To summarise: if we are to safely operate, without incident, 20thcenturyequipment well into the 2st century, robust systems relating to integritymanagement need to be in place. These include management and information systems that support data collection and management decision-making across the asset life cycle; methods and procedures that define the key integrity activities; competence development and training so that personnel (both in-house and contractor) are clear what their roles are in preserving integrity; and monitoring and auditing to reinforce the requirements and recognise and share good practice.
With network equipment dependent on other components within the network, a single fault can spark a whole tide of red alarms. The challenge is knowing which one is the original alarm and event, and which alarms are consequent alarms. To get there, the NOC might need to go through a cycle of evaluation steps until it identifies the original root cause, or use tools which rely on manually created rules. The problem with the latter is the impact of changing relationships in a highly dynamic environment. For example, if equipment is moved, deployed, or taken out, any change in the topology means that the rules defining a certain combination of alarms (which the NOC uses to identify a root cause) may no longer be valid.
7 monolith. On the one hand, capitalism is, in fact, quite malleable. It is designed by humans in the service of humans, and it can evolve to the meet the changing needs of humans. Through the 19th and 20th centuries, rules have been established to block monopoly power, collusion, and price-fixing—there is absolutely no reason to believe that capitalism will be dutifully adjusted to address the challenges we face in the 21stcentury. On the other hand, there are many possible forms of capitalism from which to draw. Japanese capitalism differs greatly from American capitalism, which differs from Scandinavian capitalism, on such issues as the role of government, collaboration among companies, or the responsibilities of companies. Future business leaders must be taught about the form and trajectory of capitalism(s), the underlying models on which they are based (Beinhocker & Hanauer, 2014), and the ways in which they both serve and harm society if they are to assume any kind of role in shaping necessary improvements.
The unfortunate part is that while developed countries have a proper system for recycling of disposed e-devices, such a system is lacking in India. It's not just about a system, even awareness on recycling e-waste is lacking in the second largest mobile market in the world. In India, there are no specific environmental laws or guidelines for m-waste or e-waste. None of the existing environmental laws have any direct reference to electronic waste or refer to the way it is handled as being hazardous. However, as some components of electronic waste fall under the 'hazardous and 'non-hazardous' ( Hazardous waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment  such as batteries, switches etc, and non- hazardous waste like plastic, circuit board etc. ) waste categories; they are covered under the purview of 'The Hazardous Waste Management Rules, 2003'. This regulation defines hazardous waste as "any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when on contact with other wastes or substances." As per the guidelines for environmentally sound management of e-waste, Maharashtra ranks first followed by Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab in the list of e-waste generating states in India. In these guidelines, the Ministry of Environments and Forests' central Pollution Control Board has proposed the extended producer responsibility (EPR) as an environment protection strategy. This makes the producer responsible for the entire life cycle of the product, especially for take back, recycle and final disposal. Thus, the producers' responsibility is extended to the post consumer stage of the product life cycle. This needs to be included in the legislative framework making EPR a mandatory activity associated with the production of electronic and electrical equipment over a period of time. 
By contrast, the South-Korean case is quite different because they didn’t have this problems and the South-Korean State was able to lead the industrialization process. "In 1961, however, the field was clear for the assumption of state power. The landed nobility had been destroyed; the peasantry was less rebellious as a result of a land reform; and the 'captains of industry' were beholden to the state for their regeneration. Only workers and students remained as opponents to military rule. Industrial workers, however, were still only a small portion of the population. As for the students, their role in an industrialization based on learning became pivotal. The Hangul generation, the first generation of students since the nineteenth century to escape education under the Japanese, came off the streets and into the modern factories of the 1970s as managers" (AMSDEN, 1989, p. 52).
45. In the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy, the Euro- pean Union will continue to develop its military capabilities, in order to enhance the credibility of its global and neighbourhood policies. The capacity for rapid reaction, projectability and sustainability determine the effectiveness of European forces in a globalized environment. Further integration of national armed forces is the principal means to increase efficiency and interoperability. This will be pursued through the creation of a European operational headquarters, and through multinational cooperation, pooling of means and task specialisation around cores of excellence, on the basis of planning at the European level that is to be implemented by the EU Military Staff according to the objectives fixed by the Ministers of Defence on the advice of the EU Military Committee. The aim is to provide the European Union with an enhanced catalogue of capabilities that makes use of the full potential of Member States’ armed forces and to ensure that each Member State contributes its fair share. This will enable the European Union to field more rapid reaction forces that are capable of implementing the full range of Petersberg tasks at any scale: joint disarmament operations, humanitarian and rescue tasks, mil- itary advice and assistance tasks, conflict prevention and peacekeeping tasks, tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemak- ing, and post-conflict stabilisation. All these tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries in com- bating terrorism in their territories.
