To succeed as a civil engineer, you need to be able to provide a client with a practical solution. Not only does the solution need to be technically fit-for- use, but it also needs to be cost-effective and time-efficient. Using case studies to illustrate the principles and processes it describes, IntegratedDesign and CostManagement for CivilEngineers is a guide to designing, costing and scheduling a construction project to suit a client’s brief. It emphasises the correct quantification and planning of works to give reliable cost and time estimates to minimise the risk of losing business through over-costing or losing profits through under-costing. The text also outlines how to meet the necessary local ethical and legal requirements. The main territories covered are Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Southeast Asia and the Commonwealth countries, although the principles are internationally relevant. Guiding you through the complete process of project design, costing and tendering, this book is the ideal bridge between the study of civil engineering and its practice in a commercial context.
4.4 FORM OF REASONING
Research theory provides an insight into how to design a research question, select a sample group and which related data to obtain, form a basis for understanding the data, and outline fundamental factors. Theory provides reasons for phenomena or events (Robson, 2011). Creswell (2013) declares that a theory is an interrelated sets of constructs or variables formed into a proposition, or hypothesis, that specify the relationship among variables (in terms of magnitude and direction). Hence, theories, through theoretical analysis, give structure to a series of events and phenomena that are unstructured and unformed. A good research theory gives a clear idea of problems or social issues to the researcher, and highlights the most important part of collected data to extract an appropriate result for the study. There are two main approaches to forming the reasoning aspect: deductive and inductive (Schwandt, 2007; Bryman, 2012). Gray (2009) states that through the inductive approach, correlations among variables are examined and analysed; whereas the deductive approach starts from a theory to reach an effective hypothesis regarding relationships between variables.
Apply the theories and techniques of sanitary engineering as follows: study and advise on the technical and economic planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance, surveillance and evaluation of specialized facilities, e.g. those necessary for the control of the quality of air, land and water resources and of the environment, in particular facilities for water supply, waste water and solid waste disposal, vector control, healthful housing, food safety, noise control, radiation protection, the disposal of obnoxious gases, chemicals and industrial water, and the evaluation of the performance of such works; the assessment of environmental conditions, the organization and management of programmes for the monitoring and surveillance of the quality of the environment, the elaboration of statements on the expected environmental impact of physical development programmes; and research and investigations, the setting of standards in physical and urban planning and in evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of control programmes for the protection of human health and well-being.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a smoking-related pulmonary disorder, characterized by largely irreversible airflow obstruction, multisystemic manifestations and frequent co-morbidities . According to current guidelines, stable COPD is managed with a combination of different treatment components (e.g. smoking cessation, physiotherapeutic reactivation, self- management, optimization of medication adherence) , involving different healthcare providers. Currently, treat- ment is mostly guided by the severity of airflow limita- tion . However, COPD is a complex disease, with great variation in symptoms, functional limitations and co-morbidities as well as in progression towards more severe stages . Therefore, the existence of several clinically relevant phenotypes calls for a more personal- ized approach . Ideally, optimal care of COPD patients requires an individualized, patient-centered approach that recognizes and treats all aspects of the disease, addresses the systemic effects and co-morbidities, and integrates medical care among healthcare professionals and across healthcare sectors . Since professional treatment, hos- pital admissions and loss of work contribute to the eco- nomic burden of disease worldwide, there is much interest in systematically improving the quality of care, while redu- cing total costs for patients with COPD and other chronic illness. Integrated Disease Management (IDM) programs have proliferated as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care .
The Insurer shall indemnify the Insured for Defence Costs and Expenses in any potential or actual criminal Proceeding, under the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, first brought against the Insured and Notified during the Period of Insurance but only where the Insurer reasonably believes that defending such Proceeding could protect the Insured against a Claim arising from the Insured’s Business which would otherwise be covered under this policy. The Insured shall not be indemnified for any fine or penalty.
