by the chromatograms of waste samples obtained prior to their irradia- tion (Fig.4A-C), the examined wastes differ signifi- cantly in content of organic compounds, but all them exhibit initial toxicity. Waste sample from chlori- nation of MPA exhibited about 75% higher initial toxicity than the two others (Fig.4E-G). This toxic- ity has not been reduced by gamma irradiation up to a 10 kGy dose, and in the same conditions for final waste before absorption on activated carbon even about a 3-fold increase of toxicity was ob- served (Fig.4E). The observed toxicity in case of final waste after adsorption on activated carbon suggests that a source of this behavior may be the presence of toxic polar or ionized inorganic com- pounds. They can include, for instance, chlorine- -containing oxoanions. Their toxicity for different organisms was reported in the literature [25-28], and the least are considered perchlorates . Chlo- rides are efficient scavengers of hydroxyl radicals , and oxoanions can be formed as a result of radical reactions. In further studies, ion-chromato- graphic studies of chlorine speciation is planned as well as total elemental analysis of examined wastes, including the content of heavy metals, for which Microtox toxicity is reported in the litera- ture , together with synergistic interactions, when several metal ions are present simultaneously . In order to reduce toxicity of the examine waste samples, the EB irradiation with higher doses, as well as gamma irradiation in the presence of ozone is planned.
Research for the safe management of nuclearwaste
This is the third bi-annualreport of the NuclearWaste Management section of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) at Forschungszentrum Jülich since 2009 – almost a tradition. Our institute has seen two more years with exciting scientific work, but also major changes regarding nuclear energy in Germany and beyond. After the reactor accident in Fukushima (Japan) in 2011, it was decided in Germany to phase out electricity production by nuclear energy by 2022. It seems clear, that the decommissioning of the nuclear power plants will take several decades. The German nuclearwaste repository Konrad for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation (all low level and some of the intermediate level radioactive waste) will start operation in the next decade. The new site selection act from 2013 re-defines the selection procedure for the German high level nuclearwaste repository. Independently of the decision to stop electricity production by nuclear energy, Germany has to manage and ultimately dispose of its nuclearwaste in a safe way. Our basic and applied research for the safe management of nuclearwaste is focused on radiochemistry and materials chemistry aspects – it is focused on the behaviour of radionuclides and radioactive waste materials within the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is organized in four areas: (1) research supporting the scientific basis of the safety case of a deep geological repository for high level nuclearwaste, (2) fundamental structure research of radionuclide containing (waste) materials (3) R & D for waste management concepts for special nuclear wastes and (4) international safeguards.
ment of radiation chemistry involved is the solid state radiation chemistry, not explored fully as yet, as it is the liquid phase, especially aqueous radiation chemistry. Solid state radiation chemistry occurs in our program as radiation chemistry of inorganic material embedding radioactive waste, like mate- rials of controlled composition as blocks of con- crete and silicate glasses, but also as natural salt deposits of uncontrolled composition. Other solid state material undergoing radiolysis are synthetic polymers of very different nature like elastomers used in nuclear industry, and many other polymers of different response to radiation like aromatic poly- styrenes, which are rather resistant to radiation, but also polymers which easily degrade under ir- radiation, like teflon. Natural polymers, like cellu- lose, lignine can occur in the waste, contaminated with plutonium. Radiation induced degradation is seldom as innocuous as the resulting reduction of average molecular weight, even advantageous in the case of waste. Degradation of poly(vinylchloride) causes releasing of highly corrosive HCl. The dan- ger is even higher in the case of iodine containing polymers, recently proposed as biological shield instead of lead containing composites. Release of hydrogen, which is explosive in mixtures with air, is possible from irradiation of any material which contains chemically bound hydrogen. These examples show that any material in contact, especially long, with radioactive material has to be examined for radiation induced chemical reactions.
