The authors are grateful to those medicalstudents of Univer- siti SultanZainalAbidin (UniSZA) who participated in the current study. The authors are also obliged to Dr Kimberly S Young, an internationally known expert on Internetaddiction, from the Center for InternetAddiction, for providing permis- sion to use her questionnaire for this study. The authors also extend their heartfelt thanks to all members of the UniSZA Research Ethics Committee, especially to the Chairman of the ethical committee, Prof Dato’ Dr Ahmad Zubaidi Bin Abdul Latif, MD, MMED, FRCS, for his very kind cooperation. Dato’ Dr Latif currently holds the position of Vice-Chancellor of the UniSZA, Malaysia.
In the present study, moderate addiction was found to be 19.5%, compared to 18.88% in the study conducted by Chathoth et al. 17 The variations in the addiction pattern could be because of the difference in the evaluating methods, also influence of factors such as stress and psychological co-morbidities. However the reasons for availability of Internet and the factors contributing to addiction behavior were not included in the present study. The mean duration of Internetuse per day was 1.96 hours in our study, compared to 4hours per day in a study by Ching et al in Malaysia and 1.29 hours by Sharma et al in Central India. 19,11 In a study conducted by Srijampana et al, it was found that majority of the medicalstudents (82%) were using internet daily for around 1-3 hr. 20 The mean duration of Internetuse in our study was 4.4 years, compared to 6.46 (±2.31) years in the study at Mangalore by Chathoth et al. 17 In our study it was found that 91.1% of the study participants were using internet for >2 years and about 41% of them had used internet for >5 yrs.
Table II shows the comparison of the clinical characteristics amongstudents with and without internetaddiction. About 45% of male respondents and 32% of female respondents were internet addicts, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.009). In addition, there was also a significant association found between duration of internetuse and internetaddiction (p<0.001). Table III shows the predictors of internetaddiction. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender was the most significant predictor of internetaddiction. Students who used the internet for entertainment were 3.5 times more likely to be associated with internetaddiction in comparison to education purposes. Male respondents were 1.8 times more likely to develop IA compared to female respondents. Those respondents who spent one hour more per day were 1.05 times more likely to get IA. Other predictors of internetaddiction were not statistically significant (p>0.05).
A regular evaluation process of the students’ perceptions is necessary to obtain continual information feedback from them and other stakeholders, so that the learning environment can be improved to support consistently effective learning and teaching. Also, initial mistakes can be corrected easily, and a proper learning pace can be conserved. This appraisal will provide baseline data and guidelines in areas that stu- dents feel good about, which should be reinforced, and in the weaker areas, which need improvement. Well-planned, prospective follow-up research is advocated in this regard. Consequently, the medical faculty of UniSZA can improve immensely, and can be the best amongmedical universities of Malaysia. Improved and consistent performance will enable UniSZA to produce more holistic doctors who are better prepared to serve the people of Malaysia and the rest of the world.
presented. Formal lecture widely used as a method of teaching has been losing its popularity among the students however, is still considered one of the most practiced methods of teaching in preclinical and clinical phase of undergraduate teaching in medical education. More innovative approaches and models such as problem based learning (PBL), case based learning (CBL) and team based learning (TBL) still require to use traditional ectures in their introductory or debriefing phase of these teaching methods. Lecturers from basic sciences disciplines still find formal lectures as the most important methods to cover entire content in a given curriculum. This might be the reason that these minimally guided model (PBL, CBL or TBL) though being practiced for over a half century has not been decisively claimed to achieve the outcome objectives of these methods in learning. The past half-century of empirical research on this issue has provided overwhelming and unambiguous evidence that minimal guidance during instruction is significantly more efficient than guided learning however, some researchers believe that minimally guided instruction is likely to be ineffective (32). For a classroom practice of measuring students’ metacognitive ability to create awareness amongstudents and teachers as how metacognitive skills are necessary to understand the learning process to accomplish the cognition required to fulfil the task in a routine learning.
