The CIDB Health and Safety report (2009, p.22) claims that though there is no scientific evidence in the South African constructionindustry that suggest that lower grade CIDB registered contractors have worst health and safety performance and culture than contractors with higher CIDB grade. Similarly, accidents frequency rate decreases as the business size grows in the constructionindustry (Kheni, Gibb and Dainty, 2010, p.1105). Thus it is almost conceivable that small contractors would demonstrate poorer health and safety and performance and culture due to their strict resources and capacity. This means including these lower grading contractors into a study would skew findings and conclusions. Therefore, sampling frame for this research report is consisted of actively registered general building contractors with a 7GB, 8GB and 9GB CIDB grading. That is contractors with Grades of 1GB to 6GB were found to be of little scientific importance, hence they were not included in the sample frame list. And again due to time and financial constraints, the research will only look at the contractors who are registered in the province of Gauteng in SouthAfrica.
The first paper by Fan et al. (2014) reviewed 128 publications across numerous industries between 1996 and 2012 with an emphasis on operations management, a second paper by Zhou et al. (2015) reviewed 439 constructionindustry specific health and safetymanagement studies. Both papers indicated a tremendous increase in the number of academic publications in the research from the year 2007 and identified safety culture/climate and safetymanagement processes/systems integration as OHS research domains that have received the most attention. A high proportion of the studies in both papers focused on European countries, United States of America, Hong Kong, Australia, China and South Korea in that order. Only five studies involved the constructionindustry in Africa and only one reflected the South African construction environment. Zhou et al. (2015) identified that half of all constructionsafety studies focused on the project level, 90% of publications focused on the construction phase, 8% of the publications focused on the company/enterprise level. Zhou et al. (2015) identified the excessive focus on construction phase as a research gap and recommended the study of constructionsafety from other dimensions. The under-representation of developing countries in international journal publications is not unique to health and safety research alone. Similar trends can be seen in the medical sciences even though the highest burden of occupational accident and disease is concentrated in developing countries. According to Mulenga (2014:61), the South African constructionindustry represents a different context, work population and work experiences that differentiates it from studies conducted in other climes and, therefore, presents an opportunity for the investigation of health and safety phenomena within the industry.
The aim of this research was to assess and evaluate the methods used by South African construction companies when managing risks in their projects, to evaluate the effectiveness of riskmanagement techniques in the South African constructionindustry, to identify the factors that influence riskmanagement, to identify and evaluate the negative impacts that the project can undergo when riskmanagement is not exercised, and lastly, to identify individuals responsible for the management of risk in construction firms. The data used in this study were derived from both primary and secondary sources. The secondary data were collected from a detailed review of related literature as detailed in the literature (chapters two - five. The primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire aimed at 108 South African contractors. Data received from the questionnaires were analysed using descriptive and multivarient statistics procedures.The empirical data have identified that riskmanagement in the SouthAfricaconstruction is mostly influenced and affected by the size of company, and the education and experience of construction managers. The study also revealed that the majority of South African contractors are aware of the riskmanagement process and subsequently make use of the structured process for risk management.The study empirically explores riskmanagement in the South African constructionindustry. This study presents a strong background on the theories of riskmanagement usage by contractors in construction projects. This study recommends that a generic riskmanagement system that is accessible to all South African construction companies in order to standardize riskmanagement activities should be established.
Construction projects are complex, risky and time-consuming undertakings that are usually commissioned by governments and delivered by national and international participants with a variety of cultural differences, backgrounds, political systems, and languages. The South African constructionindustry operates in a uniquely project- specific and complex environment, combining different investors, clients, contractual arrangements and consulting professions. It impacts directly on communities and the South African public at large, and its improved efficiency and effectiveness will enhance quality, productivity, health, safety, environmental outcomes and value for money. Therefore, this paper will investigate measure that can be used to improve the performance of construction projects in the SouthAfricaconstructionindustry. Data for this paper were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. For the primary data; a structured questionnaire was distributed to construction professionals both from the contracting companies, consultant offices & public owners sectors. Findings from the questionnaire surveys revealed that the measures to be taken for the improvement of the performance of construction projects in Gauteng, SouthAfrica, include: proper project planning and scheduling, use of effective projectmanagement techniques, clear information and communication channels, adherence to construction drawings and specifications, proper material procurement, adequate planning, effective strategic planning, proper project implementation and management, frequent coordination between the construction team, use of appropriate construction methods, site management and supervision amongst others. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on the subject of measures to improve the performance of construction projects in the SouthAfricaconstructionindustry.
integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communication management, riskmanagement, and procurement management. The four areas from the PMI Construction extension to the PMBOK are: occupational health and safety, environmental management, financial management, and claims management. According to SACPCMP, there are four industry knowledge areas along with their subsections that are essential. These four areas are: construction science, construction processes, design processes, and having financial and cost knowledge. These research findings together offer a knowledge skill set that can be used as baseline. This research indicates the type of knowledge required as well as the critical importance of industry-specific knowledge. Further research could test project managers’ proficiency levels of the various knowledge fields. Forthcoming research investigates the level of each type of knowledge required and offers a constructionprojectmanagement knowledge model. This will assist in knowing to what knowledge depth project managers need to be educated and trained. The level of knowledge findings will be presented in the near future.
