Recall previously that we defined density as the number of individuals per unit area. In nature, a population that is introduced to a new environment or is rebounding from a catastrophic decline in numbers may grow exponentially for a while because density is low and resources are not limiting. Eventually, one or more environmental factors will limit its population growth rate as the population size approaches the carrying capacity and density increases. Example: imagine that in an effort to preserve elk, a population of 20 individuals is introduced to a previously unoccupied island that’s 200 km 2 in size. The population density of elk on this island is 0.1 elk/km 2 (or 10 km 2 for each individual elk). As this population grows (depending on its per capita rate of increase), the number of individuals increases but the amount of space does not so density increases. Suppose that 10 years later, the elk population has grown to 800 individuals, density = 4 elk/ km 2 (or 0.25 km 2 for each individual). The population growth rate will be limited by various factors in the environment. For example, birth rates may decrease due to limited food or death rate increase due to rapid spread of disease as individuals encounter one another more often. This impact on birth and death rate in turn influences the per capita rate of increase and how the population size changes with changes in the environment. When birth and death rates of a population change as the density of the population changes, the rates are said to be density-dependent and the environmental factors that affect birth and death rates are known as
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Experts in the field of scientific evidence often did not make the observa- tions which are required to arrive at opinions concerning matters which are relevant and material to the trier of fact. Let us return to the motor vehicle collision again. One of the parties has called an expert in accident reconstruction who, if allowed, will testify that the speed of the automobile involved was 80 miles per hour based upon the skid mark length and an examination of photographs taken of the vehicle following the crash. The expert did not measure the skid marks nor make the photographs. The predicate questions here will concern the reliability of the science of kinetics and an explanation that if one knows the mass of a vehicle, the coefficient of friction which is created at the time of locking up the vehicles tires on the type of roadway involved, and the collision velocity at the time of contact which can be estimated from the static deformation of the vehicle, then the speed at the moment the brakes were applied may be estimated. All of the above being established, the witness would also be asked if the amount of crush damage may be ascertained from examination of photo- graphs and if this is routinely done by experts in the field. Assuming the photographs have been properly introduced by another witness, then the expert may be properly asked a hypothetical question. The hypothetical question should track the evidence which has been or will be presented at trial by the fact witnesses concerning the road conditions, the road surface condition, the deviation from horizontal of the road, the temperature of the air, the tire treads, the brake examination, the length of the skid marks, the weight of the vehicle at the time of the accident, and any other matters which the expert feels relevant to his or her analysis. These facts used in the hypothetical must have been proved or will have to be proved prior to the conclusion of the attorney’s part of the trial. If they are not, then the opinion testimony of the expert is subject to be stricken and the jury instructed to disregard it.
Description: company websiteFinancial Accounting provides a very accessible and easy-to-follow introduction to the subject. It is intended as a core textbook for students studying financial accounting for the first time: either those following an undergraduate degree in a business school, or non-business studies students studying a financial accounting course. This includes students on both accounting and non-accounting degrees and also MBA students. It provides a self-contained, introductory, one semester course covering the major aspects of financial accounting. The book is also designed so that students can progress to more advanced follow-up courses so is well suited as an introduction for mainstream accounting graduates or MBA students as a basic text. It should be particularly useful in reinforcing the fundamental theory and practice of
There are some interesting features on this page. At the top right of the page is the text “This forum allows everyone to choose whether to subscribe or not” or “This forum forces everyone to be subscribed,” depending on whether you are forcing everyone to subscribe or not. Subscribing to a forum will send the user an email when there are new postings in the forum. The users can choose how they receive their emails in their profile. An alternative way of receiving forum posts is via an RSS feed. RSS feeds need to be enabled across the site and for the forum module by a system administrator. If you click on the “Force everyone to be subscribed” link, you can flip back and forth between forcing subscription or not. If you aren’t forcing users to subscribe, the next link will read “Show/edit current subscribers,” which will give you an interface for seeing who’s subscribed and changing who is and isn’t receiving email. The last link will read “Subscribe to this forum,” which will subscribe you when you click it. Below the subscription links, you’ll find the forum introduction you wrote when you created the forum. Below the introduction, you’ll see a button labeled “Add a new discussion topic.” You can use this to create the first discussion in the forum. If you’ve prohibited students from creating discussions, you’ll need to create one to allow anyone to use the forum.
We provide management system solutions for large asset-intensive industries including power generation, petrochemical, metallurgy, coal and large scale agriculture. MOONS’ management systems improve equipment asset efficiency, reduce inventory cost and prolong equipment life through effective combination of scientific management techniques with consulting services. MOONS’ is a major provider of “turn-key” solutions with equipment management experience including the introduction of improved equipment control, troubleshooting hardware and software products which reflect industry characteristics.