First, although the BIM-based workflow shows automatic processing characteristics in data calculations, file format transformations and planning simulations, the overall information flow still requires much manual work involved such as collections of empirical data, entries of building fabric details, creations of data tables and invoking of formula functions. Second, the IFC format is not yet fully developed to ensure successful data interaction between heterogeneous systems at all times. That means risks of data inconsistency or information loss exist during the model transformations between heterogeneous software systems. Also, due to the high probabilities of uncertainties occurring in the maintenance stage, there would be discrepancies between the real maintenance performance and the BIM-based planning in schedule and costs. Therefore, more empirical data from real maintenance projects are required in order to optimize the schedule and cost planning based on the management workflow and minimize the discrepancies between theories and practice.
The outputs of the demand analysis allow the determination of the economically efficient allocations of water resources. The first element of an economically efficient allocation is the equi-marginal principle: this provides that each use of the water resource should achieve the same benefit from that water at the margin. In short, if water is more heavily valued at the margin in one sector than another, then it should be reallocated toward that sector until equality is achieved. The second element of the economically efficient allocation is that aggregate water resources are allocated efficiently where the marginal social benefit of their use is equated to the marginal social cost of supply.
One control platform for all building systems – Planning was never so easy.
The PC-based control platform from Beckhoff allows integrated automation of all building systems in functional buildings and infrastruc- tures – from single-room control to window control to shading, lighting, HVAC MCI, smoke and heat removal systems, access control, energy monitoring and process visualisation. A single control system means four-fold simplification for engineers: planning, interdisciplinary thinking, time management and responsible cost control.
Parametric cost models are normally related with cost techniques, which generate ‘Cost Estimating Relationships’ (CERs) together with mathematical algorithms or logics to build up cost estimates . This methodology presumes that parametric cost modelling is based on data acquisition. This requires developing templates and identifying data sources. Most data for parametric cost modelling are obtained from engineers, process managers or other experts in companies. After gathering the data, there is the need to evaluate variables and respective data attached. By doing this, a choice is taken to identify variables, which change or are probable to change with time. This approach deals with identifying high-level relationships between the cost and the design parameters. The high-level design parameters are usually volume and mass. This approach has positive results towards well-defined class of components. This technique is used to estimate the cost associated with development, manufacture or modification of a final product. This approach has some limitations, the main drawbacks are:
Dr Van der Meer is a world famous expert in appraisal, design and testing of breakwaters and coastal structures, including seawalls and dikes. His work on rubble mound structures has been in- cluded in all manuals all over the world. He has worked 16 years at Delft Hydraulics (now Del- tares), a well-known institute on specialised consulting and research of water related issues. At the position of Deputy Division Director he was involved in the management of the wider field of hy- draulic and coastal engineering, coastal zone management, risk assessment and was responsible for the research and marketing of de Division (80 people, 50 academics). For ten years he had a position at Infram International, a private consultant for infrastructure appraisal and management, and he exploited his experience in specialized consultancy and research. Flood risk assessment studies became a relevant part of his work, both national and international. In 2007 he started his own firm Van der Meer Consulting b.v. on Coastal Engineering Consultancy & Research.
Professor Van der Meer is a world famous expert in appraisal, design and testing of breakwaters and coastal structures, including seawalls and dikes. His work on rubble mound structures has been included in all manuals all over the world. He has worked 16 years at Delft Hydraulics (now Deltares), a well-known institute on specialised consulting and research of water related issues. At the position of Deputy Division Director he was involved in the management of the wider field of hydraulic and coastal engineering, coastal zone management, risk assessment and was responsi- ble for the research and marketing of de Division (80 people, 50 academics). For ten years he had a position at Infram International, a private consultant for infrastructure appraisal and management, and he exploited his experience in specialized consultancy and research. Flood risk assessment studies became a relevant part of his work, both national and international. In 2007 he started his own firm Van der Meer Consulting b.v. on Coastal Engineering Consultancy & Research. In 2014 he became professor Coastal Structures and Ports at UNESCO-IHE, Delft, for one day per week. In addition to the applied research in the first part of his career he has been project manager or ad- visor in many projects on design of all kinds of coastal structures all around the world, such as lev- ees, dikes, seawalls, breakwaters, groins, revetments and shingle beaches. Many of them have since then been constructed. The applied research was performed for the Dutch government (vari- ous departments) and for the European Union. Later and also recent work was related to wave- structure interaction, such as wave run-up and wave overtopping at dikes, including the strength of these structures under wave attack. He developed a Dutch guideline on wave run-up and overtop- ping at dikes. The EU-project CLASH was initiated by him and included research institutes like HR Wallingford and Delft Hydraulics (now Deltares). He is co-author of the EurOtop Overtopping Man- ual, which brings together the knowledge of UK (HR Wallingford), the Netherlands (Infram/Van der Meer Consulting), Germany and Belgium.
