Maintenance funding for students in the form of grants and loans from government is largely means tested and/or targeted at specific groups. In Germany, for example, grants and loans for students attending institutions of higher education are only available for children of low-income families, as parents are required by law to fund their children’s education, including higher education. In contrast, non-low income families with children under 25 pursuing studies are entitled to tax allowances (Eurydice, 2015). General public student support (BAföG) is awarded, half as a grant, and half as an interest free loan, and approximately 25 per cent of students receive this kind of support. Total amounts range from €10 (£8.7) to € 670 (£585) per month for 12 months per year. A maximum of €10,000 (£8,735) needs to be paid back. According to Grave and Sinning (2014) this programme is largely in deficit, costing the government between 57 and 80 per cent of the total issued debt. They argue that it would be less expensive to give out all the aid in the form of a grant due to the large cost of interest subsidies. Moreover, there is evidence that student aid has not been successful in improving access of the less well off in
Currently, grants and loans for students attending institutions of higher education are only available for children of low-income families, as parents are required by law to fund their children’s education, including higher education. In contrast, non-low-income families with children under 25 pursuing studies are entitled to tax allowances (Eurydice, 2015). General public student support (BAföG) is awarded, half as a grant, and half as an interest free loan, and approximately 25 per cent of students receive this kind of support. Total amounts range from €10 (£8.76) to €670 (£587) per month for 12 months per year. A maximum of €10,000 (£8,763) needs to be paid back. According to Grave and Sinning (2014) this programme is largely in deficit, costing the government between 57 and 80 per cent of the total issued debt. They argue that it would be less expensive to give out all the aid in the form of a grant due to the large cost of interest subsidies. Moreover, there is evidence that student aid has not been successful in improving access of the less well off in Germany (Del Rey and Schiopu, November 2015).
Heretofore, governments either allowed their liberal market or co-ordinated binary systems to carve out distinctive educational pathways with each part of the system preparing graduates for different occupational destinations, which in turn had different knowledge bases which were reflected in the different curriculum within each sector. 65 However, nowadays, as people are living longer and are likely to change careers, not just jobs, many times during their lifetimes, there is a growing understanding that people in high participation societies require much greater preparation for a wider range of competences, and deeper embedding of what are euphemistically called “soft skills”. Developing competencies for problem-solving and innovation, as well as analytical and critical thinking, does not start in HE nor are the differences between vocational, professional and academic qualifications as distinct as previously conceived and organized. The concept of lifelong learning (LLL) stresses that “learning throughout life is a continuum.” 66
studied in the English education system to make neater cross-country comparisons between England and Germany. In order to minimise the amount of missing data, the sample for analysis excluded people who dropped out of the survey before they reached twenty years of age. Our final sample for estimation purposes comprised 732 and 878 young people in England and Germany, respectively. Explanatory variable: Educational trajectories The explanatory variable in the model is the type of education that the young people completed during their transition to adulthood. The longitudinal nature of the dataset enabled us to construct educational trajectories for the young people in each country using three steps. Firstly, we coded the annual information they gave regarding their post-compulsory educational qualifications as either academic or vocational following the International Standard Classification of Education so that qualifications in England and Germany were comparable. Secondly, we constructed educational trajectories for respondents in each country, taking into account the differences outlined earlier between the two systems in terms of compulsory school leaving age and in age of graduation. The compulsory school leaving age in England in the period under study was 16, while in Germany it was 18. In Germany, before the Bologna Process came into force, the average age at graduation from university was 28, while in the UK it was as early as 21, with some degrees taking a few years more (OECD, 2002) iii .
• In the absence of fees in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the high unit monetary costs of tertiary education meant that international students place a high monetary burden on their countries of destination. For this reason, Denmark (which in the past had no tuition fees) has adopted tuition fees for non-EU and non-EEA international students as of 2006/07. Similar options are currently being discussed in Finland and Sweden, where foreign enrolments grew by more than 50 percent between 2000 and 2007 [-Education at a Glance 2009].
Nevertheless, the question of who should pay for postgraduate education, how much they should pay, and how to support those who are unable to afford to pay arose in all countries. In Australia, there is a move to support more of the indigenous community to enter higher education as part of a nationwide project that affects different aspects of Aboriginal culture and life. As one interviewee put it, ‘[asserting] the rights of the indigenous community is Australia’s greatest social problem’. Norway’s commitment to free tuition at all levels, a long tradition of student loans to finance living costs, and doctoral research positions within universities sits at one end of the continuum. The other countries are spread across the continuum of fees, loans and bursaries for postgraduate education. Even as we complete this report, the challenge faced by higher education in ensuring that ‘today’s students get as much benefit from university as their predecessors did’ (Hillman, 2014a) is to overcome the effects of debt and to persuade students that to invest in higher (and postgraduate) education will improve their life chances. As Hillman points out (and we have privately observed since the introduction of loans, which seem like one of the ‘least bad’ options), the point at which graduates and postgraduates are earning enough to be required to repay their loan is likely to be precisely when they will have other financial priorities, such as young children and mortgages. We await developments in other countries to see the impact of the debt burden on emerging graduates. The long experience of income contingent loans provided by Australia suggests that debt may not necessarily be the deterrence feared by many commentators in the UK.
