Top PDF Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia

Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia

Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia

Previous reviews have shown that individual behavioural counselling, group behavioural therapy and telephone counselling were effective interventions to help smokers in the general public to quit smoking ( Lancaster 2005a ; Stead 2005 ; Stead 2006 ). Simple advice from a physician and self-help material may also have some effect on increasing smoking cessation rate in the general public ( Lancaster 2005b ; Stead 2008 ). The one study which examined the effect of individual smoking cessation based on CBT and motivational interviewing among smokers with schizophrenia did not show any benefit in increasing abstinence. In another study, there was no evidence that single session motivational interviewing reduced the severity of smoking. There was no study comparing group therapy with individual therapy in schizophrenia. There was no evidence to support specialised smoking cessation group therapy designed for patients with schizophrenia as being superior to non-specialised group therapy. We also did not find any studies on the effect of telephone counselling, simple advice from a physician, or self-help interventions in smoking cessation or reduction in schizophrenia. Interestingly, we found some evidence to support the use of incentives to increase the rate of abstinence and to reduce the severity of smoking in the group of patients with schizophrenia at the end of the trial, but this study did not have any longer term follow up after the 36-week trial and a previous review has shown that incentives do not enhance long-term cessation rates and early success may not be maintained when the rewards are no longer offered ( Cahill 2008 ).
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Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Schizophrenia (SCARIS) with e cigarette: study protocol for a randomized control trial

Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Schizophrenia (SCARIS) with e cigarette: study protocol for a randomized control trial

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming in- creasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users re- port buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a smoking experi- ence, but with reduced health risks [6]. A recent ran- domized controlled trial (RCT), showed that smokers not immediately willing to quit who used e-cigarettes sub- stantially decreased daily cigarette consumption without significant side effects [7]. In a prospective 12-month pilot study, e-cigarettes were shown to substantially decrease cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in schizophrenic smokers not intending to quit [8], however, in a recent large randomized clinical trial of e-cigarettes conducted in 300 smokers, side effects that are commonly recorded during smoking cessation trials using drugs for nicotine dependence were infre- quently reported during the course of the study [7]; for example, at week-2, hunger, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, and depression were reported by 6.5%, 4.0%, 3.5%, 3.0% and 2.0% of participants, respectively. More- over, no serious adverse events (AEs) (that is, major depression, abnormal behavior or any event requiring an unscheduled visit to the family practitioner or hos- pitalization) occurred during the study. Quitters also reported improved quality of life, which could be used to motivate attempts to quit by individuals with con- cerns about what life will be like without cigarettes [9] Some authors suggest the hypothesis that smoking causes cognitive decline and loss of gray-matter tissue in the brain over time [10].
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A Randomized Control Trial of Smoking Cessation Interventions Conducted by Dentists

A Randomized Control Trial of Smoking Cessation Interventions Conducted by Dentists

Tobacco is the major cause of preventable mortality and morbidity all over the world (World Health Organization 2010). One of the globally accepted roles of dentists in prevention and health promotion is helping tobacco users to quit and tobacco cessation should be part of the practice of dentistry (Gallagher et al. 2010). A large number of oral diseases and conditions such as staining of teeth and restorations, halitosis, impaired wound healing, periodontal diseases, failure of implants and surgical treatments, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and life-threatening precancerous and cancerous lesions are attributed to smoking (Warnakulasuriya et al. 2010). In England and Wales, Unal et al. (2004) reported that between 1981 and 2000, more than half of the decrease in coronary heart disease mortality was being the reduction in smoking. This finding shows that smoking is a common risk factor (Watt & Sheiham 2012) for coronary heart disease and periodontitis (or any tobacco related oral conditions) and
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Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review

Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review

Many randomized clinical trials and various studies showed that when using both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions had a great success in smoking cessation. Besides these interventions other measures like increase of tax on tobacco products, implementation of strict laws on use of tobacco by the governments, health awareness programs among public, incorporating the different topics of tobacco cessation as a syllabus to both medical and dental graduates, conducting various CDE programs, workshops etc are very important for the millions of individuals to quit the habit.
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Smoking reduction did not promote future smoking cessation in a general population

