Top PDF Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104166 2 Open Access Library Journal tion) of liver functioning [1]. The functioning of liver may be explored by bile pigment of which the major one is bilurbine (which is produced at 300 mg a day by a man). The plasma is accumulated with bilurbines that are again absorbed and secreted by the liver, so the kidney leads to icterus [2].

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Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Blood sample was collected on site and transported within a few hours (less than 3 hours) to the local laboratory in blood bank in the region for separating serum aliquots and stored in a –20°C deep freezer until testing. Sero- positivity to HBV was defined by detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and sero- positivity to HCV by detection of anti-HCV antibodies by a third generation enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Samples that initially gave a positive HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies result were repeatedly (3 times) tested for confirmation. The contributing blood donors were presented separate into four regions of study and then divided into age groups. Data is presented and described by using mean, and table presentations.
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Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections and their Co-infection among Blood Donors in Minia Governorate, Egypt

Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections and their Co-infection among Blood Donors in Minia Governorate, Egypt

After being considered of minor importance when it was discovered in 1989, HCV proved to be of global importance, as it affects almost all countries and is now responsible for over 80% of cases of chronic hepatitis [4]. The 2008 Egyptian demographic health survey (EDHS) gathered information on the prevalence of HCV among a population between the ages of 15 and 59 years and found that 14.7% had positive anti HCV antibody and only 9.8% were positive for the viral RNA [5]. In another study carried out in Egypt, the annual seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection have decreased from 2.3% to 0.9% and from 17.7% to 7.4% respectively [6].
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New Standpoint of ALT Test for Blood Safety in Dongguan Blood Center

New Standpoint of ALT Test for Blood Safety in Dongguan Blood Center

Whether or not ALT value in 40 - 70 U/L will be HBV/HCV virus carrier or have been HBV/HCV patients in the following half or one years, we take a follow-up investigation on 21 blood donors with single ALT positive whose ALT value is in 40 - 70 U/L, which were selected at random from 2516 samples with single ALT positive. All those blood donors were requested to take part in blood donor at least 1 times in the following half or one year, and the blood donors came back and their blood samples were all negative by ELISA-HBV/HCV and NAT-HBV/HCV. So we consider that it can raise the ALT abandon threshold value to 70 U/L, which is reason- able, and that ALT test is necessary now, because virus hepatitis infection population in china is enormous and virogene distribution is extremely variable [5] [6] [9]. So we set the ALT abandon threshold value to ≤ 70 U/L which can ensure blood safety, save blood, and provide reference for the reasonable and scientific strategy of blood screen. We did not analyzed the effect between the blood donor gender and its value in this study, because the gender ratio of the blood donation male and female in blood donation about were one to one (1:1), and ALT abandoned threshold set in China was less than 40 U/L now. So we have to distinguish male and female.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis among blood donors in Mali

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remain a global public health concern especially in Africa [1, 2]. West and central Africa region accounts for 21% of the world’s new HIV-infections and 30% of global deaths from AIDS-related illness [3]. Both the rate of new HIV- infections and the burden of HIV remain high in west- ern and central Africa. The incidence prevalence ratio in the region has changed little since 2010, it stood at 0.06 [0.04–0.09] in 2017, twice as high as the epidemic transi- tion benchmark of 0.03 [3]. Deaths from AIDS-related illness in the region have declined by nearly a quarter since 2010, and annual new HIV-infections declined by 8%. Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Nigeria together accounted for approximately 71% of new HIV-infections in the region in 2017 [3]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that globally in 2015, viral hepatitis led to 1.34 million deaths and 96% were the results of complication of chronic HBV (66%) and HCV (33%) infections [4]. In African region, prevalence of this two virus infections was respectively 6.1% (about 60 million people) and 1% (about 11 million people) [4]. In 2019, Hepatitis Scorecard 2019 for WHO Africa Re- gion reported HBV and HCV prevalence for various countries located in West Africa: Nigeria 5.5 and 2.1%, Ivory Coast 6.1 and 1.7%, Cameroon 4.4 and 0.7% or Mali 8.5 and 3.1% respectively [5]. Otherwise, Syphilis prevalence in Africa varies according to population study; among blood donors in Nigeria prevalence was 3.1% [6] whereas in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Burkina Faso, 6.1% were tested positive for Treponema pallidum antibodies [7].
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Article: Prevalence and risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis infections among nonprofessional blood donors in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Article: Prevalence and risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis infections among nonprofessional blood donors in Chittagong, Bangladesh

