Nahyan has issued Federal Legal Decree No. 5 for 2012 on combating cybercrimes”. Within new decree that coverage online activity and generate information regard to information that is published online, whether it's personal or ongoing activities. In this decree provide on legal protections of privacy which include all information credit card numbers, bank account numbers any other online details and also electronic payment methods. Therefore, there will be protects the individual privacy from anyone who duplicates of credit cards. Thus, the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any other‟s private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. Also, for anyone who did criminal activities, they will have consequences of jail and would face any other punishments in order of judicial or administrative authorities. (Wam, 2012)
The issue of convergence is a major challenge in cybergovernance in Ethiopia. There is neither coordination of activities among the institutions nor clearly defined frontiers in their sphere of activities. For example with regard to cyber related crimes the federal police commission has full power of enforcement. Similarly Information Network Security Agency (INSA) has significant power to defend and take measures against any targeted attacks to information communication technology infrastructure . MCIT has also empowered full regulatory power over information security. In similar vein INSA is also tasked in cybercrime related offences. In line with this, most proclamations are drafted by INSA including Computer Crime Legislation and Telecom Fraud Proclamations. Ethio-telcom is also another organ of government responsible for internet and ICT governance. Thus we can infer that there is a confusion of authority and duplication of tasks as well as it is difficult to identify who is responsible for what. For example Genet a girl who was a victim of social media abuse with the fabrication of pornography with her name and pictures told the researcher that she unable to get responses from any of the organizations responsible in telecom sector . She said
Today’s in techno-savvy environment, the world is becoming more and more digitally sophisticated. Internet was initially developed as a research and information sharing tool and was in an unregulated manner. As the time passed by it became more transactional with e- business, e-commerce-governance and e-procurement etc. All legal issues related to internet crime are dealt with through cyber laws. As the number of internet users is on the rise, the need for cyber laws and their application has also gathered great momentum. in this research paper introduction about various cybercrimes, their classifications, IT-Act 2000 and the methods to registered the complaints has been included for the effective implementation of cyber laws in India and to aware the common men to registered their complaints when they suffered any cyber crime.
• System interference – No one should input, transmit, damage, delete, deteriorate, alter or suppress data in another person’s computer without right. If anyone causes serious hindrance in the working of a computer system without right, it should be a cyber- crime. So, denial of service attacks or introducing viruses into a system to disrupt its normal functioning are cyber-crimes. It is important that this offence is invoked when there is a significant harm (e.g., a certain threshold of monetary loss). Otherwise, ordinary online behavior, such as sending one or few unsolicited e-mails would also be a crime.
Phising started in light of the fact that the banks' own frameworks have demonstrated extraordinarily hard to assault. Culprits have turned their regard for phising assaults, singular internet clients keeping in mind the end goal to increase individual or mystery data that can be utilized online for fraudulent purposes.
The Oxford Dictionary defines a social network as “A dedicated website or other application which enables users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc.” This could be in form of social media websites, blogs, and chat rooms. Anonymity and fake identity are the hallmark of the cybercrimes. Lack of awareness among netizens, poor security features associated with these websites and overuse of social media has enabled cyber offenders to engulf these innocent people into fraudulent or any other criminal transactions. 
The policy guidelines of various cyber communities are very important source to develop (Cyber Culture). Most of social networking sites use their own policy guidelines to develop it. The aim of these guidelines to prevent their users from, hacking and its related issues, e-crimes, sexual crimes, child abuse and pornography. Sometime these communities don’t believe in to protect religious thoughts. For example in Pakistan “Youtube” is banned from last many years due to availability of hate material against prophet “Muhammad (PBUH). 41% respondents read the policy guidelines of social communities before entering and 59% respondents do not read policy guidelines
Computer crime, or cyber crime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network, where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of a crime. Net crime refers, more precisely, to criminal exploitation of the Internet. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories:
2000 . 44 Act consists of single section related to liability of Network Service Provider and Breach of Privacy which is not satisfactory in terms of handling the problem. 45 Thus, we conclude that to guard again the sophisticated skills of cyber criminals, a global culture of cyber security needs to be developed which intrun required besides good policing and legislation, tough ICT based majors uniform in applications beyond jurisdiction because information and communication flow across boundaries, as such much of the traffic escapes national frontiers. In this direction the European Union has taken certain initiative in the form of European Convention on CyberCrimes, 2001 supported by many other international organizations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Copy Right Treaty, 1996, to which many countries like United States of America, European Union and Canada are signatory. Thus India also needs certain majors like United States Internet Crime Complaints Centre (IC3) and Cyber Police in China 46 for reporting and tracing out domestic crimes on Internet. In this direction the following suggestions can be made.
Mostly the cyber attacker focus on data, they create alteration process, deletion process such type process over the data. To prevent this type of crime the Hemraj Saini et al.  suggest Data Interception techniques. In this case an attacker monitors data streams & try to gather information. This attack data collected may be the end goal of the attack. This attack usually involves sniffing network traffic, but may include observing other types of data streams. This differs from attacks that collect more qualitative information, such as communication volume, not explicitly communicated via a data stream. For such type of attacks the Data Increption Techniques are used.
In the e-government security development, which is mainly based on internet faces constant security problem due the complicated and vulnerability of the network. It is the complete invalidation of the network and server systems of increasing or growing risk. Its often comes from attacks of the hackers, viruses, stealing and manmade destruction of the device.