The majority (88%, 124) of the study participants stated that they would like more training in the antibiotic selec- tion, seven students (5%) did not want further education, and another eleven students (8%) were unsure. Most of the respondents (87%, 123) felt prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics to be professionally unethical. In all, 72% (102) of the respondents were confident that their cur- rent teaching Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah (HSNZ) has antibiotic guidelines, but 23% (33) students were unaware, and 5% (7) students indicated that there are no antibiotic guidelines for HSNZ. In all, 50% (71) of the respondents do not possess a copy of HSNZ antibiotic guidelines or found it on the internet while 34% (48) of students said they received a copy and 16% (23) students were unsure about it. Personally consulting antibiotic guidelines when considering an antibi- otic for a patient was only practiced by 45% (64) students, and the rest, 39% (56) and 16% (22) students, were either not practiced or unsure (Figure 1). There were statistically (P = 0.018) significant differences observed among Year of Study of the respondents regarding the question “How many
The application of woodcarvings in traditional Malay houses can be found across the country and majority of woodcarvings are found in traditional Malay houses of people with influences in their community; the leaders. Although some commoners’ houses are found to be adorned with woodcarvings, they are not as numerous as those found in the leaders’ houses. This is due to the cultural aspect of the Malay society which implies that people with status lives a wealthier and easier lives than those of the commoners thus the differences on their art and craft could also be seen (Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia, 2009).Woodcarvings became a symbol of status and influence among people who could afford it and outside influences on the designs of the woodcarvings showed the connections that the owner had with the outside world. Woodcarvings became not only a form of art and decoration but were also a status symbol of the owners of the houses.
The participants were categorized into four segments based on the hours spent on the Internet usage: 1) nor- mal user; 2) moderate user; 3) at-risk user; and 4) ex- treme user. Before participants proceed with the IAT modified version measure scale, a question was asked to self-identify if they considered themselves as Internet addict or Not. A large number of participants (64%) con- sider themselves as Internet addicts whereas the opposite (36%) did not consider that they were addicted. The eth- nicity of the sample participants was as follows: Chinese (50%), Indian (26%), Malays (22%), and other ethnic groups (2%). Most of the participants were ranging from 20 - 25 years old (64%) and studying a bachelor’s degree (51%). Northern States of Malaysia (53%), east coast of Malaysia (8%), Southern States of Malaysia (8%), Sabah and Sarawak (6%) and other states (25%) constitute the sample of survey. The gender and age classification of users is also specified in the Table 1 as below:
between 43.3%–99.5% of physical inactivity among Saudi children and adults alike. However, no research to date has investigated the current state of sports activities in Saudi Arabia Universities for male undergraduates students against other countries (Eman et al., 2019). Saudi Arabia has a wide-ranging plan as observed in (Kinninmont, 2017). The purpose of the extensive plan according to Kinninmont, (2017) is to provide an alternative to KSA’s economy and reduce its dependency on oil. Basically, one of the major economic strategies of KSA as part of the plan is youth and sports initiatives (Kinninmont, 2017). This serves as useful functions and personal branding projects to boost the country’s national policies. In view of this, further research is desirable. There is indisputable evidence in many studies repeating the benefits of sport activities and sports on health (Celis-morales et al., 2015; Donnelly et al., 2013; Fanning et al., 2018; Kelley, Kelley, Roberts, & Haskell, 2012; Nakamura et al., 2014; Song et al., 2012). Also, the general public is currently alert of the significance of active participation in sport to optimize their bodies’ performance at all levels. Recent research on the sports related habits of the Spanish has underlined a rising interest in undertaking sports activities and benefits derivable from the sport (García-Ferrando & Llopis-Goig, 2010; Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte, 2015). Similarly, a new conception of sport, orientation for improvement on quality lifestyle has been considered over the last decade by Spanish. The same surveys identify that sporting activity has moved from competitive sport towards healthier ways of using one’s free time. This is done, by including sport within healthier lifestyles. In order to function and assume the role of educational institutions, Spanish universities have tasked themselves the objective of promoting the sport at university. This is actualized by facilitating sports for the student community and, giving consideration to offer a compatible platform for students’ academic commitments (Castañeda-Vázquez et al., 2018). According to CSD, (2010) sport in university is necessary for two main reasons which include; university as the final stage in people’s education, university is the last chance to reinforce habits to improve quality of life and sport activities contributed to the development of an integral education for students (CSD, 2010).
