Both the approaches to English collocation outlined above rely on the native speaker as a data source: intuitive descriptions of collocational relations rely on a native speaker’s judgement, while most corpora traditionally contain texts and spoken data produced by native speakers, and so the collocational tendencies identified normally reflect native speaker usage. These approaches to collocation need to be re-assessed in the light of the unique status of English both as a language with different standard versions around the world (Kachru 1985) and as a lingua franca in which most com- munication worldwide now involves one or more non-native speakers (Crystal 2003). The main area of uncertainty for applied linguists is the place of native speaker varieties of English in English language teaching and learning. If a minority of the users of a language speak it as a mother tongue, then it is not clear which variety of the language should continue to be taught to its learners. The variety of English chosen as the model for learning will ultimately depend on the communicative situations in which learners intend, or will be obliged, to use it. Some learners will prefer to learn English the way native speakers use it (Timmis 2002) since ‘being perceived as a member of a certain linguistic group that speaks the L2 natively . . . is also important to certain learners of a language’ (Nesselhauf 2005: 2). On the other hand, some learners might be suspicious of the ideological assumptions behind a native speaker model. Several writers (Phillipson 1988; Pennycook 1994; Canagarajah 1999) have warned that politically and economically powerful native English-speaking countries seek to per- petuate and extend their dominance by disseminating, through the ‘imperial troopers’ (Edge 2003: 10) of the global English language teaching industry, a native English- speaking view of the world.
s sets out a sample HSC Aural Skills examination, using listening excerpts provided on the Musical Concepts CD.
s are listed by chapter at the end of the book for quick reference. These audio examples, accessed via the eBookPLUS, demonstrate to students key features and techniques they might recognise in musical excerpts.
From the linguistic standpoint, HLSs do not generally have access to formal grammatical terminology or metalinguistic distinctions since they are rarely schooled in their heritage language, as F/SLLs would be in their respective second language. HLSs speak a language variety that is not necessarily a prestigious variety of the heritage language. For example, a heritage Spanish speaker would most likely say aplicar para (un puesto) rather than the normative, solicitar (un puesto). As HLSs are not typically exposed to the skills of reading and writing during their formal education, they tend to write their heritage language phonetically. However, they are usually fluent in interacting and oral comprehension, quite the opposite of F/SLLs. HLSs are also aware of the sociolinguistic norms in their respective heritage language, and know how to use speech appropriately. Regarding terms of address, for instance, HSSs would use second-person pronouns (i.e., the formal usted as opposed to the informal tú) appropriately. The pronunciation of HLSs is native or native-like, and their productive lexical knowledge is considerably more extensive in areas such as daily activities, household objects, and culturally relevant events (e.g., weddings, birthday celebrations, funerals, etc.) rather than in academic matters.
Lauren has recently been hired as the computer manager for SinkRSwim Pools. Lauren is a certified networking administrator, but her new company unfortunately has only outdated computers. The owner recognized that the company’s lack of growth was directly tied to the employees’ lack of com- puter skills, so in her first meeting after being hired, Lauren was given the authority to purchase the additional computers and create the network she had proposed to the owner in her initial job interview. The owner gave her a six-month timeline in which to implement networking at SinkRSwim Pools in such a way that the workers will understand its use and welcome the new knowledge it requires. She was also informed that the thought of learning new computer skills frightened some long-term SinkRSwim Pools em- ployees. The owner expects Lauren to help them become more at ease with the computers so they will be more likely to learn the necessary skills.
opportunities and challenges. They offer diversity practices that might be undertaken to respond to the challenges and amplify the opportunities for this group of workers. Price and Grant-Smith (Chapter 5) look at the difficulties that young workers face when they are framed as “deficient” in terms of their skills profile, work ethic and personal attributes.
Concepts of informatics play a central role in all curricula and standards for informatics education at secondary schools. In practice at schools however very often the training of skills in application software is given much more room than the understanding of fundamental concepts of informatics. The reasons for that may be manifold: lack of time, missing teacher education, missing materials, pressure from industry, etc. In this paper, we are going to show how informatics concepts may be introduced to schools in a student-motivated and playful way. By the example of an international informatics contest we present how a contest may introduce a variety of even advanced concepts in a very short time. And about that the students need no specific pre-knowledge and learn in an explorative way to solve the given contest problems. A main focus while preparing a contest should be given to the development of good tasks that also can be used by the students and teachers in their further learning and teaching activities.