Smoking reduction did not promote future smoking cessation in a general population

The Inter 99 study. Inter99 is a population-based in- tervention study initiated in March 1999 and ended in April 2006. The study design is described in detail else- where [22,23]. The aim of the study was to prevent car- diovascular disease by non-pharmacological intervention. The study was performed at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health [24], Glostrup University Hospi- tal, Copenhagen, Denmark, and was approved by The Copenhagen County Ethical Committee (KA 98155) and the National Board of Health. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The study was regis- tered in the Clinical Trials.gov (NCT00289237). The study population (N = 61,301) comprised all individuals in specific age-groups (30 to 60 years) from a defined area of Copenhagen. From this study population three age- and sex-stratified random samples were drawn: two for the intervention groups (a total of 13,016: a high in- tensity intervention group A (N = 11,708), and a low intensity intervention group B (N = 1308)); and one for the control group C (N = 5246). The groups were pre- randomised. Baseline participation rates were 52.5% in the intervention group and 63.1% in the control group.
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Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women ’ s tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men ’ s smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men ’ s tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men ’ s tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.
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Pharmacological and behavioural interventions to promote smoking cessation in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

Pharmacological and behavioural interventions to promote smoking cessation in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

results Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials were identified. Varenicline increased the likelihood of smoking cessation at both 3 months (risk ratio (RR) 3.56, 95% CI 1.82 to 6.96, p=0.0002) and at 6 months (RR 3.69, 95% CI 1.08 to 12.60, p=0.04). Bupropion was effective at 3 months (RR 3.96, 95% CI 1.86 to 8.40, p=0.0003), especially at a dose of 300 mg/day, but there was no evidence of effect at 6 months (RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.52 to 9.47, p=0.28). In one small study, nicotine therapy proved effective at increasing smoking cessation up to a period of 3 months. Bupropion used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy showed more effect than single use. Behavioural and bespoke interventions showed little overall benefit. Side effects were found to be low. Conclusion The new information of this review was the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation at both 3 and 6 months and the lack of evidence to support the use of both bupropion and nicotine products for sustained abstinence longer than 3 months. Overall, the review found relatively few studies in this population.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation among adults

Systematic review and meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation among adults

The majority of studies reported cessation outcomes at multiple endpoints using multiple metrics (eg, 7-day absti- nence, 30-day abstinence). When the authors specified a primary outcome (eg, used for power analyses), we selected it for analysis; if a primary outcome was not explicitly stated, we included the longest endpoint and most conservative metric of abstinence. We conducted an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, including all participants as randomized in the denominator; individuals lost to follow-up were counted as smokers. Abstinence rates were summarized as risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the ITT principle, which were calculated as: ([number of quitters: intervention arm]/[number randomized: intervention arm])/ ([number of quitters: control arm]/[number randomized: control arm]). We display descriptive data alongside RRs with 95% CIs in forest plots.
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Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: improving self-help smoking cessation interventions

Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: improving self-help smoking cessation interventions

as smoker) (Stets 2000). Identities hold accompanying expectations from both the individual holding that identity and from others and, these in turn guide behavior (Cast, Stets et al. 1999). Further, individuals differ in the extent to which they assimilate a particular identity into their sense of self (Ryan and Deci 2003). Identity salience – the importance of an identity relative to other identities – influences behavior. The higher the salience of an identity, the greater the probability that behavior will be in agreement with the expectations associated with that identity (Stryker and Burke 2000). When an individual is confronted with a situation with undesirable implications to an important part of identity, it is likely to be perceived as a threat to self. Reactions to this threat can take one of two courses. First, the individual will be defensively motivated to deny the threat and the need to modify behavior (Invernizzi, Falomir-Pichastor et al. 2003). Second, the individual will be motivated to modify their behavior to bring about congruency between behavior and identity (Stets 2000; Stryker and Burke 2000). Clearly, the latter is the focus of smoking cessation interventions. For some smokers, the threat of a family member with lung cancer could be the catalyst for the change in the smoker’s self-image.
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Healthcare Providers' Views on Digital Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women

