Top PDF Integrated solar photovoltaic and thermal system for enhanced energy efficiency

Integrated solar photovoltaic and thermal system for enhanced energy efficiency

Integrated solar photovoltaic and thermal system for enhanced energy efficiency

15 1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM One of the challenges facing the world currently is how to minimize energy consumption using fossil fuels due to the negative socio-environmental impacts and price volatility. One of few approaches is to increase renewable energy sources such as solar as an alternative clean source to protect the environment, adhere to global and national policies geared towards clean energy development as well as increase energy access, to urban and rural areas. Solar energy can be converted to electricity or heat using two different conversion technologies: photovoltaic system and solar collector. Solar energy is mostly used in the form of electricity or heat for commercial or residential application. Therefore, integration of a combined photovoltaic and thermal system should be considered to address the low energy efficiency observed when the two solar energy conversion technologies are employed separately, in order to obtain higher overall energy efficiency ensuring better utilization of the solar energy and the solar panel.
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Performance Simulation of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Integrated with Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors for Residential Application

Performance Simulation of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Integrated with Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors for Residential Application

*Email: lx873@uow.edu.au Abstract This paper presents the simulation and performance evaluation of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system integrated with water-based solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors for residential buildings. The proposed system utilizes geothermal energy and solar energy to provide space cooling and heating as well as domestic hot water (DHW), and offsets the need of grid electricity by generating electricity from the PV cells. A dynamic simulation system is developed using TRNSYS and used to facilitate the performance evaluation of the proposed system. A 20-year life-time performance simulation is performed under three operation scenarios with different sizes of the PVT collectors. The results showed that the performance of the proposed system is highly dependent on the size of the PVT collectors. For the case building studied, it is more effective to use the heat gathered by the PVT collectors to produce DHW if the area of the PVT collectors is less than 54 m 2 . Otherwise, it is better
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Solar thermal and photovoltaic electrical generation in Libya

Solar thermal and photovoltaic electrical generation in Libya

IV A 50MW PV-grid connected (stationary and tracking) power plant design in Al- Kufra, Libya has been carried out presently. A hetero-junction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) type PV module has been selected and modelled. The effectiveness of the use of a cooling jacket on the modules has been evaluated. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been constructed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency for this system, with and without water cooling for stationary system and for tracking system without water cooling. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 114GWh/year without a water cooling system, 119GWh/year with a water cooling system for stationary system and 148GWh/year for tracking system. The average module efficiency with and without a cooling system for the stationary system is 17.2% and 16.6% respectively and 16.2% for the tracking system. The electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) for stationary system were found to be 26% and 62.5% respectively and 34% and 82% for tracking system. The payback time for the proposed LS-PV power plant was found to be 2.75 years for the stationary system and 3.58 years for the tracking system.
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Alternatives control strategies for Building Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPVT) System

Alternatives control strategies for Building Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPVT) System

In this research, the control strategies were designed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment, while the performances of the solar energy system were calculated with a TRNSYS simulation model. The coupling of Matlab and TRNSYS leads to a powerful tool that enables the user to combine the advantages of each program: the modern modeling and solving techniques of Matlab as well as existing and proven, well-validated models and utility routines of TRNSYS.

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Study On Solar Absorber Integrated With Thermal Energy Storage For Process Heating

Study On Solar Absorber Integrated With Thermal Energy Storage For Process Heating

system with separated reactants and products store energy indefinitely in ideal case. The main thermochemical energy storage systems include redox system, metal hydride system, carbonate decomposition system, ammonia decomposition system, methane reforming system, and inorganic hydroxide system. Chen et al. [13] investigated the natural convection of phase change material in the melting process plays an important role in accelerating melting. Xia et al. [14] presented the effect of a PCM mixed with an insoluble liquid has higher energy converting efficiency during the whole melting process, where the massive micro vacuum formed during the freezing process is filled by the insoluble liquid, which increases utilization of the volume change. The effective heat capacity method is used, and the effects of porosity are considered when the PCM is in the solid state. The proposed model was observed with accuracy when describing the phase _______________________________
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Study of Solar Photovoltaic Systems to Improve Energy Efficiency for Chennai Flats

Study of Solar Photovoltaic Systems to Improve Energy Efficiency for Chennai Flats

