Top PDF Institutions and labor market outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

Institutions and labor market outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

Institutions and labor market outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

It has been assumed that in SSA the effect of EPL on employment in the private sector is similar to that in other countries (see, for example, Botero et al., 2004). But Africa specific studies of the effect of EPL on labor market outcomes have not been done – the evidence for SSA comes from cross-country analysis. Available evidence suggest that the effect of EPL on employment in the low income countries of SSA may be of a lesser magnitude than in Latin America or the OECD, at least at this point in their economic development. For instance, in their comprehensive discussion on the reasons for Africa’s sluggish job creation performance, Fox and Gaal (2008) point out that, despite the lack of studies of EPL similar to those done for OECD countries, available evidence based on firm perceptions emphasizes skill shortages as one of the main constraints to job creation, as well as overall low investment in labor–intensive manufacturing. 4 Firms report that the generally poor investment climate raises operating costs for businesses, making SSA less competitive when compared to other emerging economies. Evidence of skill shortages is found in studies of wage determination in Africa, as well as evidence that in SSA wage determination is not competitive. Fox and Oviedo (2008), Alby (2007), and others have found evidence of rent-sharing between firms and unions, as well as with older workers. Despite the potential selection bias (if union members or older workers are more productive), in their production function estimation Fox and Oviedo do not find that
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Institutions and Elites: Democracy and Stability in sub-Saharan Africa

Institutions and Elites: Democracy and Stability in sub-Saharan Africa

Burgess 12 differences among cases (chiefly levels of power-sharing) that might explain different outcomes. Sub-Saharan African is a region where attempts at democratic rule have resulted in highly variable success, from fully free democracies to consolidated autocracies. The states within this region have also implemented a variety of institutions, some with greater degrees of power- sharing than others. Since the study is examining only Sub-Saharan Africa there are a number of variables that can be controlled for. These factors include low levels of development, recent transitions to democracy, ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, and former colonization. All 48 states that comprise this region, according to the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs, will be included in the study. This represents the universe of cases, but measures of democracy and stability and key institutional arrangements will only be measured for 2010. While studying the changes in democracy and stability over a period of time would be insightful, I chose not to because of the relatively fluid and dynamic nature of political institutions in Africa. Determining a time frame in which a majority of the Sub-Saharan states’ political institutions remained stable would be close to impossible. Bivariate correlations will show the degree and direction of the relationship between three variables: Power-Sharing Index Score, Freedom House Score, and Failed States Index Score. The four sub-regions of Sub-Saharan Africa – Eastern, Central, Western, and Southern will also be included to determine whether there are any regional diffusion effects as posited in the literature. i
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Trade Openness, Institutions and Economic Growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

Trade Openness, Institutions and Economic Growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

A major discourse in literature is that one of the causes of the limited growth effects of trade liberalization is the weakness of institutions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of trade openness and institutions on economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Institutions are crafted by man to create a peaceful habitation and reduce uncertainty in the exchange of values; and they play key roles in the management of economies in recent years. The study is significant considering the fact that trade and institutions have been found to exert some measure of influence on the growth of countries. However, evidence has shown that not much has been done in relating institutions to trade in SSA. The study employed econometric analyses involving the Panel Unit Root, Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) and the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques for the period 1985-2012 on thirty selected SSA countries. Secondary data were used for the estimations. The major findings of the study revealed that institutions had a significant positive impact on economic growth but trade openness only had a little significance on growth in the selected SSA countries. Therefore, the study recommended that the SSA countries should ensure that funds be channeled appropriately to projects of economic importance so as to further develop their institutions to have meaningful impact on economic growth. These SSA countries should also create conducive economic and political environments that will engender free international trade between them and other countries of the world.
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Outreach and Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Outreach and Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

