behavior within the classroom. For example, if students begin to internalize their below- or on-level course placement, then they may start to feel discouraged about their ability to succeed in mathematics. In other words, students may feel as if their placement defines them; which limits their potential and future aspirations. Consequently, this could lead to a decline in the number of students who might enroll in higher-level mathematics courses in the future. A student who is accustomed to receiving all A’s on his report card and is always in the “top-group” and is placed into an on-level course (environment), may express a defeatist attitude (a personal factor) about his capabilities in mathematics, feeling as if he is not as good at mathematics as he initially thought. As a result, this student could put forth less effort, disengage when confronted with a problem, participate less in class, and/or refrain from enrolling in future mathematics courses. However, other students may respond differently to course placement. Each student’s interpretation of his successes and failures in the classroom is unique.
furthers the disparity between students of varying socioeconomic classes and creates low expectations for students in lower tracks. Oakes (1985) focused on the tracking form of abilitygrouping and found little academic achievement growth for students, especially those in lower tracks, and placement in lower tracks was predominately students with behavioral difficulties. Many forms of abilitygrouping exist, but tracking is the most rigid and structured of the forms. In some schools, students are placed in a track in kindergarten and remain with the same cohort of students until middle school or high school. Tracking does not make accommodations for specific academic needs such as low academic performance in mathematics with high academic performance in reading. A student is placed in a specific track with disregard to their abilities in different academic subject areas. This is compounded by the problem of students in different tracks not receiving differentiated curriculum, varying expectations, and teaching quality among the various tracks (Brunello & Checchi, 2007; Kelly, 2004; Oakes, 1985, 1990). Research has explored tracking as an overall type of abilitygrouping, although three different types of tracking exist. Tracking’s three forms are between-school streaming, within-school streaming, and
performance in math (Pajares, 1996; Seegers & Boekaerets, 1996; William, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez Pons, 1990). Seegers and Boekaerets (1996) reported that even after controlling for achievement in mathematics, eighth-grade boys express stronger judgments of their mathematics capability than do eighth-grade girls. In addition, female students have lower self-efficacy than do male students about their prospects to succeed in mathematics-related careers (Hackett, 1985; Hackett & Betz, 1989). Research in self- efficacy beliefs suggests that gender differences emerge in the middle school years (Wigfield & Eccles, 1995). These age-related gender differences in self-efficacy beliefs have been attributed to increased concerns about conforming to gender-role stereotypes, which typically coincide with the entry into adolescence (Wigfield et al., 1996).
BCAG is practiced based on the assumption that individuals have a certain level of general intelligence that might predict their performance across all subjects, and can be measured by objective tests (Hallam, Ireson, & Davies, 2002). According to Kulik (2004), typical students in a non-grouped class might gain one year on a grade-equivalent scale in a calendar year, whereas the typical students in BCAG would gain 1.3 years; and the effects were positive for high, middle, and low groups in cross grade program.
The population of the study consisted of 112 students on the level of eighth grade at a middle school in Siirt, Turkey in the academic year of 2016-2017. After having meetings with the school administration and teachers and receiving the required permissions, a total of 74 students including 39 male students and 35 female students, in three different classrooms (8A, 8B and 8C) were included in the sample, and their ages differed in the range of 14-16. The same sampling method was used in the quantitative and qualitative dimension of the study. The sample in the study was selected by convenience sampling method including sample selection from easily accessible and treatable units due to time, money or labor constraints (Buyukozturk, Kilic-Cakmak, Akgun, Karadeniz & Demirel, 2016). Since convenience sampling method was used, results are not generalized beyond the sample. However, in the sample of the qualitative data of the study, 58 students took part in the semi-structured interview form which was applied to the students because 16 of them are incomplete and inaccurate. The reason for choosing 8th-graders in this study was that the second researcher carried out mathematics courses on this level and students on this level have seen all subjects of the learning area of mathematics in the middle school curriculum. Additionally, it was also effective in choosing this level that these students started to transition from the step of tangible thinking into their period of abstract thinking (Chaput, 2001).
Tracking was described as a permanent approach in which teachers assessed students based on prior achievement and the students were placed into groups that they could not escape from (Tieso, 2003). Tracking required schools to look at achievement and IQ test scores and then students were placed into certain tracks that best meet their needs (Loveless, 1998). Abilitygrouping is frequently implemented in lower elementary grade levels (Kulik, 1992). Some researchers say that once a teacher places a student in a group, the teacher will continue to have lower expectations for those children and this will inadvertently affect achievement (Robinson, 2008). Abilitygrouping came off as a more fitting way of teaching because teachers would aim their lessons towards the middle level of students and not really worry about the low group or pushing the high group (Scholz, 2004). There were also issues in how often students were moved around. In a study conducted by Chorzempa and Graham (2006), teachers would change their groups but mostly for the lower achieving and on grade level students. For the higher achieving students, they would remain more stagnant (Chorzempa & Graham, 2006).