Qiankun Wang and Qian Huang (2011) describes that the purpose of this work is to integrate the application of solar system and geothermal energy is to complement each other perfectly and to fully utilize renewable resources for low-carbon and energy saving ideas. In this paper, the application of the composite energy system in the engineering design of a project in Wuhan which belongs to hot summer and cold winter area will be evaluated in such aspects, including technical feasibility, system efficiency, economic and environmental impacts, in order to provide technical and practical experience for the design and application of integrated energy systems in the future.
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Performance testing of thermal and photovoltaic thermal solar collectors

Performance testing of thermal and photovoltaic thermal solar collectors

were used to gather information on surface temperature. Agrawal et al. also used a halogen light source to compare the performance of hybrid PVT tiles and was able to record the electrical and thermal output over a time pe- riod. The air- based system incorporated microchannels and the thermal and electrical efficiency was 14.7% and 10.8%, respectively [27]. Halogen lamps, however, produce a high quantity of infrared portion; an early study by Govaer showed that lamps with a non-identical solar spectrum, such as that produced by a halogen lamp, could be used to generate heat in a solar collector [28]. However, metal halide lamps are the preferred choice for testing solar collectors, as their output closely matches that of the solar spectrum. In one study, a large- scale simulator consisting of 35 metal halide lamps (575 W); each fixed into its own parabolic reflector, was used to test a com- plete solar domestic hot water system [29]. In another study, a light source consisting of 228 halogen lamps and supplemented with 912 LEDs, to ensure spectral match with that of the sun, was used to test a solar- powered refrigeration system [30]. The use of metal halide lamps has also been used to carry out accelerated durability testing of the components in a solar collector [31]. Thermal analysis of a flat- plate collector The energy generated by any flat plate solar collector can be expressed using equation (1)[20].
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Integrated Solar Solutions. Roof Mounted PV System. Solar Photovoltaic Solutions

Integrated Solar Solutions. Roof Mounted PV System. Solar Photovoltaic Solutions

Over the past 50 years, insulated panels have evolved as a particularly thermally efficient and economic method of construction. They have been extensively used in refurbishment as they are ideal for re-cladding walls and roofs. Insulated panels offer the best long term guaranteed thermal performance and can improve the energy efficiency of a building up to 44%, producing an immediate payback on investment.

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Optimization of building integrated photovoltaic thermal air system combined with thermal storage

Optimization of building integrated photovoltaic thermal air system combined with thermal storage

In residential buildings, solar energy is usually lowest when the thermal requirement is most, which makes the thermal energy storage systems very important in solar thermal application. Energy demands in buildings vary on daily, weekly and seasonal bases. Thermal energy storage systems can help with these demands. The use of thermal energy storage for thermal applica- tion such as space and water heating, cooling and air conditioning also has recently received much attention. Phase change material (PCM) has been proved a great thermal control material in the building environment field [6 –8]. Researches have shown that in- corporating PCM with certain designed melting temperature similar to the PV characterizing temperature for the thermal regu- lation of BIPV under cyclic time-dependent solar energy input is a promising approach to temperature control. At the same time, the energy stored in the PCM can be released to provide building heating and enhance natural ventilation at night.
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PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL COLLECTORS IN LARGE SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS

PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL COLLECTORS IN LARGE SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS

ABSTRACT: Photovoltaic/Thermal (PVT) collectors in large solar thermal systems are the solution for the scarce roof space on high rise buildings. A technical and economical feasibility study showed that a system with PVT collectors generates more sustainable energy per square meter in comparison with system of PV modules and thermal collectors. A PVT collector system needs approximately 38% less roof space than a combined system of PV modules and thermal collectors with the same efficiency yield. The financial data of PVT collectors are still unreliable due to the lack of a learning curve. The used data are based on the costs for a batch production in stead of mass production. An indicative cost price for a PVT collector of €720/m 2 to become competitive with a combined system could be distilled from the results.
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INVESTIGATION ON THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR DRYER INTEGRATED WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIAL –A REVIEW

INVESTIGATION ON THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR DRYER INTEGRATED WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIAL –A REVIEW

Alejandro Reyes, Andrea Mahn, etal [1] they conducted experimentation on dehydration of Mushrooms. Which were dehydrated in hybrid solar dryer who is coupled with a solar panel. The total surface area which was exposing was 10 . The Mushrooms were cut in 8mm or 12mm slice. The hybrid solar dryer used in that experimentation consists of Paraffin wax as a thermal storage material. The air temperature obtained at output is about 60 which were 30 more than that of ambient temperature. The efficiency of the system fluctuated between 22% and 62%.
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A Comparison of Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Collector for Residential Water Heating and Space Heating System