outrech performance is highly relient on internal (managable) determinants. Nevertheless, external (non managable) determinants also greatly influence the performance of both outreach and profitabilty of a given microfinance. Internal (managable) factors that are used is this research is size, age, institutional type and portfolio quality. Moreover, the external determinants that employed in this investigation are macroeconimc conditions like GDP growth and inflation rate of the nations that microfinance institutions are located in. This research investigated the internal and external factors that affect outreach and financial performance of microfinance institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. To acheive the objective of the study, this investigation was employed secondary data which was gathered from Microfinance Information eXchange (MIX) market and World Bank. Moreover, the data was gathered from 43 microfinance institutions based in sub-Saharan Africa and the determination of MFIs that have taken part in the sample was reliant on the fullfilment of data for the five period of time which is from 2013 to 2017. In addition the panel data was analyzed quantitatively through pooled regression model on EViews software. In accordance with the gathered data, descriptive statistics and pooled regression analysis was used, hence the study offered the upcoming conclusions. This investigation concludes that the major factor that influences social and financial performance of microfinance institutions in sub-Saharan Africa is the size of MFIs (i.e. the asset of the MFIs). In essence whenever the capital of microfinance institutions expand is the better social and financial performance they are. Furthermore, the age of microfinance institutions in sub-Saharan Africa significantly influes on number of active borrowers, percentage of women borrowers and return on equity. Moreover, institutional type of microfinance institutions have positive correlation with the number of active borrowers, percentage of women borrowers and opperational self sufficient. As well as, the study revealed that portfolio quality of microfinance institutions in sub-Saharan Africa have negative coefficient on the average loan balance per borrower, percentage of women borrowers and return on asset which implies as the the quality of the asset reduces both average loan balance per borrower, percentage of women borrowers and profitability decrease. In addition, the GDP growth of sub-Saharan Africa significantly influences the operational self sufficient of microfinance institutions.
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Explaining the Constitutional Integration and Resurgence of Traditional Political Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Explaining the Constitutional Integration and Resurgence of Traditional Political Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

We choose fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) as the method of inference for three reasons. First, QCA allows for equifinality, that is, several causal paths can lead to the outcomes, the integration and resurgence of TPI. Second, as pointed out above, we expect com- binations of several causal conditions to be particularly relevant – a methodological strength of QCA. Third, because our outcome is coded in four different categories along the dimension of how “integrative” the provisions in the constitutions are, i.e. how much TPI are integrated with the state political institutions, we use fuzzy-set QCA instead of crisp-set QCA. 5 Moreover, pair- wise correlations, cross-tabulations, and regression analysis have inferential limitations given our low number of observations – we analyse traditional resurgence in 45 Sub-Saharan African countries. Having outlined the reasons for choosing fsQCA to analyse the constitutional resur- gence in Sub-Saharan Africa, we acknowledge the extensive methodological debate on the uses of QCA (e.g. Baumgartner and Thiem, 2015; Braumoeller 2017; Krogslund, Choi, and Poert- ner, 2015; Lucas and Szatrowski 2014; Munck 2016, Paine 2016; Ragin 2014; Ragin and Ri- houx 2004; Rohlfing 2015; Schneider and Rohlfing 2016; Thiem 2014, 2017). 6 Thus, we pre- sent additional statistical evidence to substantiate our findings.
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Performance in Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Organisational Trust

Performance in Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Organisational Trust

Disclosure to supervisor and to top management both correlate positively and significantly with organisation commitment at r = .34 and r = .41 respectively. However, when the structured equation model takes into account all the other variables and the effects, no significant direct path coefficient exists representing H14 and H16. The lack of a direct significant path coefficient from disclosure to organisation commitment is surprising because disclosure is an emotional perception (Gillespie, 2003) and organisation commitment is an emotional bond (Meyer and Allen, 1999) compared to reliance, an ability-based measure, that does positively and significantly relate to organisation commitment in both models as discussed above. However, higher trust societies, like in North America and Europe as compared to Sub-Saharan Africa (Delhey and Newton, 2005; Holm, 2015) have higher social capital with each other (Uslaner, 1999). Higher social capital likely yields higher propensity to share and disclose information. Shamir (1995) posited that information about a leader is varied and can be scant, so close leader interactions prove critical in garnishing information and reducing social distance. So, considering a variety of factors, employees in the target nations in this study have lower propensity to disclose information in social and workplace settings regardless of trust intentions and, therefore, disclosure stands as irrelevant to their affective commitment levels to the organisation.
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Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub Saharan Africa

Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub Saharan Africa

From growth empirics, one strand of the literature emphasizes the importance of financial development (see Levine, 2005) while the other centres on the role of institutions on economic growth (see Acemoglu and Johnson, 2005). Recently, both strands of the growth literature have been combined to investigate the effect of financial development on economic growth conditional on a country’s institutional quality. The central thesis involves examining the interaction between institutions and finance on growth since both factors can be either complements or substitutes. So far, evidence of such interaction is mixed and inconclusive. While Demetriades and Law (2006) and Anwar and Cooray (2012) found that finance and institutions are complements, Ahlin and Pang (2008) and Compton and Giedeman (2011) showed that both factors are substitutes in the growth process. Such can be traced to the use of heterogeneous cross-country samples of both developed and developing countries without considering their individual and region- specific economic characteristics, which can have significant influence on the outcome, and thus, a generalization of policy prescriptions that is of little relevance to the latter since the former have a well-developed financial sector and good institutions. To circumvent this, a region-specific analysis involving homogeneous countries with similar economic fundamentals, culture and history is necessary so as to derive policy implications for the region (and the countries that belong to it) as in Anwar and Cooray (2012) for South Asia.
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Ethnic Diversity and Inequality in sub Saharan Africa: Do Institutions Reduce the Noise?

Ethnic Diversity and Inequality in sub Saharan Africa: Do Institutions Reduce the Noise?

In another strand of literature, Acemoglu (2003) have specially crafted roles for geography and institutions as fundamental causes of differences in prosperity between countries. While the import of the former has been floored on the ground of not necessarily suggesting causation in spite of its higher correlational value with country’s prosperity on the one hand, the latter factoris considered as having a critical causal relation with country’s prosperity on the other hand.This, he defended by arguing that having good institutions encourage investment in machinery, human capital, and better technologies, whichcould consequently launch countries on the trajectory of prosperity. As a consequence, sound institutions that give legal protection to minorities, guarantee freedom from expropriation, grant freedom from repudiation of contracts, and facilitate cooperation for public services might possibly constrain the amount of damage that one ethnic group 3 ordiversity of any form could do to another. In this light, institutions offer an environment that helps facilitate effective interaction between ethno-lingustic and religious fractionalization and inequality if well structured. It is startling, however, to note that whilestudies still exist in the empirical literature on the ethnic diversity-inequality linkage, on the one hand (Milanovic, 2003;
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Foreign direct investment and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of institutions

Foreign direct investment and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of institutions

examines the impact of institutional quality of 164 countries from 1996 to 2006 on foreign direct investment (FDI) levels and volatility. They find that good institutional quality matters to FDI. They provide evidence that institutional quality has a positive and significant effect on FDI. Their results suggest that, if there are institutional determinants of FDI volatility, and if such volatility is associated with lower economic growth, then the usual policy prescription of attracting FDI into countries by offering the ‚correct‛ macroeconomic environment would be ineffective without an equal emphasis on institutional reform. In a similar view, empirical literature on the growth effect of institutional quality provides that first; institutions shape a nation’s productivity prospects and therefore may attract more foreign investors, secondly; poor institutional quality induce poor business environment and whereby increase the cost of doing business, thirdly; FDI are generally involve high sunk cost and therefore they are highly sensitive to uncertainty including uncertainty due to poor government efficiency ( Tun et. al.,
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Degree of financialization and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: do institutions matter?