Abstract. Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by ad- justing their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass bal- ance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an in- teractive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, com- prising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The avail- able glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibra- tion and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model real- istically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20thcentury. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorolog- ical data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projec- tions for the 21stcentury at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 ◦ C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.
The observed 1890 glacier geometry was used as an initial configuration for a simulation through the 20thcentury. The year 1895 was chosen as the starting year of the coupled mass balance – ice flow model run, as it marks the beginning of warming after the coldest part of the LIA (see temperature time-series in Fig. 8). The ∼ 20 % volume reduction of the ice cap from 1895 to 2010 was successfully simulated by the coupled model (Fig. 11a) and the model simulates the mea- sured volume changes during the 20thcentury well (Table 3). Only a small difference in the volume evolution is found when using methods MI and MII and a reasonable agreement is obtained between the observed and modeled surface veloc- ity field in both cases (Fig. 7b and c). The modeled velocity in the year 2002 compares well with the spatial pattern of the SPOT derived summer surface velocity (Table 2 and com- parison on profile DD’ in Fig. 6a), indicating that the model captures the large-scale flow pattern of the glacier.
Revised 8 May 2014 1 1 The London School of Economics and Political Science Moments of Self determination The Concept of ‘Self determination’ and the Idea of Freedom in 20th and 21st Century Internati[.]
The pressure of global competitive force exerts producers to continuously innovate and upgrade the quality of existing products (Acs and Preston, 1997). Organizations are currently facing unprecedented challenges in an ever dynamic, constantly changing and complex environment (Rezgui, 2007).Innovation has become the most important key issue for companies to be successful in the 21stcentury (Sorli et al., 2006). Considering the fact that emerging environment would be more on knowledge-driven, the driving forces are digitization, wider internet access, and high-speed data networks to addressing many of the operational issues from design to logistics and distribution (Noori and Lee, 2006). Consequently, learning networks can generate localized social capital and endogenous growth dynamics (Conceicao and Heitor, 2007).
The role of teachers/lecturers incorporating ICT effectively is an important part of 21stcentury learning. Teachers/lecturers are expected to be more than just information givers. With the introduction of ICT into their bank of resources, pre-service teachers need to learn how to scaffold learning: teachers at all levels will have to change what they teach, “they will have to shift from teaching content (a body of knowledge) to facilitat- ing process (supporting learning)” for individual clients (Spen- der, 1998: p. 11). Effective practice requires teachers to suc- cessfully guide and direct students through an immense amount of data, teach the students skills for locating useful information, and to then use higher order thinking strategies to deal with the information.
In the 20thcentury, the approach to education was to focus on ‘learning- about’ and to build stocks of knowledge and some cognitive skills in the student to be deployed later in appropriate situations. This approach to education worked well in a relatively stable, slowly changing world where students could expect to learn one set of skills and use them throughout their lives. Careers often lasted a lifetime. But the 21stcentury is quite different. The world is continuously changing at an increasing pace. Skills learned today are apt to be out-of-date all too soon. When technical jobs change, we can no longer expect to send a person back to school to be re-trained or to learn a new profession. By the time that happens, the domain of inquiry is likely to have morphed yet again.