The information and communications technology (ICT) industry has evolved greatly over the last half century. The technology is ubiquitous and increasingly integral to almost every facet of modern society. ICT devices and components dent, and disruption of one may affect many others. Over the past several years, experts and policymakers have expressed increasing concerns about attacks, which many experts expect to increase in frequency and severity over the next several years. The act of protecting ICT systems and their contents has come to be known as cyber security. A broad and arguably somewhat fuzzy concept, cyber security can be a useful term but tends to defy precise definition. It is also mes inappropriately conflated with other concepts such as privacy, information sharing, intelligence gathering, and surveillance. However, cybersecurity can be an important tool in protecting privacy and preventing unauthorized n sharing and intelligence gathering can be useful tools for effecting cyber security. The management of risk to information systems is considered
Following the identification of a high-level target state in the comparative empirical analysis, the controlled convergence was applied to narrow the emerging implementation tasks through case study. The controlled convergence was applied for the development of a transformation roadmap for the high-level target state (Table 1). To build the transformation roadmap, the emerging categories are validated with applying the controlled convergence with a group of experts. The process of confirming validity of the data in Table 2, outlines the transformation process but does not include all the steps as the aim is to present a methodology, not the actions. The rationale is that different enterprises will have different cyber security steps to perform in order to transition to a higher maturity lever. A long and detailed list of steps can be found in some of our work in progress articles , , .
How did such a welcomed technology become the source of such discord is still a wonder. Everyone understands that the Internet is crucial for the functioning of modern economies, societies, and even governments, and everyone has an interest in seeing that it is secure and reliable. But at the same time, many governments are bothered that such a vital resource exists outside their control and, even worse that it is under the thumb of an already dominant United States. Washington's answer to these concerns released at the end of June 2005, announcing that the United States plans to retain control of the Internet indefinitely was not what the rest if the world was expecting. This was received across the world with just the anger one would expect, setting the stage for further controversy (Cukier, 2005).
In moving forward in the age of technology it would be foolish to discount the risks of cyberterrorism. It is important to keep in mind that “the next generation of terrorists are now growing up in a digital world, one in which hacking tools are sure to become more powerful, simpler to use, and easier to access.” (Weimann, 2006. Pg 170) If you consider how easy it is to attain the tools and skills necessary to carry out an attack you then must consider the true threat that cyber-terrorism posses to our National Security. Knowing the intent of terrorists opens up many possibilities of using technology to achieve their goals. Consequently, “in the future, the logic bomb rather than the conventional bomb may prove to be the terrorist weapon of choice.” (Hodge, 1999. Pg 105)
In our research paper, we have shown the concept of data mining techniques to identify cyber-attacks. Our focus of attention would be on “finding patterns” in a log file (records that occur in the system) which shows the sequence of events. From this log file we identify patterns. To start with, we use the clustering technique to discover the type of cyber-crime, Denial of service (DoS) attacks. As we know that clustering is grouping of data that has similar features. So this grouping helps to discover similar patterns of data that occur constantly in the log file.
National cyber defense strategy in our country should contain successful approaches and models, some of which have been implemented in developed countries. In this strategy should be established and decided the creation of groups of national computer emergency response from the government, according to the EU model. This national group is defined as a government organization and has as its mission the protection of information technology and communication in cyberspace, especially government technology and critical local internet infrastructure. Developing countries are recognizing the value and importance of groups in national computer emergency response, as a structure that responds properly to any kind of cyber threat. In our country, we continuously need to establish a governing group, which will lead cyber defense policy.
Cybercrimes affects every internet user in different manners. Different type‘s cyber attacks are discussed in this paper. Criminals have also adapted the improvements and advancements of computer technology to carry forward their own unauthorized and illegal activities. Certain defensive actions should be taken by all of us while using the internet which will assist in challenging this major threat Cyber Crime. The safety and well-being of citizens should be safeguarded. Everyone deserves a right to live in a secure environment, no matter in real-life or on the Internet.
The growing danger from crimes committed against computers, or against information on computers, is beginning to claim attention in national capitals. In most countries around the world, however, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crimes. This lack of legal protection means that businesses and governments must rely solely on technical measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information. Self-protection, while essential, is not sufficient to make cyberspace a safe place to conduct business. The term cyber crime subsumes many different activities. Here focus is given on ―unauthorized access‖ crimes and ―unauthorized disruption‖ crimes viruses, worms, logic bombs, Trojan horses, distributed denial of service attacks, etc. These are crimes committed by computers via the internet that illegally access or harm files and programs on other computers. Our goal is to investigate if Internet and mobile technology can increase reporting of committed crimes to law enforcement. This study is a first step and we investigate whether or not people would use the Internet to report crime.
Cyber crime is a generic term that refers to all criminal activities done using the medium of computers, the Internet, cyber space and the worldwide web. There isn‟t really a fixed definition for cyber crime. The Indian Law has not given any definition to the term „cyber crime‟. In fact, the Indian Penal Code does not use the term „cyber crime‟ at any point even after its amendment by the Information Technology (amendment) Act 2008, the Indian Cyber law. But “Cyber Security” is defined under Section (2) (b) means protecting information, equipment, devices computer, computer resource, communication device and information stored therein from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction. 1.3 What is Cyber Law? 5