Secondary phases may form over geological time scales upon contact of the High Level nuclearWaste (HLW) matrix with groundwater. The neo-formation of such alteration phases represents a significant retention potential for radiotoxic and long-lived radionuclides (RN) in aqueous systems. Beside reactions at the surface, RN binding may occur by incorporation in the bulk structure (co- precipitation), resulting in long-term immobilization, especially if a (meta)stable solid solution forms. Currently, the mechanism of RN incorporation in selected mineral phases relevant in the disposal of HLW in deep repositories is investigated at INE. Molecular- scale information is obtained by combining various complementary spectroscopic techniques. Most of the activities in this field are related to the retention of actinides, but also the binding of long-lived fission products. An(III)/Ln(III) – strontianite/celestite The leading role of ligand strength in uptake mechanisms of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by secondary phases of the carbonate/sulfate system was previously outlined by the work of Schmidt et al., 2009 . These authors observed that Eu(III) and Cm(III) are incorporated into aragonite structure (CaCO 3 ) and only form inner-sphere surface complexes with gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). To determine the role of the lattice parameters, a continuative study was performed on two minerals isostructural with aragonite and belonging to the carbonate/sulfate system as well: celestite (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3).
The concept of geological disposal is a logical consequence of the easily observable decay of radioactivity with time, which leads to a continuous reduction in toxicity of these wastes. Finite hazardous lifetimes (and low volumes of wastes) led to development of concepts where environmental protection could be aimed at by isolating wastes from man's surroundings for long enough to allow such decay to occur. However, the feasibility of this approach depends upon our identifying disposal environments for which we have evidence of their sufficient stability over tens or hundreds of thousands of years. The risks involved in sending materials out of the terrestrial sphere into deep space have been tragically demonstrated by the space programmes as being too high. Deep geological formations are the most obvious candidate stable environments that can be accessed with today's technology. Consequently, concepts for geological disposal under the continental earth's crust have been developed over many years since the concept of disposal in deep geological formations was recognised by the US National Academy of Sciences back in 1957 to be the most promising form of confinement for long-lived wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. 1
analysed to assess species diversity, behaviour and abundance. The advantage of using this method is that it can be used both before and after installation, inside and outside the 500m exclusion zone. During 2006, two baited camera surveys were carried out at a control site, outside the exclusion zone, building on data collected in 2004 and 2005 prior to platform construction. In addition, a survey was also carried out inside the protected area, now closed to fishing. This was achieved by operating our camera from the stand-by vessel, BUE Lismore (Viking Offshore). The survey was the first SERPENT mission for new PhD student Iñigo Martinez, who is funded by an EU Marie Curie scholarship to study the impact of oil and gas installations on fish assemblages in the North Sea. With the professional and enthusiastic co-operation of the Lismore crew, the baited camera was deployed a total of 17 times for varying durations. An impressive 6,700 photos were taken, along with data on current direction and velocity, which will allow us to study the effect of the platform on species diversity and abundance as well tidal and diurnal patterns. As the Buzzard platform moves into the production phase and the project moves into its fourth year, we aim to collect data from as close to the structure as possible. A maiden mission in early April was a great success, with the baited camera deployed five times from one of the platform cranes. Plans for another time-lapse camera system, with super
ISIM made great strides throughout 2006 in its research activities. Between them, the ISIM Chairs and Fellows produced half a dozen books, over 60 journal articles and book chapters, and delivered more than 100 papers in national and international conferences and seminars. In addition to this, some 60 contributions were made to popular media, including newspa- pers, radio, and television. Increasingly, such productivity is aided by the funding that ISIM successfully generates beyond its own research budget. Indeed, 2006 was a particularly good year for ISIM in attracting research grants and commissions. In December, for instance, NORFACE awarded ISIM 500,000 euros for a two-years research project on “Islamic Fashion: The Emergence of Islam as a Social Force in Europe.” The same project will be led by the ISIM-Chair Annelies Moors (University of Amsterdam), in cooperation with researchers at ISIM and others in Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the UK. Further, a study into “Contemporary Developments within Indonesian Islam” has been commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This project is supervised by the ISIM-Chair Martin van Bruinessen (Utrecht University), and conducted by four Visiting Fellows from Indonesia.
Resolution 5: THAT the Directors be and are hereby generally and unconditionally authorised for the purposes of Section 80 of the Companies Act 1985 (as amended) (“the Act”) to allot relevant securities (as defined in section 80 (2) of the Act) of the Company up to a maximum aggregate nominal amount of £1,906,803. This authority will expire on the earlier of the conclusion of the next Annual General Meeting of the Company or the date falling fifteen months from the date of the passing of this resolution, at the end of which period such authority will expire unless previously varied or revoked by the Company in a general meeting of shareholders, provided that the Company shall be entitled under the authority hereby conferred to make at any time prior to the expiry of such authority any offer or agreement which would or might require relevant securities to be allotted after the expiry of such authority and the Directors may allot any relevant securities after the expiry of such authority pursuant to such offer or agreement as if such authority had not expired, and that all prior authorities to allot relevant securities are hereby revoked but without prejudice to the allotment of any relevant securities already made pursuant to such authorities.