The constructionindustry is a dynamic and innovative industry that delivers buildings and infrastructure for all aspects of commercial and domestic activity. It is a global industry that facilitates the development and maintenance of buildings, transport links and energy supplies. It is an industry that continues to deliver many incredible things, from ever taller sky scrapers to expansive bridges, impressive stadia and structures that rise out of land reclaimed from the sea.
Hetherington (1995: 5) suggests that design professionals “… will only be expected to take into account those risks which can reasonably be foreseen at the time at which the design was prepared” and should aim toward “… avoiding and combating H&S risks inherent in the construction process”. He further suggests that construction H&S can be addressed through design interventions during the ‘concept stage’, ‘design evolution’ and the ‘detailed specifications’, and that designers should provide information along with their designs to ensure that potential risks and associated issues are identified. Chang & Lee (2004) claim that the use and type of chosen technology influences construction performance and the ability to achieve strategic objectives. It is essential for all stakeholders, including architectural designers, to recognise the design and construction relationship, what Hendrickson (2008: online) perceives as an “integrated system”, while Chang & Lee (2004: 2) raise concern that the majority of studies address constructionmanagement issues and ignore the construction technology realm. The real issue is “… the implementation of a design envisioned by architects and engineers … performed with a variety of precedence and other relationships among different tasks” (Hendrickson, 2008: online). Integrated into design and technology is ‘method’, which involves both tactic and strategy. Decisions regarding the best or ideal sequence of operations should be integrated into the design process rather than leaving all decisions up to the production team or contractor (Hendrickson, 2008: online). It is also important that all people involved are not only competent, but also sufficiently motivated to ensure project success (Lester, 2007: 5, 30).
Often PMOs provide value to the business, but do not measure it. This issue often leads to the perception that PMOs do not add value. An important step to overcome this perception is to identify PMO performance factors to show how PMOs can improve their outcomes. In this regard, it is necessary to identify factors affecting the PMO performance. The current state of knowledge of PMO provides practitioners with very few resources. Therefore, the practitioner community is looking for practical guidelines to act more effective in directing their PMOs. In this regard, the high level objective of this research is to explore key factors improving PMO performance in Iranian ConstructionIndustry. ConstructionIndustry is considered as a driver for Iranian economy so that its share of the gross national product is up to 7 percent, and its impact on key industries such as transport, insurance, steel and cement industry is significant (Islami, 2008). The key entities of constructionindustry include employer, engineering design consultant, contractor and management consultant (Parchami & Matinkoosha, 2015). Managing the complex interactions between these entities in a dynamic business environment has created the necessity for organizations to centrally coordinate and manage their projects. In this regard, establishing a PMO is considered as a solution for addressing these needs (Arbabi, 2008):
All surveys were complete anonymously. A request was posted to the South African Institute of Civil Engineering SouthAfrica (SAICE) to forward the questionnaire to their members via email. A bulk email was sent; but the exact number of successful recipients could not be confirmed, due to email not being delivered or no longer existing. It is estimated that approximately 5,000 questionnaires were emailed; this also included emails to projectmanagement companies, engineering consulting firms, engineering contractors, and gov- ernment departments such as the Department of Public Works and the Department of Water Affairs. A total of 163 responses were received, giving an approximate response rate of 3.3%. Even though the response rate was low, the number of responses was satisfactory. 4.1 Analysis of data and interpretation of findings
Family relations and their influence on substance use can be viewed either in terms of connectedness or conflict . Increase in either parent to parent conflict, or parent to offspring conflict, has been shown to increase the risk of developing a substance use disorder . The level of family bonding and support by parents to their offspring are a predictor of alcoholism and drug use amongst the youth . Favourable family bonds or relationships may also reduce the likelihood of substance use problems, even amongst those with personality problems . The social development model postulates that children learn behav- ioural patterns from their social environment - including family, school, peers and community institutions either in a pro or an antisocial pathway. The dynamic nature of so- ciety and new trends in substance use necessitate the identification of risk factors as an on-going process. Treat- ment programmes and models too should be revised ac- cording to the patterns of risk elements in different cultures and social groups in society . Mitigation mea- sures are not universal and risk factors are influenced by cultural groupings which have called for culturally rele- vant programmes . An increasing number of studies have therefore identified factors influencing substance use in industrialised nations, however, there are few studies in SouthAfrica and other developing countries that explore these facets .