Engineering leadership is a highly sought-after skill by construction companies in today’s high-pressure, entrepreneurial market for engineers (Elia et al., 2017; Weilerstein & Byers, 2016). In volatile areas of the world where engineers of various disciplines, such as civilengineers in the construction industry (Back et al., 2012; James, 2017), are regularly dispatched, leadership is paramount as a professional skill because the risks are high, time frames for action response are short, disaster management is essential, and resources can be highly limited (El-Sabek & McCabe, 2017; Kotnour et al., 2014). The construction industry is a sector of the national economy engaged in reparation of land and construction, building, and alteration and repair of building structures and other real properties. There are five specific construction trends noted within this industry today and these are: lack of qualified workers, offsite/modular construction, implementing more technology, a growing economy, and the Internet of things. The construction industry plays an important role in regard to cost saving, worker safety, operational efficiencies, and leadership initiatives within this business sector (Hartmann & Jahren, 2015).
Keywords: Integrateddesign concept; integrated project delivery; civil engineering education; project based learning
The concept of integration is understood not as a stylistic architectural concept, but as a method of organising the steps and players involved in devel- oping the design to optimize the construction pro- cess: a working methodology . The Integrated Project Concept as a methodology is researched in- depth by the professional associations of architects in particular in Anglo-Saxon countries. Within RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects), pro- cedures and tools are created to systematise and optimise the designs of the diÄerent specialities and the relationship between the decisions of the various disciplines . The Architect’s Handbook of Prac- tice Management is part of the library of every British design oÅce, both architectural and engi- neering; therefore, the communication between these areas becomes more fluent. The principals are the same, the methodologies follow the same steps, and hence the result is more coherent and complementary.
We are pleased to introduce our firm, Khatri International, Inc., to your organization. KI Engineering is a civil and structural engineering company based in Pasadena, California. Our project experience covers general building design, structural engineering, seismic design, structural tower design, civil engineering and infrastructure work including pipeline, reservoir design, flood control facilities, storm drain, water pump stations, and construction management aspects.
The need of reducing overall energy costs required in the operation of a hydraulic system coupled with the necessity of reducing pressures to minimize leakage has spawned the concept of using the pressure dissipation for energy production by inserting turbines in the network (e.g. Artina et al., 2008; Carravetta et al., 2013; Fontana et al., 2012). Owing to the high cost of turbines employed in micro-hydropower stations, an alternative, more economic possibility, is that of using a pump operating in reverse which can act as a turbine: Pump As Turbines (PATs) (e.g. Agarwal, 2012). However, the use of PATs is nowadays limited mainly due to the difficulty of predicting the efficiency of a pump operating in this fashion. This information is not yet disseminated by the device manufacturers and this has led to several studies that tackle this issue based on experimental data or through computational fluid dynamics analysis in order to estimate the PAT performance (e.g. Carravetta et al., 2012; Fecarotta et al., 2011; Derakhshan and Nourbakhsh, 2008; Nautiyal et al., 2010; Williams, 1995). Nevertheless, these investigations do not cover the entire speed range which could be of interest and thus are limiting the applications of PATs in real systems. Naturally, if a PAT is installed where a reduction of pressures was already considered necessary, in order to use that head for energy production, it is required to establish the limitations of PAT mode operation - at the same time guaranteeing in the pressure reduction required in the network for appropriate operation. The principal aim of the optimization problem formulated herein is to suggest a novel methodology which reduces the energy consumption in a WDS by minimizing the pumping costs and considering both the placement of the PATs and the equivalent pressure setting necessary to minimize leakage within the network and to maximize the economic benefit derived from energy recovery. The optimization procedure is undertaken by means of a highly parallelized evolution algorithm employing a pressure-driven analysis in order to evaluate the hydraulic constraints (Morley et al., 2013). A more appropriate analysis has, furthermore, to consider the water demand by means of a probabilistic approach. Under this assumption, the water requirements has been here modelled by means of a normal distribution with a value of the variation coefficient (CV) equal to 0.1 (e.g. Tricarico et al., 2007). The methodology presented has been applied to a real water system which demonstrates a clear economic benefit to installing PATs for energy recovery in conjunction with a pump-scheduling and pressure management regime.