Degree of financialization and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: do institutions matter?

differs in the inclusion of an indicator for energy efficiency (i.e., energy intensity), which is motivated by studies, such as Adom et al. (2019a, b), Fan et al. (2017), Kaufmann et al. (2011), Carr and Beese (2008), and Subrahmanya 2006a Banking performance (BP) is expressed as a function of the lag in bank performance, bank size (SIZE), credit growth (CreditGrowth), risk (RISK), managerial inefficiency (MIE), financial fragility (FG), energy efficiency indicator (EE), and other controls (X) in Eq. 1, where η represents unobserved country-specific effects, and t is the time effect. Bank credit growth is captured as the an- nual change in domestic credit to the private sector. As there is a time lag between giving a loan and reaping the benefits, we include one-year time lag for the growth in bank credit. To measure credit risk, we used asset quality. Managerial inefficiency is measured as the ratio of cost to revenue whereas financial fragility is measured using the z-score (the higher the z-score, the more sound is the financial system and vice versa). Further- more, the return on assets (ROA) is used as an indicator of commercial banks ’ perform- ance. This indicator gives the investor a better idea of the bank’s efficiency in converting its assets into net income. In contrast to Fan et al. (2017), Seemule et al. (2017), Siddik et al. (2016), and Obamuyi (2013) — that used total assets, average assets, and total sales as measures of the bank ’ s size — we use market capitalization to indicate the size of the firm, as it has been acknowledged in the finance literature to be a better measure of size than other traditional measures. For example, measures such as total assets and average assets ignore liabilities, asset’s ability to generate profit, and intangible assets. In contrast, be- cause market capitalization relates to the stock price, it considers other factors that do not appear in the balance sheet, such as market share, psychology of the market, management expertise, company’s reputation, growth prospects, and unlisted intangible assets. Equa- tion 1 is the baseline model:
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Jobs, FDI and Institutions in Sub Saharan Africa: Evidence from Firm Level Data

Jobs, FDI and Institutions in Sub Saharan Africa: Evidence from Firm Level Data

Our firm-level data source is the UNIDO Africa Investor Survey 2010. The aim of the survey was the collection of information about firms with operations in Sub-Saharan Africa and their assessment of the local business environment. It was designed to cover a representative sample of “for-profit” public and private firms in all sectors of the economy for the financial year 2009. All firms are registered and are either domestic or foreign-owned. In total, the dataset comprises 6497 firms in 19 Sub-Saharan African countries. For each firm within a country, stratified sampling was implemented by its economic sub-sector, number of employees and ownership. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, in most cases with the most senior decision maker within the firm. 6 As monetary variables are in national currencies, we convert these into US dollars (USD). We draw currency exchange rate data from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI).
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Consensus, institutions, and supply response : the political economy of agricultural reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Consensus, institutions, and supply response : the political economy of agricultural reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Tanzanian cashew reforms started in 1992 when marketing was liberalized and private sector participation in marketing was allowed. Within few years, private sector developed input and marketing channels and there was also a shift from selling processed nuts to raw nut exports. After 1999, local governments slowly started to increase the taxes on cashew output, which reached as high as 60 percent of the value of output. There were partial attempts to reverse these policies, but they were all short lived and the local authorities managed to affect the payments to the smallholders either directly through taxation or through cooperatives and primary societies. Cashew Board of Tanzania managed to affect the pricing and marketing decisions throughout this period. While the output has started to increase during the last few years, it is much lower than its peak level achieved during the early 2000s and much lower than the levels obtained in the early 1980s. In 2007, the new warehouse receipts system brought the cooperative back directly into the marketing system which does not bode well for the future (Mitchell and Baregu 2011a). In all these cases, there are a series of common themes. Initially, the distributive system was very much against the producers, and the reforms increased the producers‟ share of the world/export prices. The reforms effectively redistributed income from the processors (intermediaries) to farmers, leading to higher producer prices and increases in production in the immediate post- reform period. In almost all cases, there were also conflicts and disagreements on the nature of the reform program. Arrangements for arbitration and mechanisms to monitor the emerging problems of the sector were absent. These five cases (cashew in Tanzania and Mozambique, coffee in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda) fit into the structure of the developments outlined in the earlier sections of the paper where the reforms removed the immediate binding constraints on production and thus there was a supply response but did not create institutions that could sustain the changes.
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Rural electrification, electrification inequality and democratic institutions in sub-Saharan Africa