Most such schemes were used as a pragmatic means of “dating”, or more strictly correlating, strata within a particular geographic area. The units within such schemes, usually termed stages, are conceptually similar to Oppel’s earlier use of stages. As dis- cussed earlier, with the publication of the first edition of the ISSC Guide (Hedberg 1976), a new category of oppelzone was intro- duced that corresponded precisely to most local stage schemes. The first leg of the Deep Sea Drilling Program was undertaken in 1968. Over the next three decades, a quantum improvement occurred in the resolution of biostratigraphic correlation within Cenozoic sediments. The recovery of thick, continuous succes- sions of biopelagic and hemipelagic strata from throughout the world’s oceans led to a great increase in knowledge of the taxon- omy and stratigraphy of important microfossil groups. These discoveries were combined with the development of new dating techniques that included magnetostratigraphy, tephrochron- ology, isotope stratigraphy, numeric dating and astrochrono- metric tuning. By the turn of the 20 th century extremely refined
Coinciding with this distinction between “classical” and “cultural” nation-states, Habermas notes the narratives of “artifice” and nature” at play in their construction. For the former nation-states, most notably those that came into existence following the Revolutions of the late-18 th century, Habermas brings into relief the artifice of the nation- building programme by reference to its “cogent response to the historical challenge to find a functional equivalence for the early modern form of social integration that was in the process of disintegration” xxxxxxx that resulted in the liberal body politic replete with its limited state administered by a rational bureaucracy and a civil society mediated both through the state and in itself by positive law and juridical rights. Conversely, the “cultural” nations, whilst equally the product of artifice, of constructivist myths, appeared as natural phenomena alongside a “naturalist conception of the people”,
The study by Bowden, et al.  further demonstrated there was a difference between new and historic parchments by measuring the thermal response (the temperature change from exothermic or endothermic reactions induced by hygrometric changes i.e. gain or loss of unbound water) of parchments during RH changes. The study found that the thermal peak area, which represents the temperature change of parchment when exposed to different RH, was related to the mass of the sample. The main finding provides evidence that the hygrometric change (i.e. water exchange) in gelatine and the historical parchment samples (15th-18th century) is much slower than in new parchment samples, thus indicating that the behaviour of parch- ment artefacts at varying RH relates to the proportions of collagen and gelatine they contain. The results of this study show the thermal response method is suitable to demonstrate the response of parchment to RH change; however, it did not provide any specific guidance for setting environmental parameters for parchment.
Afterschool programs have been implemented and expanded to improve academic, health, and developmental outcomes and to prevent risky behaviors and adverse outcomes for school-aged youths (Lauer Akiba, Wilkerson, Apthorp, Snow, & Martin-Glenn, 2006). Afterschool programs serve approximately 10.2 million children across the nation (or 18% of the population) per year (Afterschool Alliance, 2019). Despite the diverse sources of funding for afterschool programs, still more than 15.1 million children lack access to programs after school. With a gap between the need for and availability of afterschool programming throughout the country, federal funding sources such as 21stCentury Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) are essential to help states and local communities establish and sustain afterschool programs and to reach those children who most need these programs (Afterschool Alliance, 2013). According to recent estimates, 11.3 million children across communities in the United States take care of themselves after the school day ends (Afterschool Alliance, 2016). Researchers
Drawing from extensive survey and case studies, the researchers have outlined changes in a management accountant’s roles, what are considered to be their most valued techniques and skills now and in the future, and why changes are occurring and what we can expect the roles to be in the future. These are mainly based on the studies in the USA and UK and the present study has extended that to Australia and New Zealand. However, the literature lacks studies on non-Western countries and therefore, there will be a great opportunity for researchers in non-Western countries to contribute to these debates by conducting case studies and survey in their countries.
antivirals and vaccines. Depending on the sense of urgency, the tendency will be to shift resources to the “threat” of the day. For example, at the start of the 21stcentury, we witnessed several examples of emerging infections followed by exagger- ated (but not necessarily unwarranted) public reactions. The global concern and almost immediate response of scientists and health officials to the SARS and West Nile virus epidemics are cases in point. Soon after these events, we saw the spread of Chikungunya virus to several countries where it was hitherto unknown. What will tomorrow bring? How will we deal with these new infections? Improved surveillance, more-rapid re- agent sharing and information transfer, more-effective quaran- tine procedures, and various public health measures will un- doubtedly contribute to controlling emerging diseases, but Numerous technical advances, including the ability to label and visualize viral genes and gene products, combined with sophisticated imaging techniques, have yielded unprecedented insights into the details of viral replication, including the impact of coinfection with more than one virus. Studies of interactions between viruses in coinfected hosts are likely to uncover important new strategies for viral commensalism and parasitism. Live covisualization of competing adeno-associated virus (AAV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA replication. Replicating AAV DNA containing lac operator sequences was visualized by binding of a red fluorescent protein fused to lac repressor protein (red), while the replication of HSV-1 DNA containing tetracycline operator sequences was visualized by binding of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein fused to the tetracycline repressor DNA binding domain (green). AAV and HSV-1 DNA replication occurred in spatially separate nuclear compartments, which were often found in juxtaposition. Blue, Hoechst stain; scale in micrometers. (This figure first appeared on the cover of the Journal of Virology, May 2007, vol. 81, no. 9. [See related article on p. 4732.])