In 2005 the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the European Medical Research Councils (EMRC), one of the ﬁ ve scientiﬁ c units at the European Science Foundation (ESF), established a task force comprised of leading European scientists, in presence of representatives of a patient organisation and a regulatory agency to address science policy issues in the ﬁ eld of rheumatic diseases. The aim was to develop a science policy brieﬁ ng (SPB) designed to provide policy advice to national and European funding institutions, to the Framework Programmes of the European Commission (EC) as well as to Health Care Systems across Europe. This policy paper endeavours to evaluate the state-of-the-art, the demand for and potential of research in rheumatic diseases at the European level. Its ambition resides not only in reporting key issues identiﬁ ed in the strategic workshop held on 13-14 December 2005 in epidemiology, basic, translational and public health research but also in achieving a balanced presentation of research priorities streamlined through a consensual Delphi 2 analysis by the scientiﬁ c experts. This paper has been reviewed by EMRC and EULAR and is considered to give a balanced view of research priorities in the ﬁ eld of rheumatic diseases. It will be presented to and further challenged by a broader research community at the annual congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) in June 2006 in Amsterdam. Without pronouncing itself on the priority compared to other domains of research, ESF-EMRC wishes to raise awareness of the need for an acceleration of research in rheumatic diseases. The ESF recommends that the conclusions of this science policy brieﬁ ng are given serious consideration by all concerned to contribute to reducing the burden of this disease on society.
Under the Companies Act, the meeting of share- holders is the highest decision making forum, where the shareholders exercise their voting rights. At the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, decisions are made relating to the annualreport, dividends, election of board members and appointment of auditors, remuneration of board members and auditors, and other matters set out in the Compa- nies Act and the Articles of Association. Addition- al information on the Annual Meeting of Share- holders and complete minutes are published on the Company’s website, www.sandvik.se. Annual Meeting of Shareholders 2006 Shareholders representing 43.9% of the votes and capital attended the Annual Meeting held on 2 May 2006. Sven Unger, attorney at law, was elected to chair the meeting The meeting resolved to declare a dividend of SEK 13.50 per share for the year 2005. Lars Pettersson, President and CEO, in his presentation commented on the oper- ations during the ﬁnancial year 2005 and devel- opments during the ﬁrst quarter of 2006. He further gave an account of the Group’s business concept and its expected future strategic develop- ment. Georg Ehrnrooth, Clas Åke Hedström, Sigrun Hjelmquist, Egil Myklebust, Anders Nyrén, and Lars Pettersson were all re-elected ordinary members of the Board. Fredrik Lundberg and Hanne de Mora were elected new members of the Board. Clas Åke Hedström was elected Chairman of the Board. The personnel organizations had appointed Tomas Kärnström and Göran Lindstedt as ordinary members of the Board with Mette Ramberg and Bo Westin as deputies. At the board meeting following the election, Anders Nyrén was appointed Vice Chairman.
There has been rapid growth in the number of judicial officers, the range of jurisdiction and the volume of work. This has, and will, continue to present challenges for the Court to strengthen the skills and productivity of federal magistrates and staff to better enable them to cope. In recognising the importance of maintaining the optimal health, well-being and productivity of federal magistrates, the Court has implemented programs to encourage annual health checks and provide access to professional and confidential counselling. The Court continues to strive to improve its programs for induction and ongoing judicial education of federal magistrates and training and development of its staff.
ACTIVITY REPORT AGENDA AND CONTACTS
Production Corporate Communications, Lonza Group Ltd, Basel, Switzerland | All rights reserved | Editorial completion: February 2007 | Design zahnzimmermannfankhauser creative projects ltd, Zurich, Switzerland | Photography Tim Lüdin, Timage, Sissach, Switzerland | Thomas Andermatten, Brig, Switzerland | Arsène Saheurs, Zurich, Switzerland | SEM pictures Eye of science, o. meckes, n. ottawa, Reutlingen, Germany | Martin Oeggerli & Daniel Mathys, Basel, Switzerland | The microbiological culture for the scanning electron microscope pictures in the AnnualReport – with the exception of the picture on page 20 – was provided by Lonza‘s reference stocks in Visp | Lithography & Print Birkhäuser+GBC Ltd, Reinach, Switzerland
Asset value pension plan reinsurance 1,923,742 1,749,405 Incomefrompensionplanreinsuranceamountsto174,337Euro(2005: 638,686Euro),includingpaymentsmadeintheeventofdeath.Con- tributionsof290,681Euroarepaid(2005:233,611Euro).Therearealso indirect pension commitments to Management Board members of ELMOS Semiconductor AG which require no pension provisions ac- cording to IAS 19.1004D because of the volume of these commit- mentsandriskcoveragebycompletelycongruentpensionplanrein- surance.In2006,thecontributionstothesepensionplansamounted to341,048Euro(2005:176,995Euro).