Oman, is mandated to oversee the implementation of current OS&H regulations. The data from the Ministry of Manpower reveals that a total of 1,328 inspections were made in the year 2016. A total of 569 warning notices were issued to companies, which were found not complying with the regulations. This number is comparatively more than in 2015 where the total number of warning notices was at 555. The total cases which were referred to the court of law in 2016 were six (6), while in 2015 there was only one case which was referred to the court of law (MoM, 2015, MoM, 2016). Similarly, a report published in the daily Times of Oman, dated February 28, 2015, states that there are no official statistics of how many company workers get hurt in the course of their duties. However, according to the individual Health and Safety Environment's (HSE) records of the top 10 contractors, more than 3,700 of them needed medical treatment in 2014. The injured workers who were hospitalized made up nearly 10 percent of the total workers on this list. Tragically, about 18 percent of them died either at the sites or in hospitals last year. In comparison to the previous year, 246 more workers got injured in 2014 but for obvious reason, company directors do not want this part of the record to be made public (TOM, 2015-a). One of the possible reasons for this might be a lack of awareness of current OS&H regulations and their effective implementation in Oman. Other reasons may include the financial and managerial capabilities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For instance, Masi et al., (2014) stated that SMEs have fewer financial and human resources at their disposal. Thus, under conditions of economic uncertainty, managers of SMEs are reluctant to spend time and resources on problems that do not arise on a regular basis and this would certainly include safety and health issues (MacEachen et al., 2010; Agumba and Haupt, 2012). In Canada, a SME is defined as a company with a staff of fewer than 100 employees, and such enterprises represent 98% of all businesses and employ 67% of the workforce in some parts of the country (Statistics Canada, 2013). Mendeloff et al., (2006) noted that workplace fatal accidents are up to eight times more frequent in SMEs, and nonfatal accidents are as much as 50% more likely to occur in SMEs (Fabiano et al., 2004). Officially, in Oman, there are 100,000 registered construction organizations with a total workforce of 725,000, indicating that the majority of these organizations fall under the definition of SMEs. These organizations experience challenges with regard to improving occupational safety and health performance (OSC, 2016; Umar, 2016).
In addition to the cost and value criteria, the criterion of functionality is also addressed in value management. Therefore, value management can make an important contribution to the addition of value to a constructionproject. (Kelly & Male, 199l). Relatively speaking, value management comprises new techniques that are not yet as entrenched as some techniques related to financing, research, development and other administrative functions. However, the topicality of the service is underlined by the fact that clients are increasingly demanding that value management be applied to particular stages of their construction projects. This could probably be ascribed to the effectiveness of value management as a tool for ensuring value for money (City of New York, 1993), (Green, 1994), (Kelly & Male,
Many of the respondents also indicated that it is not within their capacity to provide safety and health trainings to their workers. Even for some respondents who had the means to provide such trainings, it was not feasible to do so due to the high turn over and transient nature of the workforce. As a result, no training programmes exist for supervisors and workers at construction sites concerning safety problems. It is quite evident from the result shown in the Figure 2 that only 7.5% claimed to provide safety and health trainings to their people on-site and at the managerial level. These trainings which were provided by the respondents were mainly related to handling explosives at the site which are used for blasting rocks in the road construction works. The lack of effective labour training is a majorconcern in safetymanagement (Tam et al. 2004). Moreover, specific site safety inspections are rarely conducted in the Bhutanese constructionindustry due to lack of technically qualified safety inspectors. The site engineers and supervisors are mainly concerned with monitoring the workers and the quality of works they perform, and are not trained to carry out safety inspections. As such, as shown in Figure 3, 25% of the respondents indicated that safety inspections are never done at their construction sites. There are also no predefined schedules for checking the machines, tools and equipment in order to ensure that they are working in safe order and in compliance with the relevant standards. It is mostly done on ad hoc basis, and when the mainte-
statistics, the impact of the built environment sector as a whole is much greater; including segments of the manufacturing, mining, quarrying, electricity and water sectors (Osei, 2013:57). Compared with other industries, the Ghanaian constructionindustry is low-tech and labour intensive. As already stated, the economic prosperity of the constructionindustry is closely tied to its leadership because it is labor-intensive. Thus, the effective delivery of construction projects depends on the quality of personnel at the professional, technical and supervisory levels at all stages from project inception through design and implementation to completion (Ofori, 2001:12). In the Ghanaian constructionindustry, there is a dire need for leadership development. Moreover, there is no legislative backbone to promote and enforce the advancement of skills, experience and professionalism in the Ghanaian constructionindustry (Ofori 2003:34). This has partly led to the poor performance on projects in areas such cost, quality and productivity. A high percentage of construction projects undertaken in Ghana overshoot the cost and time limits set by the parties (Erkelens et al., 2008). Many studies on industrialized nations and developing countries show that both business and project failures are common in construction (Arditi, Koksal and Kale, 2000:33). Bjeirmi and Scott (2007) noted that the good project and construction is paramount for project success. It is in this regard that calls for a Construction Development Board for Ghana is relevant, following successful examples in other countries: the National Construction Council (NCC) of Tanzania, the Building Construction Authority (BCA) of Singapore and the Construction Development Boards (CIDB) of Malaysia and SouthAfrica. According to Ofori (2012:3), project leaders in the Ghanaian construction were perceived to be effective in the overall performance of their leadership roles using a combination of transformational and transactional leadership styles in the execution of their duties. He further states that they were perceived not to be doing enough when it came to exercising their power and empowering others to act.