Rural electrification, electrification inequality and democratic institutions in sub-Saharan Africa

A mechanism often invoked regarding this argument is the presence of contested elections creating incentives for governments to target broad population shares. Electoral politics in democratising states have long been employed to challenge urban-bias arguments, such as those advocated by Bates (1981) , as parties tend to ruralise over time (see for instance Varshney (1993) or Colburn (1993) for empirical evi- dence). Such a mechanism informs both the first and the second part of HPol1 . As the median voter in sub-Saharan African countries usually lives in rural areas, rural public service demands rank higher on the po- litical agenda ( Meltzer and Richard, 1981 ) compared to authoritarian regimes where distributive mechanisms often follow more narrow pa- tronage networks ( Bratton and Van de Walle, 1997 ). In democracies, this implies higher political incentives to extend electricity infrastruc- ture to previously unserved rural areas with miniscule per capita de- mand rather than improving existing grid infrastructure to improve reliability of the comparably few citizens already served. In Min's (2015) terms, the extension of rural infrastructure generates greater po- litical externalities for politicians who wish to be re-elected. However, such a mechanism of creating incentives for politicians through contested elections is commonly not explicitly modelled as an interven- ing step between democracy and public service provision in economet- ric analyses. Rather, it is deduced from either a single regime type variable ( Bates et al., 2012; Brown and Mobarak, 2009; Min, 2015 ) or a single contested election variable ( Stasavage, 2005 ).
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Institutions and labor market outcomes in the Netherlands

Institutions and labor market outcomes in the Netherlands

In this paper we provide a description of the labor market in the Netherlands. Compared to other OECD countries labor force participation is high and the unemployment rate is low (also for young workers). Among the unemployed there are, however, relatively many long-term unemployed workers. Labor force participation of older workers is in- creasing but still low and Dutch workers have relatively low working hours. Disability is high, particularly among young individuals. We discuss the relevant labor market in- stitutions in the Netherlands and use recent reforms to assess the importance of the different reforms. Where possible we provide an international comparison. We find that inflow into benefits programs responds to (financial) incentives. The outflow is much more difficult to affect, in particular we could not find any evidence of substantial positive effects of active labor market programs (which are frequently offered in the Netherlands).
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Corruption and trust in political institutions in sub-Saharan Africa.

Corruption and trust in political institutions in sub-Saharan Africa.

We control the relationship between trust, corruption and public service quality with other covariates. First, we introduce a time and country dummy to take into account unobservable particularities. Secondly, we add in a set of demographic variables such as age, gender and level of education. Age could be an important explanatory element of trust in political institutions. Younger people might be expected to exhibit greater institutional trust because, unlike their elders, their experience of political life is recent. This means that they might not have accumulated years of disappointment in the political institutions and may still have an idyllic vision of democracy (Seligson, 2002). In most of the studies on institutional trust, gender is a key determinant of trust, with women expressing less trust in political institutions (Seligson, 2002; Chang and Chu, 2006). Level of education is important too. Seligson (2002) points out that the most educated people are more likely to have a good knowledge of their political system and to criticize it. In addition, we introduce a variable that reflects exposure to the media.
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Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

where Y is agricultural output; x 's are logarithms of inputs (land, labor, livestock, machinery, and fertilizer); t is time from 1 to 39 (a proxy for technical change); z's are rescaled x’s and t; k designates a “multi-index” vector of integers that creates a specific index of the z s ; b, c, m, n i ' are parameters to be estimated, u is the one-sided technical inefficiency term assumed truncated at zero and distributed iid N( η , σ U 2 ) that captures heterogeneity across countries and is the basis for differences in technical efficiency. In order to allow for measurement error and other random factors the Fourier frontier is augmented with a random error v, an iid N(0, σv 2 ) that is
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Human Capital, Institutions and Innovation in Sub-Saharan