Healthcare Providers' Views on Digital Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women

Participants were recruited from a network of HCPs who provided smoking cessation support for pregnant smokers in England. This network meets 3-4 times a year with organized speakers and workshop activities on topics of interest, and the focus group discussions were arranged for one of these meetings. One focus group was scheduled for the morning session of the meeting and one for the afternoon. The chair of the network sent the initial e-mail invitation to everyone on the network’s mailing list (135 people), inviting them to attend the meeting and the focus groups, and subsequent email reminders were sent prior to the meeting. Of the 20 people who expressed interest in participating, 16 were available at the time the groups were convened (13 and 3 participants, respectively). These 16 individuals comprised HCPs, specialist stop smoking advisers for pregnancy (n=12) and specialist midwives for smoking cessation (n=4), from 11 different NHS Trusts across London and South East England. Table 1 shows the participants’ characteristics.
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Are digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy effective? A systematic review protocol

Are digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy effective? A systematic review protocol

Smoking in pregnancy is associated with a range of ad- verse pregnancy outcomes, including placental compli- cations, spontaneous abortion, foetal growth restriction and low birth weight [1]. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke increases the risks of still-birth [2] and congenital birth defects, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and limb reduction defects [3]. Prenatal smoking also in- creases the risks of childhood respiratory problems, in- cluding recurrent wheeze and asthma [4], and of developing nicotine dependence in adulthood [5]. Des- pite a general reduction in pregnancy smoking rates in high-income countries since the 1980s, this decline is not falling at the same rate across all social groups [6]. Women from socially disadvantaged groups are more likely to experience barriers to stopping smoking in pregnancy, such as perceiving smoking to be the only way of coping with stress and being influenced by their peers [7], and are thus less likely to quit successfully be- fore giving birth [8]. Smoking during pregnancy remains a global health issue with huge variation in prevalence across and within countries. In the USA, the rate of smok- ing during pregnancy ranges across states from 1.8% in California to 27.1% in West Virginia [9]. In England, the rates of smoking at time of delivery also vary from 25.8% in South Tyneside, north-east England, to 1.4% in West London [10]. Across northern Europe, the rates of smok- ing in early pregnancy have been reported to vary from 12.5% in Denmark, 16.5% in Norway, 15% in Finland and 6.9% in Sweden [11].
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A systematic review and narrative summary of family based smoking cessation interventions to help adults quit smoking

A systematic review and narrative summary of family based smoking cessation interventions to help adults quit smoking

For this review we comprehensively searched a number of databases, however, we did not search for non-English publications or unpublished literature. Further, re- searchers do not always distinguish between, or clarify whether it is a family member or friend etc. who pro- vides support, which increases the risk of not identifying some studies eligible for inclusion. It is possible that we missed relevant studies, although we believe that this is unlikely given our systematic search strategy. Only one reviewer screened titles/abstracts and so may have missed some studies. However, the number of retrieved articles is similar to other searches for social support smoking cessations interventions [18], suggesting that the risk of over-looking studies was minimal. Due to study resource constraints additional systematic searches for articles have not been conducted since the original search in 2014. However, PsychInfo, Ovid Embase and Ovid Medline auto-alerts suggest that no additional studies have been published. The search identified a het- erogeneous range of studies (intervention approaches, targets, focus on reduction or cessation, contexts and methodologies), which precluded the ability to see the identified articles as a cohesive group. Further, family members were not treated similarly across studies, with some research positioning relatives as supportive and
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Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients

Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients

in healthy individuals [7, 9]. Moreover, we found that BMI was decreased after smoking cessation in these inpatients, although this finding conflicts with that of a meta-analysis reporting that people experience an in- crease in body weight after smoking cessation because of improved appetite [14]. This discrepancy might be because our subjects were inpatients and received hos- pital meals monitored by a nutritionist every day throughout this study. In smokers with schizophrenia, some antipsychotics cause substantial weight gain and therefore the reduced required dose of antipsychotics that we observed may have resulted in the decreased BMI observed after smoking cessation. Moreover, be- cause patients with schizophrenia usually gain weight after smoking cessation, we educated all subjects to avoid weight gain. Further research is needed to confirm this speculation. Our results showed that both smokers and non-smokers had lower HDL-C and BMI in the long term and this may have been influenced by factors other than smoking cessation.
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A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking reduction or cessation interventions

A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking reduction or cessation interventions

There are many recognised theories that seek to explain health behaviours, such as the Transtheoretical model of behaviour change [9], so it makes sense to utilise such models and theories in evidence syntheses that address questions relating to health behaviour or decision-making [10]. Synthesis methods that adopt this approach include realist and framework synthesis [11-13] and “best fit” framework synthesis [8,14]. The “best-fit” method was chosen as it has been found by the authors to be suitable for questions relating to individuals’ decision-making re- garding health behaviours [8,14]. It explores relevant the- ory within a specific context, and can generate a refined, context-specific, conceptual model that can be used to understand the reported effectiveness or otherwise of in- terventions, as well as being used itself to develop inter- ventions. The method is described in full elsewhere [8,14]. In essence, it involves the identification of relevant theor- ies or conceptual models to create an a priori framework. Data from primary research studies identified for the syn- thesis are coded against this a priori framework; data not captured by this framework are then analysed using sec- ondary thematic analysis to generate new themes. A new framework and conceptual model is thus created using all themes, pre-existing and newly specified, found by re- viewers within the data.
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Community pharmacy delivered interventions for public health priorities : a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation, and weight management, including meta analysis for smoking cessation

Community pharmacy delivered interventions for public health priorities : a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation, and weight management, including meta analysis for smoking cessation

active comparator or a non-active/usual care compara- tor, and also the intervention duration; the unexplained heterogeneity reduced to 27.2% with a non-signi fi cant Q-statistic test (10.99, p <0.2026). In model 4, quality rating was accounted for; quality rating did not appear to contribute much to the model after accounting for intervention duration, and whether a study had an active comparator or a non-active/usual care comparator. Figure 3 shows a meta-analysis of smoking cessation accounting for global quality rating, and shows that most variations between studies are from studies rated as ‘ moderate ’ or ‘ weak ’ quality. A funnel plot demonstrated asymmetry, with larger studies showing effects closer to the null than smaller studies. Such a pattern is compat- ible with publication bias, on the assumption that smaller studies with uninteresting effects are withheld from publication. However, the funnel plot must be interpreted with caution, taking into account that it con- tains only 10 studies, which is the recommended study size threshold for creating such plots. 11
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Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

Three studies reported body mass index (BMI), three studies reported waist circumference (WC) and all fi ve studies reported weight (WT). None of the studies found a signi fi cant difference in favour of a pharmacy-delivered intervention compared with the comparator, for any anthropometric outcome. However, all comparators are ‘ active ’ interventions (smoking cessation studies demon- strated larger effect when compared with non-active con- trols compared to active controls). One UK RCT 43 compared seven groups (Weight Watchers, Slimming World, Rosemary Conley, Size Down an NHS community- based group, GP, Pharmacy, participants ’ own choice to an exercise-only control group). This study compared each intervention group with a control group, and was not designed to directly compare the active interventions which were delivered across different settings. All, except the GP and pharmacy groups, resulted in signi fi cant weight loss at 1 year compared with baseline. Mean weight loss at 1 year, with baseline value used for imput- ation, was 0.8 kg (SD 4.7 kg) for primary care (GP and pharmacy) and 2.5 kg (SD 6.2 kg) for commercial pro- grammes. Only the Weight Watchers group demonstrated signi fi cant weight loss at 1 year compared to control.
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Characterizing clients' verbal statements in behavioural support interventions: The case of smoking cessation