Moving next from English to Cultural Studies, Moran plots the rise of the 1960's campus universities (Sussex and East Anglia) alongside the work of the Birmingham CCCS through the figures of Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Michel de Certau, Pierre Bourdieu and John Frow. Beginning as a corrective to English's lack of specificity, Moran sees, through Bourdieu and Frow, the movement towards a sociological model as one caught in a vicious feedback cycle of class privilege and cultural value. This shift of focus allows Moran to move seamlessly into a discussion of “Theory” centered around Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, Julia Kristeva, Judith Butler and Michel Foucault. Arguing that the categories of linguistics, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, feminism and queer theory transcend traditional boundaries, Moran rightly points to these thinkers as reflexively critical challengers. Yet, at times this section reads more as a reductive “introduction to Theory” and, in its quest to do too much, treads a fine line between focus on the topic of interdisciplinarity and attempting to do justice to the vast subject matter over which it glosses. While this is often a tricky feat to pull off, by subsuming Foucault under the insufficient heading of queer theory, Moran gains a concrete example of trans-disciplinary scholarship, but simultaneously subverts his own organizational structure, for Foucault was (as always) so much more.
Many effective data mining methods have been developed by statisticians and pattern recognition researchers, and introduced in a rich set of textbooks. An overview of classification from a statistical pattern recognition perspective can be found in in Pattern Classification by Duda, Hart, and Stork [DHS01]. There are also many textbooks covering different topics in statistical analysis, such as Mathematical Statistics: Basic Ideas and Selected Topics by Bickel and Doksum [BD01], The Statistical Sleuth: A Course in Methods of Data Analysis by Ramsey and Schafer [RS01], Applied Linear Statistical Models by Neter, Kutner, Nachtsheim, and Wasserman [NKNW96], An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models by Dobson [Dob01], Applied Statistical Time Series Analysis by Shumway [Shu88], and Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis by Johnson and Wichern [JW02].
We expect that you know at least some Python. This book does not attempt to teach Python as a whole; rather, it presents some specific techniques and concepts (and occasionally tricks) for dealing with particular tasks. If you are looking for an introduction to Python, consider some of the books described in the Further Reading section of this Preface. However, you don't need to know a lot of Python to find this book helpful. Chapters include recipes demonstrating the best techniques for accomplishing some elementary and general tasks, as well as more complex or specialized ones. We have also added sidebars, here and there, to clarify certain concepts which are used in the book and which you may have heard of, but which might still be unclear to you. However, this is definitely not a book just for beginners. The main target audience is the whole Python community, mostly made up of pretty good programmers, neither newbies nor wizards. And if you do already know a lot about Python, you may be in for a pleasant surprise! We've included recipes that explore some the newest and least well-known areas of Python. You might very well learn a few thingswe did! Regardless of where you fall along the spectrum of Python expertise, and more generally of programming skill, we believe you will get something valuable from this book.
using an arbitrator, mediator or ombudsman, can help in reaching agree- ments between consumers and retailers. Collective redress can also be a means of addressing problems when consumers find it difficult to deal with problems individually or when cost outweighs benefit. Only four out of 10 respondents to the 2008 survey find it easy to resolve disputes with sellers/providers through alternative dispute resolution AdR mechanisms and only three out of 10 find it easy to resolve disputes through courts. despite significant differences between countries, there are only four countries (Belgium, Cyprus, the Netherlands and Uk) where half or more of the respond- ents find it easy to resolve disputes through AdR and in all these countries figures are lower than in 2006. On the other hand, two out of three retailers know of AdR mechanisms though fewer than one in five use them. Maltese (32%) and Italian (27%) retailers are most likely to have used AdR mechanisms and are also most aware of their existence (89% and 91% respectively). Fewer than half of the Member States offer collective redress mechanisms to consumers, despite the fact that demand seems high in most countries: overall 76% of consumers state that they would be more willing to defend their rights in court if they could join a collective action. The total number of collective redress cases filed, since the introduction of the mechanism in the 12 Member States that have systems in place, ranges from zero to 201: France, which was the first country to have a collective redress system in place, is also the country with the highest average number of actions filed per year (about 20) over the last decade. The average number of litigants involved per million inhabitants ranges from 0.37 litigants in Germany to 22 472 in Portugal, where a major telecommunications case took place.
Description: Cutting-edge content and guidance from a data warehousing expert—now expanded to reflect field trends Data warehousing has revolutionized the way businesses in a wide variety of industries perform analysis and make strategic decisions. Since the first edition of Data Warehousing Fundamentals, numerous enterprises have implemented data warehouse systems and reaped enormous benefits. Many more are in the process of doing so. Now, this new, revised edition covers the essential fundamentals of data
Doug Cutting, the creator of Hadoop, likes to call Hadoop the kernel for big data, and I would tend to agree. With its distributed storage and compute capabilities, Hadoop is fundamentally an enabling technology for working with huge datasets. Hadoop provides a bridge between structured ( RDBMS ) and unstructured (log files, XML , text) data and allows these datasets to be easily joined together. This has evolved from traditional use cases, such as combining OLTP and log files, to more sophisti- cated uses, such as using Hadoop for data warehousing (exemplified by Facebook) and the field of data science, which studies and makes new discoveries about data.
Advanced calculus is not a single theory. However, the various sub-theories, including vector analysis, inﬁnite series, and special functions, have in common a dependency on the fundamental notions of the calculus. An important objective of this second edition has been to modernize terminology and concepts, so that the interrelationships become clearer. For exam- ple, in keeping with present usage fuctions of a real variable are automatically single valued; diﬀerentials are deﬁned as linear functions, and the universal character of vector notation and theory are given greater emphasis. Further explanations have been included and, on occasion, the appropriate terminology to support them.