Figure 1. RESARCH STRUCTURE METHOD AND DATA COLLECTION
A mixed method approach is used to understand the transition of engineers from university to career. Email addresses of practising engineers were collected from university staff and alumni lists. An online questionnaire was sent to 25 engineers who had been practising for no more than 5 years. Of the 25 emails sent, 17 engineers completed the survey. The questionnaire included 10 open & closed questions. The first section gathered participants information related to the process of locating a job (see Table 1). The second section asked to rate using a 5-point Likert scale. In last section, they were asked to rate different challenges they faced at the beginning of their career. Along with this another questionnaire
Student reactions to the IMC1 experience were generally positive, particularly in reference to the perceived value of the program in imparting an understanding of the key concepts of the functional disciplines of management education. We identified these key concepts which are summarized in Table 1. Student reactions (Table 1) helped allay our concerns that these basic concepts might be “crowded out” of the program because of the need to find time for integrated case and exercises. As revealed by Table 1, a majority of responding students believe that they exited IMC1 retaining an understanding of basic managerial concepts. Notable exceptions to this (concepts that apparently fell through the program “cracks”) were the “product-process matrix” and “service processes.”
(Eq 3) Thus, increasing the temperature works to in- crease the elimination of carbon as CO, which evolves from the melt. This is similar in principle to the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process for carbon steel in which oxygen is injected into molten steel to remove carbon by oxidizing it. The key to the AOD process, though, is the in- jection of oxygen and argon into the bath to keep the partial pressure of CO (p CO ) very low. This is done at a temperature consistent with economic refractory life. The injection is done through tubes called tuyeres in the bottom of the barrel- shaped vessel. The injection and the reaction cause extremely thorough mixing, which would never happen in the ﬂat, stagnant, arc furnace bath. This mixing not only allows the CO-pro- ducing reaction to reach equilibrium, but also the mixing of the slag and metal also permits desulfurization. By increasing the ratio of argon to oxygen in the injected gas as the reﬁning pro- ceeds, the carbon is selectively oxidized with- out concurrent chromium oxidation. A typical starting ratio is 3 to 1 oxygen to argon/nitrogen by volume. The ending ratio can be as low as 1 to 9, oxygen to argon/nitrogen. The choice of which inert gas to use, argon or nitrogen, is based on cost and ﬁnal nitrogen content desired. Stabi- lized stainless steels require low carbon and ni- trogen levels, for instance, so the more expensive argon must be used.
Resource Breakdown Structure
Fig. 6: Systematic costmanagement information storage
A costmanagement system is built into a database. The database has a strict structure to keep all the information in order. The Rapal CostManagement system is designed to follow the Finnish common Infra-nomenclature, which was developed by Rakennustieto and Helsinki University of Technology. Product model work is just starting in Finland , but in the basis of today´s information the product model and the end product elements have the same kind of main structure.
Motivating civil engineer under Theory X plan would be primarily through extrinsic motivators that are incentives that only influence our feelings towards working for a particular company, rather than increasing the satisfaction of work itself within that company. Theory Y can be used to help engineering managers view the motivational process as one which is dynamic and requires constant integration of organizational and employee goals.