Characterizing clients' verbal statements in behavioural support interventions: The case of smoking cessation

Characterising Client Statements Page 8 client statement category because a corresponding client BCT was deemed not applicable or a different client BCT was deemed more appropriate (see Supplementary File 1). The four function categories from the ‘practitioner’ taxonomy (Michie et al., 2011b) were used to categorise ‘client’ BCTs: 1) specific focus on behaviour addressing motivation (13 BCTs; e.g. ‘recognises importance of abrupt cessation’); 2) specific focus on behaviour maximising self-regulatory capacity or skills (15 BCTs; e.g. ‘changes routine’); 3) adjuvant activities (4 BCTs; e.g. ‘discusses stop smoking medication’); 4) general aspects of the interaction focusing on delivery of the interventions, information gathering or general communication (21 BCTs; e.g. ‘reports level of social support’). The coding framework includes five types of statements that were unrelated to smoking or smoking cessation and did not map onto ‘practitioner’ BCTs (e.g., listening, social smoothers, other; see Supplementary File 1).
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Smoking cessation and COPD

Smoking cessation and COPD

T his review is based on a presentation from the Clinical Year in Review session which was held during the 2012 European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. The aims of this review are to: 1) summarise smoking cessation studies with particular focus on COPD and treat- ment with first-line drugs, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline, bupropion SR, and counselling; 2) present a model study about smok- ing cessation and COPD, i.e. the Lung Health Study; 3) review three smoking cessation studies in COPD which tested each of the three first-line drugs; 4) discuss the possible severe adverse effects of varenicline; 5) present data on a new formulation of NRT, a mouth spray; and 6) discuss the effect of varenicline in long-term NRT users. This review will be more clinically oriented and thus more subjective; therefore, not all the literature in this field has been reviewed but the most important references have been selected. After reading this review the clinician should have the necessary background information to be able to treat COPD patients who smoke, in a proper evidence-based manner.
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Smoking cessation and the reduction of disability progression in Multiple Sclerosis: a cohort study

Smoking cessation and the reduction of disability progression in Multiple Sclerosis: a cohort study

To test the differences in median MSIS-29 and PDDS scores between smoking groups, we used two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and for testing the difference in proportions of males and females in different smoking categories Chi square test was used. Median regression models were used to compare MSIS-29 and PDDS between current, ex- and never-smokers while adjusting for disease duration, age at onset, sex, initial course (relapse-onset vs. PPMS) and DMTs for ≥1 year. Median regression coefficients are interpreted like ordinary regression coefficients. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the risk of reaching EDSS 4.0 and 6.0. To investigate effects of smoking cessation we fit a model with smoke-free years. Final models were adjusted for potential confounders including initial course, DMT for ≥1 year, and sex. The time axis for the regression was age, with entry from date of MS onset. This ensured hazard ratios for all risk factors were adjusted for chronological age. Patients were followed to the first sustained EDSS score 4.0 or 6.0 or censored if they had not experienced the outcome by the time of last clinic visit, independent of the study end time. We did not correct for multiple
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Smoking Cessation Guide

Smoking Cessation Guide

However, if you like to snack, learn to “snack smart.” Limit your snacking by eating good regular meals. Learn new ways to cope with snacking triggers such as anxiety and boredom: try deep breathing and other relaxation exercises. Keep safe and nutritious snacks nearby: raw vegetables, unbuttered popcorn and fruit. Drink plenty of water and low-calorie beverages without caffeine. (Caffeine is a stimulant and may make you feel edgy or nervous while going through withdrawal. There is also a very strong psychological association between smoking and drinking alcohol or caffeinated beverages.)
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