Rakoczy et al. (2008) found that informational feedback, which provides students with information on how to improve, leads to increased intrinsic motivation among secondary school mathematics students. Similarly, in a study of two Grade 6 literacy teachers and their students, Murtagh (2014) found that students perceive descriptive feedback to be the most beneficial for their motivation, as opposed to evaluative or phatic feedback. Phatic feedback affirms the exchange of information such as a nod or check mark on student work. However, Murtagh also suggests that if teachers mark every piece of student work, this can lead to an over-dependence on teacher feedback and negatively impact students’ intrinsic motivation. McMillan et al. (2010) presented results from a study of 161 secondary teachers and 3,242 of their students from Grades 6 to 12. Results indicate that students perceived that teacher practices such as making written comments, stressing the importance of learning, and praising hard work when wrong were positively correlated to student motivation. Similarly, in a recent study of 64 elementary and middle school students’ perceptions of assessment, McMillan and Turner (2014) found that students value feedback and that motivation can be improved through assessments that indicate areas that need improvement. In this study of 240 students, results indicate that informational feedback “that gives students cues on how to proceed leads them to feel excited, stimulated, and interested in the material and to report elaborating the material in more depth, which in turn leads to higher motivation in these lessons” (p. 121).
for at least one subject in some year groups, while over one third of infant schools and about one half of combined infant and junior schools did the same. The higher the number on roll, the more likely the school was to use setting in one or more year groups. It was unusual to find a school of one-form entry or below using setting. Most schools used setting in Years 5 and 6 only, with the proportion of pupils setted for at least one subject falling steadily the younger the pupils were. Of those schools that adopted setting procedures, the proportions that set for particular subjects were: maths, 96%; English, 69%; Science, 9%. Very few schools set for other subjects. The inspection evidence confirmed the above pattern and showed the use of setting to have increased compared with previous years with a move away from within class ability groups in mixed ability classes which had previously been the dominant form of grouping (Bealing, 1972).
The literature attests that several studies have been conducted on self-efficacy and academic performances (GPA grade) in Malaysia and elsewhere. In one recent study, Mazlan and Hajar (2016) investigated a group of students’ predicted grade point scores of a specific subject before sitting for final exams using data collected from a sports counseling course taken by the students of Universiti Teknologi Mara in Seremban, Malaysia. The results showed no significant difference between the male and female students in self-efficacy scores. However, a positive relationship was noted between the passing scores and the failing scores among the students; the passing scores were higher than the failing scores. In the study, Mazlan and Hajar (2016) also developed a self-efficacy scale following the lack of a scale that focuses on grade point scores. Using a hierarchical design scale recommended by Bandura (2006) and Feltz et al. (2008) Mazlan and Hajar then recorded a Cronbach’s alpha value of .73, a score considered acceptable (Pallant, 2013). However, no study has focused on the relationship between the self-efficacy of a specific subject and a grade point score.
teaching. Participants in this study (N = 35) consisted of female (78%) and male preservice teachers. We collected demographic data to provide a context for the examination of CRTSE concerning pre-service teachers cultural and instructional background. Twenty-seven of the pre-service teachers indicated that they were White and eight did not (e.g., Latino, Asian, Black). Given the small number of non-White students in the current sample, explicit numerical representations of the remaining students were avoided to maintain anonymity. When queried about their practicum experiences, 31 (90%) of the participants indicated that they interacted with Latinx/Hispanic students primarily. All of the participants were in a middle school mathematics degree program and within one semester of student teaching. The data in the study were collected before any mathematics instruction was received and represent a baseline for the preservice teachers in this study.
high levels of responsiveness and control. These parents considered their children as competent and successful individuals and accommodated their expectations with their abilities. Moreover, these parents respected their kids and such children were more independent, warm, intimate, and with morale. Such children had also more abilities to express their existence and motivation which could lead to higher level of mental health. These characteristics were issues that could not be found in the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and that might be the reason for the low levels of mental health in children living in these families. Furthermore; considering the results of the present study, a significant relationship was found between parenting styles and self-efficacy. In this case, the authoritative parenting style led to an upsurge in self-efficacy in students and the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles lead to a decline in their self-efficacy. The given results were in line with the findings of studies by Hosseini Dolat Abadi and Ghasemi (2013); Xia and Qian ( 2001); Rezakhani and others (2012); Toozandehjani (2011); Hosseini Nasab and others (2008); Keyes and others (2014); and Hewitt and others (2002). In explaining these results and considering the priority of the authoritative parenting style compared to those of the authoritarian and permissive styles, it was argued that such parents were endowed with high levels of responsiveness and control. These parents considered their kids as competent and successful individuals and matched their expectations with their abilities. Moreover, these parents paid respect to their children and such children were more autonomous, warm, friendly, and with spirit de corps. Such children had also greater abilities in terms of expressing their existence and motivation which could lead to higher levels of self-efficacy.