More recently, the Government of Ontario approved the College’s plans to partner with Saudi Arabia’s Technical and Vocational Training Corporation (now re-named Colleges of Excellence) to establish the Algonquin College of Excellence in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. This support runs alongside the province’s effort to rebound from the global recession and balance its finances. In its most recent budget, the Government of Ontario eliminated subsidies for international recruitment and study-abroad scholarships and reduced the level of indirect resources available to support international students (such as operating grants for international non-PhD students). Combined, these reductions will eliminate $75 million in financial support between 2012 and 2015. 33 Further, the Government of Ontario has also introduced a new international student
Sara Bonetti is Associate Director of Early Years at the Education Policy Institute. Prior to joining EPI, Sara spent ten years working in the early years sector in the United States. She led data collection efforts on topics such as funding and workforce professional development and conducted analyses on areas such as educational leadership and systems integration. Sara’s background also includes almost ten years in the field of international development. Sara has a doctorate in Educational Leadership with a focus on early childhood education from Mills College, in Oakland, California. Whitney Crenna-Jennings is a Senior Researcher for Mental health, Wellbeing and Inclusion at the Education Policy Institute. Whitney is the principle author of the publication, ‘Vulnerable children and social care in England: a review of the evidence’. Before joining EPI, Whitney graduated with an MSc in Social Epidemiology from UCL in 2015.
software concepts; 3) data/information concepts; 4) problem domain specific concepts; 5) systems/software management concepts; 6) organizational concepts; 7) societal concepts; and 8) disciplinary issues. To ensure a list of topics sufficiently broad so as to include all areas of IS research (for example, behavioral, technical, and organizational), Vessey et al. (2002) used several topics from the general discipline of computing. At the same time, they especially expanded the category of organizational concepts. As stated, “Prior studies that classified IS research, for example often determined the primary topic of a paper by examining the abstract, title, and keywords. This approach, however, is error prone because authors frequently refer to several topics in their keyword list/ abstracts.” (Vessey et al., 2002: 142) We adopted the same approach used by Vessey et al. (2002) for determining the topic addressed by the paper, namely, by examining the contents of the entire paper. For units of analysis, we used the ten levels outlined by Vessey et al. (2002). They are: 1) society; 2) profession; 3) inter-organizational context; 4) organizational context; 5) project; 6) group; 7) individual; 8) abstract concept; 9) system; and 10) computing element.
expectations of success. Their classes are made up of different individuals with different goals and this divided model of practice can make reflection very specific to the individual practitioner. The way that someone who teaches Beauty Therapy ‘thinks’ may be very different to the way someone who teacher Motor Vehicle Studies ‘thinks’ – and these thought processes may, in turn, differ from colleagues teaching First Aid, Adult Literacy and Child Care. How then can practitioners in PCET develop anything but personalised perspectives drawn from personal reflection on personal experience? Any model of reflection must therefore account for the reflexivity, contextuality and specificality of practitioners in PCET.
seen as ‘leading’, when used in conjunction with other techniques, it can reinforce the validity of the results (Burton, Brundett and Jones, 2008). The quantitative data from the questionnaire was analysed using a number of statistical tools. Firstly, measures of location (specifically the mean average and the range) were used to compare the data collected with information that was available from the ETF. In addition to this, comparative analysis techniques were used to see whether the results differed according to the demographic and geographic information collected. This was done by comparing percentage responses to each question and noting any outliers. These were then investigated to see whether they might be deemed to be significant. There are limitations to this approach: the differing subcategories that exist within further education (for example, further education colleges, land-based colleges) means that, in some cases, numbers in each category were low and hence statistical analysis was difficult to perform. The alternative (to ignore the categories and treat the sector as one category) would solve that problem; however, it would also ignore the complicated nature of the sector and so would not provide a true picture. Other studies have recognised this diversity (Jameson, 2013; Briggs, 2006) and my research follows that approach.
This seismic shift in economic and demographic power will rapidly change opportunities in the global economy, driving demand for precisely those skills and expertise in which the UK already excels. And our educational providers can be at the forefront of this shift, reaching out to seize the opportunities of a rapidly changing and expanding global education market.
The scale of this difference would suggest the figures should be treated with caution. As outlined in Section 2.2.2, survey data are subject to measurement and sampling error: it is possible that the notion of ‘considering studying’ had a different meaning for the research team and for respondents. In addition, there is a risk that the sample used for this survey might not be entirely representative of the wider British population. In particular, it is not a stretch to consider that people who have the time or inclination to take part in opt-in panel surveys may also be the types of people more likely to consider or enter post-18 education. However, the target population for this study is larger than that covered by the HESA statistics, including those studying outside HEIs, and people who have started studying within the last five years rather than those who are studying in a particular year. It is therefore possible that the true figure is genuinely much larger, and so this estimate should not be discounted.