We know that Hepatitis B virus is transmitted by blood, sexual contact, by birth, contact to body fluid etc. While our study, after getting any positive donor, we tried to find out by questionnaire what factors are contributed to transmit viruses (Table 4). In our questionnaire, 71.43% HBsAg positive donors was not aware of what factors are responsible for the transmission of Hepatitis B virus; 21.43% positive donors had sexual relationship to the commercial sex workers or extra married sex partners, Even 7.14% positive donors informed about their parents that they (either father or mother or both) were carrier of Hepatitis B virus. In similar questionnaire about the HCV study, 50% HCV positive donors was not aware of what factors are responsible for the transmission of Hepatitis C virus; 50% positive donors informed that they taken intravenous drug. In our study 71.43% HBsAg and 50% HCV positive donor did not know about the route of HBsAg and HCV transmission, which indicated that the blood donors are unconscious and illiterate. So we can suggest that government and non-government organization taken special attention for HBV, HCV infection by blood donation.
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Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, Iran, 2012 - 2013

Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all files of blood donors with positive lab results in Golestan Blood Transfusion Services. The test results, demographic characteristics and the Prevalence of hepatitis B and C and HIV were determined . The results were analyzed by SPSS software.

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Residual risk of transfusion transmitted infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus in Korea from 2000 through 2010

Residual risk of transfusion transmitted infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus in Korea from 2000 through 2010

From January 2000 to December 2010, Korean Red Cross Blood Centers collected a total of 25,931,924 donations. Repeat donors accounted for 20,914,785 donations (80.7%). During the study period, a total of 43 HIV-positive (2004–2009), 139 HCV-positive (2000– 2009), 629 HBV-positive donors (2000–2009) were clas- sified as seroconvertors (Table 3). The residual risk for HCV decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.001). The residual risk of HIV was estimated at 1 in 1,080,244 in 2004/2005 and at 1 in 1,813,998 in 2008/2009 (p = 0.745). The residual risk of HCV decreased continu- ously from 1 in 81,431 in 2002/2001 to 1 in 4,560,879 in 2008/2009, which is extremely low like that of HIV. The residual risk of HBV was estimated at 1 in 67,826 in 2008/2009 (p = 0.885), which is more than 20 times higher than other viruses (Table 3). The incidence rates among first-time and repeat donors were 1.0 and 2.0 for both HIV and HCV (Tables 4 and 5). The most recent (2009/2010) residual risk of transfusion-transmitted in- fection in Korea was estimated to be 1 in 1,356,547 Table 2 Donor screening tests for HIV, HCV, and HBV from 2000 to 2010
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The risk of transfusion –transmissible hepatitis c infection among blood donors in sokoto, north western Nigeria

The risk of transfusion –transmissible hepatitis c infection among blood donors in sokoto, north western Nigeria

Tattooing is associated with two to threefold increased risk of hepatitis C. This can be due to either improperly sterilized equipment or contamination of the dyes being used 40 . Tattoos or piercings performed either before the mid-1980s, "underground," or non-professionally are of particular concern, since sterile techniques in such settings may be lacking. The risk also appears to be greater for larger tattoos 40 . Personal-care items such as razors, toothbrushes, and manicuring or pedicuring equipment can be contaminated with blood. Sharing such items can potentially lead to exposure to HCV 41 . HCV is not spread through casual contact, such as hugging, kissing, or sharing eating or cooking utensils neither is it transmitted through food or water 42 . Vertical transmission of hepatitis C from an infected mother to her child occurs in less than 10% of pregnancies 43 . There are no measures that alter this risk. It is not clear when during pregnancy transmission occurs, but it may occur both during gestation and at delivery. A prolong labor is associated with a greater risk of transmission 39 . There is no evidence that breast- feeding spreads HCV; however, to be cautious, an infected mother is advised to avoid breastfeeding if her nipples are cracked and bleeding or her viral loads are high 38 .
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Hepatitis B surface gene variants isolated from blood donors with overt and occult HBV infection in north eastern Egypt

Hepatitis B surface gene variants isolated from blood donors with overt and occult HBV infection in north eastern Egypt

Data regarding the amino acid changes of HBsAg in Egypt, particularly in the general population, are scarce. Variations in the alpha determinant region were ob- served in 37.8 % of strains isolated from HBsAg-positive blood donors and in 50 % of occult HBV. The incidence of HBsAg variants among random chronic carriers with HBV genotype D varied between 15 % in Morocco and 17.2 % in Iran [24]. However, Garmini et al. (2011) re- ported that the substitution rate in the MHR was 0.4 % in HBV genotype D strains isolated from HBsAg-positive blood donors in Iran [21]. Different studies in China (where genotypes C and B are prevalent) documented that mutation rates within HBsAg-positive blood donors ranged between 14.7 % in Shandong province to 50 % in Nanjing. This large difference was explained by the wider application of HBV vaccine in Nanjing [25].
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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran

HCV is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide, and an estimated 2-3% of the world’s population is living with HCV infection (15,16). However, prevalence rates may vary due to various factors including the type of selective testing for HCV, sensitivity of the test for the detection of HCV antibodies and performing annual blood screening. In a study in India, the incidence of HCV was

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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing was per- formed with the rapid test Healthease HBsAg (Neome- dic Ltd., Sea Cow Lake, South Africa) supplied by the MoH and in use in the blood bank. However, since this test lacked independent quality assurance data, another rapid test, Determine HBsAg (Abbott Laboratories, Illi- nois, USA), from the WHO bulk procurement 2010 list, was supplied by ITM and run in parallel during the study (reported sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 99.4% [19]). In case of discordant results, both tests were repeated to exclude manipulation errors. All sera with persisting dis- cordance were sent to the INS in Maputo and analyzed by the EIA Murex HBsAg Version 3.0 (Abbott Diagnos- tics Division, Murex Biotech Limited, Dartford, UK; sen- sitivity: 99.7% and specificity: 99.5%). Reported HBsAg seroprevalence corresponds to the result obtained with the rapid test Determine HBsAg rapid test corrected by EIA (this procedure being further considered as our reference diagnostic method). Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test locally used (Healthease HBsAg) were calculated with standard formulas against this reference method.
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Anti HBc and HBV DNA detection in blood donors negative for hepatitis B virus surface antigen

Anti HBc and HBV DNA detection in blood donors negative for hepatitis B virus surface antigen

Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in blood or liver tissues in patients negative for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Those patients may or may not be positive for HBV antibodies. The objective of this study is to determine the presence or absence of HBV DNA in the serum samples from HBsAg negative blood do- nors. In addition we aimed to assess the magnitude of occult HBV infection and to reduce the risk of HBV infection. Over a period of one year a total of 7340 blood units were collected at blood transfusion center in our locality for the prevalence of HBV infection and 180 HBsAg negative blood specimens were ran- domly selected for anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBs antibody and HBV DNA. Ninety seven out of 7340 collected blood units were positive for HbsAg (1.3%). The ran- domly selected 180 tested donors revealed 7 (3.8%) positive for antiHBc IgM and 34 (18.8%) were posi- tive for anti-HBs antibodies. Four out of 7 positive for anti-HBc IgM were also positive for anti-HBs and 2/180 (1.1%) specimens were positive for HBV DNA by PCR. Anti-HBc antibody should be tested rou- tinely at any blood transfusion center and if they were positive regardless of anti-HBs titer, the blood should be discarded. Also HBV DNA is preferable to be per- formed to all blood donors to present completely safe blood transfusion.
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Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) among voluntary blood donors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is generally recognized as highly infectious and associated with long term occurrence of disease and death due to complications like cirrhosis, por- tal hypertension, and Hepato-cellular carcinoma. Approxi- mately greater than 2 billion people have been infected by HBV and 350 million individual people have chronic infection [1, 4]. The common high-risk groups for HBV infections are parenteral drug abusers, institutionalized persons, health care personnel, multiply transfused pa- tients, organ transplant patients, hemodialysis patients, highly promiscuous persons, sexual transmission and newborn infants born to mothers with hepatitis B virus [5]. The virus is highly infectious and relatively easy to be transmitted from one infected person to another by blood to blood contact, during birth, unprotected sex, and by sharing needles and has a relatively increase the preva- lence in the tropics [6].
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Occult Hepatitis B Infection and Its Role in Blood Safety: a Review

Occult Hepatitis B Infection and Its Role in Blood Safety: a Review

Based on our review findings, the rate of HBV prevalence and OBI in Iran is moderate. Although the blood transfer safety has improved, the use of HBsAg as the only marker to detect HBV infection in Iran does not perfectly meet blood safety goals. Considering the risk of transmission of OBI through blood products to recipients, and the fact that the available methods to identify people with OBI are not currently used by Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, to prevent the spread of this infection in our country in addition to HBsAg detection method, Anti-HBc and viral genome detection
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Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

Trends in prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Albanian blood donors, 1999 2009

in national level, since 1975. In present study we ana- lyzed the profile of blood donors and estimated the pre- valence of HBsAg. Traditionally paid donors (commercial donors) were the main source of blood in Albania. The first efforts for the voluntary blood dona- tion began in 1994 with a cooperation between National Blood Service and Red Cross. One of the most impor- tant problems of blood transfusion service in Albania has always been reliance on professional blood donors (paid blood donors) that still exist even if has been reduce significantly. According to the data used in this study, in 1999 commercial blood donors composed 32.8% of blood donors versus 1.9% in 2009. During last years blood donors profile has changed as result imple- mentation of national strategy for blood safety, launched in 2005. Exclusion of paid donors was achieved by rejecting the paid donor for the first time. First time commercial blood donors were prohibited since 2008. This change resulted in a very high percentage of first time blood donors from voluntary blood donors and family replacement blood donors groups. During these years family replacement blood donors constitute the largest group of blood donors in Albania. Our data in this study showed that 72.6% of blood donors were family replacement blood donors(in 2009).
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High prevalence of HIV, HBsAg and anti HCV positivity among people who injected drugs: results of the first bio behavioral survey using respondent driven sampling in two urban areas in Mozambique