In the nine years of her primary and secondary education, she was to move to five different schools, initially upon her father being posted to various districts in the State, and also due to her graduating from primary to secondary education. In 1967, she moved to the Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru; later in November 1967, to the Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Segamat. Finally, in January 1970, she was enrolled in the Sekolah Menengah Sultan Abdul Halim, Jitra, in the northern state of Kedah. Mahani seemed to have coped very well with all the shifts and difficulties caused by these relocations. For her last school, she had to travel alone from Johor Bahru to Jitra, a journey of approximately 800 kilometres that took nearly twenty-four hours by train. She was appointed Head Girl of that School: an early recognition of her leadership abilities.
The technological development has brought in high speed mobile broadband internet connectivity, wi-fi, and smart phone applications that has transformed the pattern of internet access of youth, from just “logging in” for a particular duration of time in front of a desktop computer to an era of being online anytime .Indeed, such development has made people life easier in terms of communication, business, banking, education, research, health seeking, shopping and entertainment. Now it is hard for most of us to imagine a world without instant and continuous access to internet. 6
Majority respondents of this study did not take caffeine or energy booster drinks, while 13% of them had coffee every day. Chi-square test showed that there was a significant relationship between sleep quality and caffeine intake. For example, previous study has been done to determine the use of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among college students in Peru (16). The results proved that poor sleep quality was associated with consumption of caffeinated beverages. Besides, 67.3% of the medicalstudents in India were seen to regularly consume caffeinated beverages and more likely to experience sleep disturbances, leading to a poor sleep quality (17). Previous study by Drake et al. had proved that it is better to avoid or reduce caffeine intake before sleep as caffeine could remain in body average of 3 to 5 hours causing the body to have difficulty to rest (18). The study also recommended people to avoid consuming caffeine at least six hours before sleep to ensure a good quality of sleep.
Perceived Skill and Utilisation of Information Technology in Medical Education Among Final Year Medical Students, Universiti Putra Malaysia ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perceived Skill and Utilisation of Informat[.]
In this study, a similar questionnaire was used to measure stress levels and a newly developed instrument, the MedicalStudents Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ), was used to identify sources of stress. The items on MSSQ represent 40 events that have been reported to be possible sources of stress in medicalstudents. Respondents were asked to rate each event in themselves during the recent weeks by choosing from five responses: ‘causing no stress at all’, ‘causing mild stress’, ‘causing moderate stress’, ‘causing high stress’ and ‘causing severe stress’. The MSSQ is scored by assigning a value of zero to four for each of the respective responses. For example, a response of ‘causing no stress at all’ would be scored as zero and a response of ‘causing severe stress’ scored as four. In order to test the validity and reliability of both instruments in a medical student population and to determine the appropriate GHQ-12 score for ‘caseness’, both questionnaires were piloted to 141 newly graduated medicalstudents of the 2007/2008 academic session. From the pilot data, we calculated Cronbach’s alpha values for the GHQ-12 and MSSQ of 0.85 and 0.95, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the GHQ-12 at the cut-off point of 4 were 81.3% and 75.3%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 62.9%, comparable to the Goldberg findings (29-30). The pilot study showed that both questionnaires were valid and could reliably measure stress levels and identify stressors amongmedicalstudents. Respondents with a score of 4 or greater on the GHQ-12 were considered to be under significant unfavourable stress, defined as ‘caseness’ in this study.
The mounting desires of self-management, social management and academic management to foster personal and professional features (17) among the medicalstudents are good indicators that such students need a professional helper who is able to understand the real issues they face (18–20). For that reason, providing a good service of mentoring sessions are necessary. This can be achieved by understanding the issues which should be entertained. Therefore, an accurate and validated assessment tool is welcomed. Despite the importance of such service (17), we do not have a credibility assessment tool which is able to evaluate the need of mentoring from the students’ perspective. Thus, we aimed to assess dimensionality (construct validity) and reliability of the established instrument, which is known as Universiti Sains Malaysia Mentoring Inventory (USM-MT-i). As a result, a null hypothesis was established; the proposed items of the USM-MT-i is one-dimension and the research hypothesis was that the suggested items of the USM-MT-i is multi- dimension.