Africa

Human Capital, Institutions and Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Exchange rate volatility which is one of the key explanatory variables of interest in this study shows an interesting position. Here there is positive and significant effect of EXRV on GDP as evidence in its coefficient of 0.005670 and probability of 0.0000 this is contrary to the theory which specified that EXRV has a negative effect on GDP. But a study by Aghion, Howit and Mayer (2005) opined that the extent of financial development will dictate the impact of EXRV on economic growth. For instance a lower degree of financial development with high EXRV will aggravate the divergence of the economy growth rate while a country with well developed financial system will neutralize the negative effect of EXRV. The various reforms implemented by Nigeria’s government overtime might have explained the positive effect of EXRV on GDP in Nigeria. Such reforms include financial structure reform; monetary policies reforms; foreign exchange market reforms; liberalisation of the capital market and capital market reform. However we extend the study further to see the lag effect of EXRV for one period on economic growth. The outcome shows a negative but significant effect of this lag value of EXRV on GDP as evidenced in its negative coefficient of 0.024395 and probability of 0.0000 shown in the regression table above. This is the only situation that corroborates the theory on exchange rate volatility.
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The role of institutions in entrepreneurship development in Sub-Saharan Africa

The role of institutions in entrepreneurship development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Hence competition is likely to intensify, meaning the regional market cannot be relied on. So the region has to face up to the need to compete globally, sooner rather than later. The approach has additional institutional and political problems. At the regional level the key policy issue is to identify a workable division of industrial effort amongst the countries concerned, and to afford countries in the region sufficient relative protection or compensation to make the effort worthwhile. This is where matters become complex very rapidly. Since each sovereign government wishes to promote maximum economic advantage for its citizens, and generally this means favouring manufacturing development, it is as likely to see its neighbours as a threat as an opportunity. Within this, South Africa’s BLNS partners are very unlikely to be satisfied with merely serving as spokes in South African dominated value chains, no matter how practical or theoretically sound this approach might be. In addition, not all SACU states share the vision of regional import substitution industrialisation since they recognise that they pay part of the cost. Therefore, it is likely that perceptions of relative gains and losses arising from this approach to RVC development will bedevil intra-SACU negotiations, potentially drawing them out and making it difficult to reach mutually rewarding compromises.
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Human Capital, Institutions and Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Human Capital, Institutions and Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Human capital capacity in SSA has been the lowest when compared with other regions of the world within the time period of this study. Table 1 shows that the region has the least human capital capacity through the period. Europe and Central Asia (ECA) topped the list. This was followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) after which Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and East Asia and the Pacific (EAP) followed. The trend clearly shows that advanced economies invest substantially in cultivating their human capital capacity. ECA, which topped the list, has experienced an increasing trend in its human capital capacity. SSA also experienced an increasing trend in its human capital capacity though its performance is low compared to the others. Nevertheless, the trend is an indication that the region is experiencing growth in its human capital capacity to contribute to the development process.
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Labour Market Flexibility, Wages and Incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s..

Labour Market Flexibility, Wages and Incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s..

The first step toward understanding the factors that affect labor demand in Africa is to understand how African labor markets have performed in the recent past. Even a basic appreciation of recent trends is often hampered, however, by the difficulty in acquiring comparable information across countries and time periods for many African countries. Thus our first task is to bring together data from diverse sources to provide as comprehensive as possible a picture of labor demand patterns in Africa in the 1990s. The data gathered in this section provide an overview of how the labor market has evolved in several African countries. How is the African labor force distributed across sectors and which sectors, if any, are producing job growth? To answer these questions Figure 1 summarizes a wide range of data from individual household and labor force surveys to provide an overview of the distribution of employment across sectors at two points in time for five African economies: Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, and South Africa (details of the data sources are found in Table A1 of the appendix). These countries have been chosen as representative cases to illustrate the three part typology of labor market outcomes developed in the following section: structural unemployment in South Africa, search unemployment in Ethiopia, and a large informal sector serving as the employer of last resort in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda. Looking across all of the countries some common patterns can be observed.
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