A Comparison of Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Collector for Residential Water Heating and Space Heating System

In the tested house, the existing tank or boiler size is smaller because the only DHW supplied by using this tank. The conventional electric heater is using to supply space heating. The tank water is heating by using grid electricity. The preheating water tanks designed in section V (A) which is 132 liter, and 200-liter water tank (stainless) considered as the main tank by optimized, as shown in Figure 8 for both models. The solar energy is intermittent, so for maintaining the fixed temperature auxiliary burner is necessary. There are different types of auxiliary burner available in literature such as a gas burner, heat pump, oil burner, Siemens, hydraulic, air inverter, air combo. Before selection, the consideration of input and output power of each burner is essential. Among them, the oil burner and the heat pump is popular in NL area. The oil burner efficiency is less compared to the heat pump. The performance of both systems compared in Table 4. The heat pump power consumption considered as a load of the designed house.
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Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Energy Systems: Current Technology and Future Trends

Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Energy Systems: Current Technology and Future Trends

C. Low-power PV systems Roof-top PV applications are usually in the hundreds of watts (or even in the kW) range and the PV converter design has to be in this case mainly focused to achieve very high efficiency with galvanic isolation and connection to a single- phase grid. Usually, the power converter is directly connected to a single PV module or a small PV array achieving 100 V maximum (usually the converters are installed close to the PV module working in potential harsh weather conditions). As this PV nominal voltage is low, it is required a two-stage power system formed by a step-up dc/dc converter and a single-phase inverter. Both converters can have different topologies and several solutions can be found in the market [50], [51]. For the dc/dc converter, high-frequency interleaved (or not) flyback or full-bridge resonant converters can be found as industrial products. For the inverter, the mainstream solution is to use a conventional 600 V MOSFET-based H-bridge but other power converter topologies can be also found. In Fig. 19, the typical configurations of a module-based PV system are shown. These converters can be found achieving nominal power around 250 W with efficiency higher than 99%. As the converter is very small-size, it is usually located just back of the PV array or the PV module reducing the cabling and making easier the installation becoming a ”plug&play” system. This solution is the most efficient in terms of perfect tracking the maximum existing power from the PV module at the expense of high cost because of the high number of used power converters. Although the impact of low-power PV systems in the PV market is very limited (2% of the PV market in 2015), the growth of module-based PV systems (microinverters) is large in the last years with high future impact.
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Improving thermal and electrical efficiency in photovoltaic thermal systems for sustainable cooling system integration

Improving thermal and electrical efficiency in photovoltaic thermal systems for sustainable cooling system integration

Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.
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Energy Supply In A Building Via A Photovoltaic-Thermal Power System

Energy Supply In A Building Via A Photovoltaic-Thermal Power System

A range of methods are available such as the choices of monocrystalline/polycrystalline/amorphous silicon (c-Si/pc- Si/a-Si) or thin-film solar cells, air/liquid/evaporative collectors, flat-plate/concentrator types, glazed/unglazed designs, natural/forced fluid flow, and stand-alone/building-integrated features. Accordingly, the systems range from PVT air and/or water heating system to hot-water supply through PV- integrated heat pump/pipe or combined heating and cooling and to actively cooled PV concentrator through the use of lens/reflectors. Engineering considerations can be mentioned in the selection of heat removal fluid, the collector type, the balance of system, the thermal to electrical yield ratio, the solar fraction, and so forth. These possess decisive effects on the system operating mode, working temperature, and energy performance [3]. This study focuses on planning the energy demand of a building at an optimal level of solar energy. Black Sea region, the region with the least radiation in Turkey, was chosen due to its climate to identify the effects of solar energy in severe conditions. In Figure 1, climate figures for the location where the building is located are given.
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Improving thermal and electrical efficiency in photovoltaic thermal systems for sustainable cooling system integration

Improving thermal and electrical efficiency in photovoltaic thermal systems for sustainable cooling system integration

Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.
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Comprehensive Study on Exergy and Energy Efficiencies of Photovoltaic Thermal System

Comprehensive Study on Exergy and Energy Efficiencies of Photovoltaic Thermal System