This research aims directly at students’ self-concepts regarding mathematics, which is the aca- demic subject students spent the most time studying [ 22 ]. Research by Pajares and Miller (1994) [ 23 ] and Pietsch, Walker, and Chapman (2003) [ 24 ] documented the high correlation between students’ mathematicsself-concepts and their mathematics academic achievement from primary education to college. Sax (1994) [ 25 ] stated that the direct relationship of this psychological variable with students’ academic performance increases as they get older. In this sense, according to Marsh and O’Neill (1984) [ 26 ], the structure of the mathematicsself-con- cept is multifaceted and hierarchical with facets becoming more distinct with age. Marsh and Shavelson (1985) [ 27 ] and Lee (2009) [ 28 ] concluded that mathematics was the subject in which students’ academic performance was influenced most by their subject-related self-con- cept. According to these authors a positive self-concept may help with mathematics perfor- mance given the effects that produces in variables such as motivation or on task behavior. If a student truly beliefs he/she can solve a mathematics problem, he/she will have the necessary resilience to persist until he/she can solve it. Students with a high self-concept may see failed attempts as exciting challenges and new opportunities, while students with low self-concept will doubt their own abilities and give up early after few attempts [ 29 , 30 ]. Besides, authors such as Sticca, Goetz, Bieg, Hall, Eberle, and Haag (2017) [ 31 ] or Onetti, Ferna´ndez-Garcı´a, and Castillo-Rodrı´guez (2019) [ 32 ] state that the transition from primary school to middle school usually results in a decrease in students’ mathematicsself-concept during the first year, that is, 7 th grade. Factors such as a higher difficulty in the mathematics contents, substantially more difficult exams, the change of learning environments and methodologies are associated
levels. First, the student must be able to grasp a proportional relationship, which means he or she must understand what a ratio represents, how the numerator and denominator are related, and how this can be applied to not just gas mileage, but recipe calculations or discounts at a retail sale. Going deeper, the student must understand how to multiply and divide and how to apply such operations when working with proportions. If a student is not comfortable with any of these basic prerequisites, all components of number sense, they may not only be unable to construct and apply the proportion based on mileage read and gasoline dispensed, but also be intimidated by the more complex operations that correspond to this practical life application. In this sense, their lack of mathematical foundational skills may be even further hindered by their insecurity surrounding the larger problem at hand. So, even if they were capable of learning how to calculate proportions and subsequently attending to the graphing aspect of the problem, they might be less inclined to engage in this process due to their belief that they are not good at mathematics because they are not good at multiplication and division.
Fewer than 10 percent of Black or Hispanic students participate in rigorous courses (Vanneman, Hamilton, Baldwin, Anderson & Rahman, 2009). Even in a heterogeneous class where the instruction is differentiated and the curriculum rigorous and culturally relevant, the graduating high school minority student must face a harsh reality: jobs are scarcer. Fortunately, the areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) require 1 million new workers in the US (Porter, 2012). It is necessary that high school courses of science link with the everyday experiences of urban youth so as to ensure students are engaged and willing to further pursue their interests to the benefit of themselves and society as a whole (Proweller & Mitchener, 2004). Such rigorous classes, in addition to vocational training, better prepare the Black student for a career and/or continued education. However, it must be remembered that simply imposing a heterogeneous format without other changes is ineffectual: “Most successful instances of detracking combine deep structural reform with thoughtful pedagogical change, and are undergirded by an engagement with students’ and teachers’ beliefs around notions of ability and achievement. When these facets converge, the positive results for students are startling” (Rubin, 2006, p. 7).
that most learners are required to do set task at home after school, this is a rare opportunity for many learners. This also allows learners to learn from each other, thereby making learning mathematics easier. Therefore, alternative tutorial interventions are required to improve mathematic results. Using normal teaching strategies to teach mathematics does not yield any improvement. It is therefore hoped that tutorials offers a better tool for improving mathematics. As in the first cycle, the study will also deploy a tutorial delivery approach that facilitate and administer periodic tests. This involves dividing learners into focus groups of 5 members each. Past examination papers are then distributed to each group to solve the problems, followed by discussions of the solutions amongst the groups. The groups were made up of a mix of both higher performers and lower performers, so that those that are struggling can learn from the best students. A member of the group was randomly selected to demonstrate the solution of a problem. In the event that the member failed, another group member was given the opportunity to try, and where all members of the group failed, the tutor then intervened and explained the solution process. The tutorials were conducted three times a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), with each tutorial being one and half hours long (from 15:00pm to 16:30pm) after school. A test was given to the learners over a period of a month to determine the pattern of learner performance to observe any improvement in performance. It was done to confirm the study done in Khayelitsha to test generalisability.