High prevalence of HIV, HBsAg and anti HCV positivity among people who injected drugs: results of the first bio behavioral survey using respondent driven sampling in two urban areas in Mozambique

Despite the fact that the majority of participants re- ported having access to new or sterile syringes, close to half reporting having ever shared syringes, and about one in ten used a needle or syringe after someone else had used it the last time they injected drugs. This incon- sistency of sterile needle availability versus sterile needle use can potentially be explained by practices that are perceived by PWID to reduce drug waste, including re- use of their own needles, backload (a method of sharing drugs between needles), flash blood (a method of sharing blood of someone who injected) and sale of drugs in pre-loaded syringes. These practices have been identified in prior studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa [32], including in neighboring Tanzania [7]; however, further investigation into the barriers to new, sterile syringe use in the Mozambican context is needed. Interestingly, not having access to new and unused syringes appeared to be a protective factor of HIV among PWID. While this may seem counterintuitive, we believe this is likely because persons who knew they were at high-risk for having HIV or already knew their HIV status were more likely to have received prevention messages and would know where to obtain sterile equipment. Nonetheless, the finding of high access to new and unused syringes but low utilization provides evidence for the importance of targeted harm reduction interventions.
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Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

lion people are newly infected each year. Hepatitis B and C virus is present in blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secre- tions, menstrual blood, and to lesser extent, breast milk, and urine of infected individuals [4]. A highly resilient virus, HBV or HCV can easily transmit through con- taminated blood transfusion, surgical instruments, dental surgery, sexual contacts and drug abuses, sharing of the house hold items like shaving razors, toothbrushes and also shaving from the barber [4-6].

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Exposure of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA-Positive Recipients to HCV RNA-Positive Blood Donors Results in Rapid Predominance of a Single Donor Strain and Exclusion and/or Suppression of the Recipient Strain

Exposure of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA-Positive Recipients to HCV RNA-Positive Blood Donors Results in Rapid Predominance of a Single Donor Strain and Exclusion and/or Suppression of the Recipient Strain

Extensive measures, described previously (19), were employed to prevent and detect carryover contamination. All RT-PCR runs included positive controls consisting of end point dilutions of synthetic RNA strands and negative controls included uninfected sera. The HCV genotypes were determined by direct se- quencing of the NS5 region as described elsewhere (19). Quantification of donor sera for HCV RNA was carried out with the Bayer HCV Quantiplex 2.0 assay. Analysis of E2 region quasispecies. The E2 region, including the hypervariable region 1, was amplified as described previously (17). HCV quasispecies were compared by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay as described elsewhere (19), with minor modifications. This assay is highly sensitive, as we were routinely able to detect any minor variant representing ⱖ3% of the whole population. In brief, PCR products were purified with a DNA binding resin system (Wizard PCR; Promega, Madison, Wis.) and resuspended in 50 ␮l of water. Next, 2 to 4 ␮l of the purified product was diluted in 15 ␮l of low- ionic-strength solution (10% saccharose, 0.5% bromophenol blue, 0.5% xylene cyanol), denatured by heating it at 97°C for 3 min, immediately cooled on ice, and subjected to nondenaturing 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 1⫻ Tris-borate-EDTA buffer with 400 V applied for 4 to 5 h at a constant temper- ature of 25°C. The bands were visualized by silver staining (Silver Stain; Pro- mega). To lower the risk of artifactual polymorphism, each analysis was dupli- cated in an independent experiment using a new RNA template.
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Prevalence of anelloviruses (TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV) in healthy blood donors and in patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar

Prevalence of anelloviruses (TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV) in healthy blood donors and in patients infected with HBV or HCV in Qatar

In the present study, a total of 607 plasma samples were screened for the presence of anellovirsuses (TTV, TTMDV, TTMV) DNA using nested PCR. The majority of samples were from healthy blood donors and non- Qatari male nationals. Age, gender and nationality distri- butions were not significantly different in healthy blood donors and HBV- or HCV-positive patients. Blood do- nors in Qatar were predominantly males, and so did those tested positive for HBV and HCV. It should be noted that the expatriate population makes up the vast majority of residents in Qatar with about only 16% of those residing in Qatar are Qatari nationals. Our study population reflects the demographic distribution in the population. In terms of age, it appears that the majority of the HBV patients were younger than 30 years whilst the majority of HCV patients were older than 50 years as was shown in Table 1.
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