The modeling of a channel type PVT collector for the cases of both air (100-300kg/h) and water (40-120 kg/h) has been carried out by Prakash (1994) and He has observed that decreasing the duct depth increases the thermal performance of air and water heater. Garg and Adhikari (1997) have presented a variety of results regarding the effect of the design and operational parameters on the performance of PVT air collectors. Brinkworth et at. (1997) have presented a variety of results regarding the effect of the design and operational parameters on the performance of PVT air collectors. Brinkwortth et al. (1997), Moshfegh and Sandberg (1998), Schroer (1998) and Brinkworth et al. (2000) have carried out design and performance studies regarding air type hybrid PVT system. Kalogirou (2001) has studied the monthly performance of the unglazed hybrid PVT system under forced mode of operation for climatic condition of Cyprus and he observed that an increase of the mean annual electrical efficiency of PV solar system from 2.8% to 7.7% with thermal efficiency of 49%, respectively. Similar study has also been carried out by Zondag et al. (2002) and they have referred hybrid PVT system as a combi-panel that converts solar energy into both electrical and thermal energy.
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Calculation of Energy Flow and Carbon Credit Earned in Roof Integrated Photovoltaic Thermal System

Calculation of Energy Flow and Carbon Credit Earned in Roof Integrated Photovoltaic Thermal System

II. DESCRIPTION OF BIPVT SYSTEM As we know that PV system gives higher efficiency at an inclination of latitude of that particular city, the current system placed at 35 degree w.r.t horizontal for Srinagar. The current system consists of total 48 panels connected in 8rows.

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Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) System as Innovative Solution to Increase Solar Energy Conversion Efficiency

Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) System as Innovative Solution to Increase Solar Energy Conversion Efficiency

718 The waste heat is lost partly to the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming, while the remaining manifests as temperature rise in the solar cells. The rise in cell temperature, especially crystalline silicon solar cell, lowers its electrical conversion efficiency below its rating [2] hence cooling is beneficial. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems are solar technologies that combine photovoltaic and solar thermal systems in one unit and are capable of producing both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. Thus, PV/T systems are innovative solutions of increasing solar energy conversion efficiency in one unit compared to individual PV or solar thermal collector mounted side-by-side. The major benefit of PV/T system is the cooling achieved with the circulating colder fluid. The cold fluid will extract the heat from module and maintains cells’ temperatures, which in turn maintains the PV efficiency within acceptable level. The basic structure of a PV/T system consists of a PV module with a heat exchanger attached behind for heat extraction with a proper natural or forced fluid circulation. The heat extracted by the fluid is channeled through proper ducting for low temperature applications such as water-heating for domestic chores, space heating in buildings and drying in agricultural and industrial sectors.
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Prospects and challenges of Photovoltaic Solar Power System in the Global Energy Mix

Prospects and challenges of Photovoltaic Solar Power System in the Global Energy Mix

Page | 23 can mix up batches of liquid solutions and then deposit the perovskites as thin films on surfaces of virtually any shape, no furnace needed. The film itself weighs very little. These features can eliminate another major limitation of silicon solar cells, which is their rigidity and weight. Perovskites have also been reported as the solution to overcome the limitation of conversion efficiency of conventional solar cells which has been stuck at 25 percent for 15 years. Carbeck 2016 , reported that Perovskite cells made of lead, iodide and methylammonium by 2009 which only converted less than 4 percent of the sunlight that hit them into electricity, with innovations by 2016, grew up to above 20 percent—a five-fold improvement in just seven years and a stunning doubling in efficiency within just the past two years. They are now commercially competitive with silicon PV cells, and the efficiency limits of perovskites could be far higher still. Whereas silicon PV technology is now mature, perovskite PVs continue to improve rapidly. When paired with emerging battery technology, perovskite solar cells could help transform the lives of 1.2 billion people who currently lack reliable electricity. Carbeck, 2016, also reported that these emerging batteries are based on sodium, aluminium or zinc that are more affordable, more scalable, and safer than the lithium batteries currently used in advanced electronics and electric cars. They are also much better suited to support transmissions systems that rely heavily on solar or wind power. He therefore cited an example of such novel batteries deployed by the government of Indonesia to store 35 megawatts of solar panel capacity to 500 remote villages, that electrified the homes of 1.7 million people. The system is based on a zinc-air battery that can store up to 250 megawatt-hours of energy in order to provide reliable electricity regardless of the weather. Similar project was also initiated by the government of Madagascar to put 100 remote villages there on a solar-powered mini-grid backed by zinc- air batteries. In resolving the challenges of integrating solar power into the main grid, Alshahrani et al (2019) also reported the innovative energy storage system, such as these batteries, and the development of smart controls for the large-scale PV system. They opined that the integrated large-scale PV system should be capable of controlling the active power to provide frequency support to the grid, control the reactive power to provide voltage support to the grid and possess the fault ride through capability during various disturbances.
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