Radford and Holdstock (1995) investigated differences between reasons why students chose Computing and Psychology degrees. Students were given a list of 60 items on the ‘outcomes or benefits of Higher Education’ to rank. These ranged from passing exams, learning to work with others, development as a person, develop problem solving skills etc. The results showed that the most important items differen- tiating the two fields were that computing students chose the development of problem-solving skills, logical thinking and increasing future earning power. While for psychology students, development as a person was important as was understanding other people, oneself and greater personal independence. They identified two key factors related to a student’s choice of discipline: (i) personal development versus social relationships and (ii) thinking about and directly dealing with people versus things. The implica- tions of this for teaching psychology to cyber students are twofold: (i) that cybersecurity students may be less open to thinking about people problems when considering online threats and security, and (ii) that it is important that students are aware of the way people use technology and their interactions with others can be as important as functionality.
1. I NTRODUCTION
A few years ago, the first author of this article had a revelation, while teaching Phonology I for the first time. She was compiling a review handout for the final exam, and made a list of the fifty-odd skills students should prepare to be tested on. She immediately regretted not having drawn up the list for the students at the beginning of the term—that would be easy to fix next time. But then came a more difficult regret: if the final exam was testing this set of skills, shouldn’t students’ grades in the course directly reflect whether they had mastered them? This article lays out the system we developed for two linguistics courses in our attempt to achieve this, based on concepts from standards-based grading studies that we’ll review in the next section.
This volume is intended for use as a classroom text. This book focuses on the traditional values that have attracted people to the United States for over 200 years and traces the effects of these values on American life. Chapter themes include diversity, the family, education, government and politics, religion, business, and recreation. An interesting feature is the inclusion of cross- cultural activities that range from discussion topics to writing projects that encourage high- intermediate to advanced students to compare their own values with those discussed in the readings. This edition includes expanded pre-reading exercises that preview the chapter content and academic word list vocabulary, sections on improving reading skills to help students become independent readers, a section on building vocabulary that features collocations and exercises which expand on the academic word list, and new Internet activities that offer opportunities for further research and study. It is an interesting and easy to use textbook.
This study examined disciplinary rhetoric in research articles, focusing on different traditions in structuring text discourses from a metadiscourse-move analytic approach. The corpus consisted of 72 research article Introductions (RAIs): 36 in appliedlinguistics and 36 in chemistry. Swales’ CARS model (1990, 2004) and Hyland’s interpersonal model of metadiscourse (2005) were used as analytical frameworks for move and metadiscourse analyses, respectively. Both frequency and functional analyses showed that there were considerable differences between the 2 disciplines in terms of how the writers used metadiscourse in the RAIs and how the metadiscourse markers were mapped to fulfill the rhetorical purposes of Introduction moves. Such discrepancies reflect the susceptibility of metadiscursive features to the sociorhetorical cultures conditioned by the discipline to which the writers belong. Findings have implications for teaching novices, especially nonnative speakers of English, to write research articles and help them create a convincing research space and make appropriate use of metadiscourse.
The aim of this course is to examine (among other but less directly relevant issues) problems surrounding language teaching and learning. We shall consider why people learn languages, what they need to know in order to communicate effectively; and how they should be taught. In doing so, we shall relate our discussion to the rapidly changing position of English in the contemporary world, and to changes in global communication in general. In particular, we shall examine the ongoing debate between traditional views of language learning and more recent `communicative', `natural' and `task-based' approaches. We shall consider the rival claims for attention to fluency or accuracy, form and meaning, linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge. We shall also consider the changing roles of teachers and learners, and the intellectual and ideological currents which shape changes in the educational curriculum. In addressing the problems of teaching and learning, we shall consider which models of language and communication are best suited to developing our understanding of language and communication in use. We shall see how ideas from linguistics interact with insights from other disciplines to produce a rich and complex model of the knowledge and abilities needed for successful language teaching and learning.