“One of the most striking statistics to emerge from the 2010 HEFCE report is the large percentage of respondents who rated formal university visits as “ very useful‟ – a greater percentage than any other source of information covered by the research. This suggests that physically visiting a university plays a particularly valuable and distinctive role. Part of the reason for this undoubtedly lies in the fact that formal open days allow prospective students and their parents to gather more detailed and tailored information. Yet existing qualitative studies of student choice as well as the research conducted for this study show that this is not the sole reason; it is also because personal contact with an
From the beginning of 2014, a number of private education colleges closed, impacting over 3,000 non-EEA students enrolled in the colleges (Joyce and Whelan, 2015; Department of Education and Skills and Department of Justice and Equality, 2014, 2015, Irish Times, 2014). Following the closures, the Minister for Education and Skills and the Minister for Justice and Equality established a Task Force on Students Affected by the Closure of Private Colleges in May 2014. The Task Force submitted its report to the two ministers in July 2014. The report noted that while significant efforts had been made to ensure alignment between quality assurance and immigration policies, through both the first strategy and student immigration reforms introduced in 2010, a minority of education providers had continued to engage in unsustainable practices. Such practices included a lack of sufficient learner protection arrangements, unsustainably low fees that were inadequate to provide for delivery of high-quality programmes and the offering of programmes that were not Irish-accredited or quality assured. The Task Force also observed that a cohort of students in the colleges were in Ireland to access the labour market or for other reasons not related to education. The Task Force therefore found that a
Address the narrowness of 16-19 education. Students are generally receiving fewer learning hours than in previous years. The decoupling of AS and A levels has resulted in a dramatic fall in AS levels, that has not been compensated with additional provision. Given that the 16-19 curriculum in England was already narrow compared to top-performing countries, this is likely to further compromise the breadth of post-16 education. With relevant international studies showing that England stands out for the low levels of basic skills of its young people, the government should assess the impact of 16-19 funding changes on curriculum breadth and ensure that young people have a good choice of high quality post-16 academic and vocational qualifications.
The second condition is that the instrument should not affect outcomes (other than via Traineeship participation). This is always more difficult to justify and we may have suspicions that distance might be correlated with outcomes for other reasons. For instance, if distance to the nearest supplier of Traineeships is greater in rural areas and rural areas have fewer job opportunities, this potential instrument would be correlated with the employment outcome. Alternatively, if providers only choose to deliver Traineeships where they perceive demand for Traineeships to be relatively high, this perception might be influenced by local economic circumstances. We can go some way towards addressing these concerns. For example, as considered in more detail below, we exclude individuals living more than fifteen kilometres from a training provider, thereby making the estimation sample more homogenous with regard to rurality. Also, we include the local unemployment rate as a means of controlling for variation in local economic circumstances and a variable indicating whether individuals live in urban areas as opposed to on urban fringes.
Facing this problem, Physical Education action must be oriented to the promotion of out-of-school physical activity through the joy practice development. In this way, nowadays there are scientific evidences that link higher enjoyment and engagement in Physical Education lessons with higher level of out-of-school physical activity practice (Gómez-Mármol & De la Cruz, 2013; Gutiérrez et al., 2007; Moreno & Hellín, 2007). It is important to clarify that from this work it is defended that this should not be understood in terms of that Physical Education goals are exclusively have fun but provide a global physical culture that lets understand the importance of practicing physical activity and that awaken its interest.
The Labour party put the cost of this package at £5.3 billion in 2021–22 (which is equivalent to £5.5 billion in today’s prices). However, IFS analysis at the time noted that this figure was highly uncertain, and was unlikely to reflect the true long-run cost of the party’s childcare package (Cattan and Farquharson, 2017). The 2020–21 figure excluded the cost of offering free or subsidised care to 1-year-olds and of extending maternity pay to 12 months. The cost of policy commitments such as ‘phasing in subsidised provision on top of free-hour entitlements’ will depend a lot on the actual programme put in place: how many hours it subsidises, at what rate of subsidy, who is eligible for the subsidies, and how many hours they choose to take up at the new, lower price. In addition, the Labour party promised higher hourly funding rates to ‘transition to a qualified, graduate-led workforce’. Ensuring that early education places are of high quality is essential if they are to support children’s development (though recent research is divided on whether a graduate-led workforce is necessary to achieve this; see footnote 20 for details). But without knowing the specific changes to the hourly funding rate that the party proposed, it is difficult to incorporate this into an independent costing of the childcare package.
Initial assessment (and diagnosis) is now accepted practice for identifying the basic skills suppor t needs of many students. Those who need ver y specific learning suppor t in numeracy are referred for additional help. There are, however, many students whose numeracy skills do not fall below Level 1 but who never theless need help in maths if they are to cope successfully with their course. (Students on a GNVQ Hospitality and Catering programme would be a good example.) Although key skills in application of number do allow students to develop their numeracy skills, the structure of key skills deliver y in many colleges means that students are not able to acquire the right skills at the time when they are most needed. Fur thermore, the new basic skills standards (even though they are notionally targeted at adults) may more adequately define the specific set of skills which students need at Level 1 or 2 in relation to vocational curricula.