preservice training and feel unprepared to work with diverse student populations (Bradshaw & Mundia, 2006; Palmer, 2006), therefore it is necessary for university programs to remediate these feelings of unpreparedness (Smith & Tyler, 2011). Conversely, teachers who are well prepared to deal with the breadth of student needs they are likely to encounter have been shown to be happier in their chosen profession and have lower attrition rates (McLeskey & Billingsley, 2008). They are also more likely to receive positive feedback from their principals (Futernick, 2007) and make a significant difference in the lives of those they teach (West & Whitby, 2008). The research clearly illustrates the symbiotic nature of positive student – teacher interactions. However attitudinal issues remain a well-documented barrier to inclusion and given that one of the major contributory factors to positive attitudes is the belief in oneself to be able to meet the challenge of diversity in the classroom, it is necessary to consider what the research reveals regarding teacher efficacy.
emotional skills. An individual who has high emotional self-efficacy is more tend to use his or her skill , Self-efficacy is extremely important in terms of coping with emotional experiences . Bandura and his colleagues , asserted a regulatory emotional self-efficacy concept that heals negative emotional situation and expresses beliefs about experiencing positive emotions. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy and emotional self-efficacy aim to conceptualize a person’s belief to his or her own emotional skills. Nevertheless, emotional self-efficacy is theoretically based on emotional intelligence model, it includes not only emotional regulation but also emotional skills such as understanding and perceiving emotions. Emotional self-efficacy is also different from skill- based emotional intelligence because this structure is not a person’s own skill but his or her belief about this skill . Emotional intelligence, which is defined as the ability to identify and express one’s own emotions and the emotions of others, is correlated with emotional self-efficacy . Mayer and Salovey , in emotional intelligence model, represented four emotional skills as follows: understanding one’s own emotions and emotions of others, using emotions to ease thinking, understanding emotional complexity, and regulating one’s own emotions and emotions of others. Emotional self-efficacy states individuals’ beliefs about whether they are able to regulate their emotions or not . Emotional self-efficacy has two components as follows: regulating negative consequences (an ability to overcome negative emotions such as anger, sadness, and guilt when experience a frustration), expressing positive effects that include experiencing positive emotions such as happiness and pride, and an ability to express those positive emotions. People who have low emotional self-efficacy have trouble in terms of coping with negative emotions when they experience distress, and they are more tend to get into depression . Positive self-evaluation affects emotional self-efficacy . Emotional self-efficacy positively affects subjective well- being and positive mood [11;12]. Emotional self-efficacy has an important effect on person’s social life. Indeed, emotional self-efficacy has both direct and indirect effects on empathy and life satisfaction .
119 statistics that emphasizes its uniqueness from mathematics and its importance in secondary curriculum. The module is organized into two major sections, each one consisting of materials to read and watch, a technology-enabled data investigation, and discussion forums to synthesize and apply participants’ learning, for a total of 16 to 18 hours of instructional material (Table 5). Participants engage in two statistical investigations of relatively large multivariate datasets on roller coasters in the United States, using the free, web-based software Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP), which allows for various types of graphical representations, displays statistical measures, links multiple representations of data, among other features. They also watch video cases of teachers implementing tasks like the roller coaster investigation and teaching methods in real classrooms. In addition, participants interact in discussion forums and respond in assignments to reflective questions in order to analyze teacher-student interactions or to consider their own experiences and plans for implementing similar pedagogical techniques. Design Principles for Teacher Learning Materials
Many teachers do not perceive themselves as able to effectively teach ELs (Fenner, 2013; Johnson & Wells, 2017), which could influence teachers’ attitudes toward having ELs in their classrooms. Studies have been conducted to determine teacher attitudes toward ELs in content areas or other factors related to student achievement (Huerta, Garza, Jackson & Murukutla, 2019). In order to address the concerns of EL student achievement, studies have been conducted to determine correlations of preservice teachers’ attitudes and EL instruction (Kolano & King, 2015; Wessels, Trainin, Reeves, Catalano, & Deng, 2017). There is insufficient research to make a connection between teachers’ attitudes toward teaching ELs and teachers’ self-efficacy for instructing ELs. According to Geerlings, Thijs, and Verkuyten, (2018), further research is needed to examine multicultural education and teacher characteristics, such as teacher attitudes, to determine when and why teachers feel less or more self-efficacy instructing students of various ethnic and racial groups. The problem addressed in this study was that there is not enough research to determine if teachers’ attitudes toward instructing ELs in the teachers’