This study explored nominalized expression types in an appliedlinguistics book and a biology book as 2 distinct disciplines. The books were carefully read, the nominalized expression types were identified, the frequencies of the nominalization types were counted, and eventually chi-square was administered. Results revealed no significant difference in using nominalization. Furthermore, the density of nominalization was calculated by dividing their frequency by the total number of words. Results acknowledged the greater concentration of nominalization in the appliedlinguistics book. Furthermore, the proportion of nominalization to grammatical metaphor was calculated. Results demonstrated the greater tendency towards nominalizing scientific information in the appliedlinguistics book. This research can contribute to a better understanding of nominalization in academic textbooks and, thus, improve English for Specific Purposes learners’ use of nominalization in their writing. However, further research is needed to see how nominalization is exploited in other genres and other disciplines.
line has concerned itself with such micro-linguistic features of particular genres and text types as hedging (e.g., Malaskova, 2012), voice (e.g., Hinkel, 2004), tense (Hawes & Thomas, 1997), and reporting verbs (Bloch, 2010). As a major section in research articles, abstracts have received much attention both for their micwro- and macro structures. They deserve attention because they attempt to capture the essence of the whole article and are usually the first section in articles readers read (Hartley, 2003). However, one aspect of abstracts which seems to deserve special attention, but has been neglected to some extent, is chunks and collocations. The concern of this study is to add to the emerging body of facts and information about lexical chunks and collocative items which frequently recur in the abstracts of appliedlinguistics research articles. Such an attempt at identifying frequently occurring chunks can be of practical and functional significance, a point supported by Nation (2001), who maintains that frequent items usually have more utility and deserve more attention, particularly in educational domains.
Appliedlinguistics has two definitions: narrow sense and broad sense. In narrow sense, this discipline mainly studies intercultural communication terms and language teaching, mainly focusing on the internal research of linguistics. In broad sense, appliedlinguistics has been fully utilized in sociology, psychology, philosophy and logic, and has a certain guidance significance to the design of professional terms in various disciplines . Therefore, whether it is a narrow paradigm to understand appliedlinguistics or a broad view of appliedlinguistics, scholars generally agrees that appliedlinguistics is a discipline to solve linguistic problems. Appliedlinguistics holds that people should reconstruct the language teaching system so as to link language with context and social practice . In How to cite this paper: Xing, H.H. (2018)
Today, the gap between the sensors and actuators in the Internet of Things and the business systems at the higher layers of the enterprise world is still a reality. A unified reference architecture is therefore a key prerequisite for realizing interoperability within the IoT world and especially for integration with business processes, so that applications can be realized that are both IoT-aware and meet the requirements of enterprise systems. Currently, the IoT domain is being standardized based on a unified IoT domain model  that is discussed in the next section. We apply core concepts from the IoT domain model to the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) 2.0 . As BPMN focuses on activities and the implicated flow of process steps while the IoT domain model stresses the relationship between entities and other constructs for which well defined processes might or might not exist, a mapping and integration problem between both domains becomes apparent.
In addition, the second kind of action, that is, the redefinition and modifications of methods that were previously applied in other social scientific fields and their adjustment to the purposes of the actual linguistic field where attitudes are measured occurs more frequently. For example, very shortly after the emergence of the matched-guise technique within the framework of social psychological research in the 1960s, the method was modified by linguists and became the most seminal standard method used to measure attitudes in sociolinguistics (Jenkins 2007:66). A more recent example is provided by Speelman and his colleagues (Speelman et al. 2013), where the researchers attempt to apply a method called affective priming within the framework of cognitive sociolinguistics, which method was originally developed in experimental social psychology. Moreover, in the third respect, researchers might aim to integrate several different techniques into their research simultaneously, for example, Hiraga (2005) investigated respondents' language attitudes utilizing three different ways of data collection techniques: first, respondents were required to rate speech samples as usual in matched-guise experiments; second, respondents were asked to respond to open and closed questions; and, third, the subjects were asked to reason for their answers in the questionnaire within the framework of some interviews (Hiraga 2005:295–302). In another instance, in the case of Garrett's study (2010), Welsh respondents' attitudes towards Welsh dialect varieties were investigated first with the help of perceptual dialectological methods, i.e. rating various dialects, labeling and commenting on them, and finally, a verbal-guise study was conducted (Garrett 2010:201–223).