Introduction: Peer mentoring is one of the mentoring essential components in any higher institution of learning. In the Medical Faculty of UniversitiMalaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), this mentoring system has existed long but has not undergone any formal evaluation. Objective: The main objective of this study is to determine the perception of peer mentoring amongmedicalstudents of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), UNIMAS. Method: It was a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire. All medical undergraduate students of FMHS were recruited. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Result: A total of 234 respondents participated in this study. Peer mentoring system was preferred against other mentoring system. Majority of the respondents reported that academic gain was the main benefits they gained from peer mentoring system. Negative attitude of the mentee and poor time management for the meeting were the top two worst experience encountered by both mentors and mentees respectively. More than half of the mentor and mentee perceived that peer mentoring system was beneficial to them compared to other systems, with reason that the interaction between student themselves were more easier and comfortable. Nevertheless, there should be more interaction between the mentors and mentees. Conclusion: The findings indicated there is a positive contribution of peer mentoring towards the mentoring system of the faculty. There is a need to relook at the current mentoring system and consider peer mentoring to improve the student support.
Arab students (Yemen, Sudan, Libya, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt) constituted about the half of the respondents (52.4%), while more than one fourth (27.8%) were Iranians. Interestingly, the other Asians (Indonesian, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Vietnam, China, Afghanistan, and Magnolia) represented only 19.8 %. The majority of the participating international postgraduates (95.2%) have history of employment, and approximately half of them (46.8%) had worked for at least five years prior to joining their postgraduate programs, with median working history duration of 4 years (IQR = 2 – 8). More than two thirds
Various stressors have been implicated as the possible cause of such distress. One of the major factors is academic and adjustment to medical school environment as a whole (2). Increased scholastic workload and concern for academic performance are among the recognized causes (2, 18). Besides that, interpersonal interactions between students and teachers can subtly but profoundly influence students (19). Medicalstudents in the clinical years are confronted frequently with issues related to death and dying for the first time and they are reported to be often fearful, anxious, and hesitant to interact with dying patients (20). These stressors are unique to those in the health care field and medical student are often the ones who bore the brunt of the damage due to lack of preparedness.
176. Mahani ZainalAbidin. 2012. ‘How Regional Regimes Can Prevent Conflict’. Panel speaker, Roundtable and Public Forum on ‘Thinking about the Asian Century’, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research (EABER) and South Asian Bureau of Economic Research (SABER), Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 17-18 April. 177. Mahani ZainalAbidin. 2012. ‘Asia’s Rise and Global Challenge’. Panel speaker, Roundtable and Public Forum on ‘Thinking about the Asian Century,’ East Asian Bureau of Economic Research (EABER) and South Asian Bureau of Economic Research (SABER), Australian National University, Canberra, 17-18 April. 178. Mahani ZainalAbidin. 2012. ‘Rebalancing in China and Its Impact on the Region’.
Aims of this study are to evaluate the technological use behaviors among uni- versity students and the relationship between the type of use/abuse of internet and some personality characteristics. The sample consists of 435 Italian uni- versity students. The Multidimensional Personality Profile (MPP) test and the Questionnaire about the Internetuse, abuse and addiction (UADI), have been administered online but in the experimenter’s presence. The use of the Inter- net in our sample is mainly not a problematical one. Significant correlations were found between Self regulation and Dissociation (r = −0.36) and between Machiavellism/cynism and Escape (r = 0.36), Dissociation (r = 0.33) and Ex- perimentation (r = 0.34). The results of the correlations suggest that the more people are able to set purposes, monitor actions, organise and deal with mat- ters with order and method (Self-Regulation) , the less they will tend to have dissociative experiences connected to the use of Internet (Dissociation). A high level of cynicism correspond a high tendency to useInternet to escape from reality, a high tendency to dissociation and to aggressive/transgressive behaviours online. In conclusion it is necessary to consider the complex psy- chological dynamics in the relationship between the subject and the technolo- gical tool.