INAB also continued to support the requirements of the Department of Health and Children and the Irish Medicines Board for accreditation to ISO 15189 in the health sector, arising from national legislation for medical laboratories and developments in hospital services accreditation generally. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 360 of 2005 transposed the European Directive 2002/98/EC on setting standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of human blood and blood components. This Statutory Instrument requires blood banks (approximately 60 laboratories) to operate to ISO 15189 by November 2008. In 2006 a joint INAB–Irish Medicines Board Expert Group produced technical guidelines to assist blood banks meet the requirements of the Directive. INAB expects that these laboratories will present for accreditation over the next two years, and that a significant number of new applications for laboratory accreditations to ISO 15189 from this sector will be received during 2007.
Brendan Meehan joined Resolution Life Group Limited in April 2004 as Chief Operating Officer and was appointed Managing Director of Resolution Management Services Limited in 2005 following completion of the merger between Britannic Group plc and Resolution Life Group Limited. He was appointed to the Resolution plc Board in July 2006 and to the position of Group Chief Operating Officer in March 2007. He began his career in the insurance industry as a broker consultant with Eagle Star before training as an accountant with Royal Insurance. Subsequently he held both financial and operational posts with Royal Life before moving to Holland in 1991 to take up the role of Operations Director of Royal Nederland Levensverzekeringen NV, Royal’s newly established life assurance operation. He returned to the UK in 1996 to join KPMG in its Insurance Consulting practice advising clients in the UK Life Industry on financial, operational and strategic issues. In 2001 he became Finance Director of AMP’s UK Financial Services business where he led the closing and de-risking of the life funds, implementing revised investment strategies and managing a capital recovery programme which culminated in the successful flotation of AMP’s UK assets as HHG plc.
As of December 30, 2006, we did not have any significant off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of SEC Regulation S-K.
New Accounting Standards
In July 2006, the FASB issued FIN No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109,” which prescribes a new recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. FIN No. 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. FIN No. 48 amends SFAS No. 5, “Accounting for Contingencies,” to eliminate its applicability to income taxes. FIN No. 48 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2006. The cumulative effect of applying FIN No. 48 will be reported as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings (or other appropriate components of equity or net assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheet) for fiscal 2007. We are currently studying the transition effects of adopting FIN No. 48 and we are not yet able to assess the impact of FIN No. 48 on our financial statements and, therefore, we are currently not able to disclose the expected effect of adoption.
Grade) – 125 students and Coker College – 20 students.
Approximately 40,000 acres of the Forest is included in the Wildlife Management Area Program. This is a cooperative agreement between the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the S.C. Forestry Commission. DNR personnel provide assistance with the game food plot establishment; monitoring deer herd dynamics, tracking various game and non-game species, and pond management. Law enforcement on the forest is provided through interagency cooperation. Sand Hills has a 57 acre public dove field. Thirty- five acres of the 57acre field were planted to annual crops with the remainder planted and maintained in bicolor lespedeza. A 30 acre farm field was made into a second public dove field this year. The field was planted in sunflowers and corn. It will open on September 1, 2007.
All incentive schemes in the Group consist of pay in the form of salary or pen- sion premiums. There are three types of profit-based pay (bonus pay). One is based on sales per hour worked and is used for employees in stores and the central warehouse. Another is based on Group profits, and the third is based on the Group’s net margin for the Group’s salaried employees and senior manage- ment. Remuneration is reported continuously and in each interim and semi- annualreport. Clas Ohlson does not have any options schemes for its employ- ees. With regard to any severance pay, a provision is recognised in cases where the company is demonstrably obliged to terminate a contract of employment before the normal time or as an offer to encourage voluntary redundancy.