Construction projects (including bridge projects) have a variety of risks due to different factors such as weather changes, cultural differences of people involved, political instability, possibility of governmental policies changes, and financial and economical problems. The number and importance of such risks depend on the size and complexity of the project. These risks lead to costs and time overrun in construction projects (Zavadkas, et al., 2010). Therefore, the potential risks that can influence the project results should be considered.
In order to verify the object of this research “time, quality and cost are the three key cores the project manage- ment in constructionindustry should pursue”, questionnaires design, experts’ feedbacks, and categorization, and analysis were conducted with the basis of Kano’s two-dimensional quality model. Then it is categorized as Table 4. After collecting the 16 interviewees’ feedback, it is discovered that the Nine knowledge areas are re- flecting its nature and it’s order of importance as Table 5.
choosing a team which is capable to succeed (Morris & Pinto, 2007). According to Mumford et. al. (2000) , if personal characteristics of project managers meet the job requirements there is more chance for their success(Mumford, et al., 2000). In the changing working environment, the importance of projectmanagement is increasing more and more (Cleland, 1994; Turner, 1993). Crawford (L.H. Crawford, 2000) suggested that the more projectmanagement is demanded, the more required project manager skills and standards for developing and assessment of project managers’ competencies demanded. Organizations in order to achieve their strategic goals need to consider a crucial contributor which is project managers’ competencies (Boyatzis, 1982; Shenhar, 1997). The importance of projectmanagement competence come from this point that if the people who are working in the project, to be competent, they would perform effectively which results to the project success and organization success (Beer, et al., 1990; Karpin, 1995; P. Smith, 1976).
Constructionindustry is very vast industry in growth of nation and also plays an important role in growth of GDP.in constructionindustry like building, bridges, highways, infrastructure the various operations and activity are worked out and they are inter related with each other. Some factors increase the risk in project .They delay project schedule and also overrun project by time &cost .Therefore risk identification, risk analysis and riskmanagement plays an important role in any constructionproject. Constructionindustry is improving the social, economic and environmental development of country. The industry is vulnerable to various technical, sociopolitical and business risks. The record to cope with these risks has not been very good in constructionindustry. As a result, the people working in the industry bear various failuresuch as failure of abiding by quality and operational requirements, cost overruns and uncertain delays in project completion. In light of this, it can be said that an effective systems of risk analysis, assessment and management for constructionindustry remains a challenging task for the industry practitioners. The aim of the this research is to identify and evaluate current risks and uncertainties in the construction industry.Through the survey, aimsto make a basis for future studies for development of a riskmanagement framework to be adopted by contractor ,owner, designer &project manager in Nashik city.
contracts and procurement strategy. Any changes have to be evaluated and the impact of changes on milestones, schedules, and resource consumption for the project under his/her control is reported to the M-P manager. The M-P manager then checks the progress of the project against the M-P Implementation Plan. Changes to all projects within the portfolio have to be evaluated and wieghed against each other in the context of the M-P, and corrective measures should then be taken to ensure that all projects together meet the overall objectives of the M-P Implementation Plan. The updated information must then be disseminated to all parties in the M-P to ensure that they are also aware of the changes. At the end of each tranche, the M-P manager should check the achievements of the M-P against the benefits plan established earlier.
4.8 Selection base on pricing offer from the firms to the clients 31 4.9 Selection Based on ranking statues of the firms 32 4.10 Selection base on experience and reputation of firms 33 4.11 Selection base on previous work performed in past projects 34 4.12 Selection Based on Qualifications and knowledge related work 35 4.13 Factors of Selection the ProjectManagement Consultant 36