Licensed under Creative Common Page 2 1999). These actions are often neither enacted publicly, or included in the formal rules and regulations of the organizations, nor explicitly prohibited (Farrell & Peterson , 1982). At the heart of OP are actions such as selling ideas, influencing decision, increasing power, or achieving other targeted interests (Brandon & Seldman, 2004) at the expense of others. Politicking individuals may use improper channels or lobby high-level managers to get promoted, raise their status or gain other special favors. Such kinds of actions consume time, obstruct information sharing (Eisenhardt and Bourgeois, 1988), bring about ambiguity (Muhammad, 2007), raises perceptions of uncertainty in the allocation of organizational resources (Harris & Harris 2007) and may ultimately affect individual job attitudes or behaviors. Even though OP cannot be classified as a solely negative phenomenon (Bacharach, 2005), it has been largely and generally viewed as a perceptual phenomenon with negative consequences for those who perceive it (Poon, 2003; Byrne, 2005; Kacmar & Carlson, 1977). Political actions are often seen as dysfunctional (Katrinli, Atabay, Gunay, & Cangarli, 2010) as they are not always enacted for the well-being of the organization or individuals within the organization. Due to OP, a number of factors are affected that lead to behavioral change in the employees, which negatively affects many of their work and organization aspects.
Studies examining job burnout and its outcomes have mostly been carried out in the Western societies. Despite the significance of burnout towards organizational performance, researches that investigate the relationship between burnout and OCB are scarce, particularly with the inclusion on flow as a mediator. There is a need to investigate OCB considering the different cultural views on flow in the banking sector (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000). Bankers have to work longer hours per week, requiring high levels of mental energy even though they are given inadequate compensation. As most bankers deal directly with customers, dissatisfied bankers have a high tendency to experience burnout, which will negatively affect their interaction with customers (Jaramillo, Prakash Mulki & Boles, 2011). This experience may lead to loss of customers (Jaramillo, Prakash Mulki & Boles, 2011), a noticeable decline in the quality of service, job turnover, absenteeism, poor morale, and impaired performance (Maslach & Jackson, 1981; Acker, 1999). Such unfavourable working conditions lead to burnout among bank employees and this decreases their level of OCB.
The finding of this study indicates that jobsatisfaction has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. This is in line with the findings of Wong Swee Mun et al (2016) and also Asman Ismail et al (2016) which stating that there is a significant effect between jobsatisfaction toward organizational commitment. The highest correlation of dimensions of jobsatisfaction with organizational commitment is a promotion dimension to the dimension of affective commitment. This shows that the opportunity to develop a career provided by the company is felt capable to create an emotional bond of employees towards the company, as well as employee confidence in the values adopted by the company. Those are able to create good commitment to employees.
In past, jobsatisfaction and affective organizational commitment was frequently cited on OCB.Affective commitment is defined as strong belief in acceptance of an organization’s goals and a high desire to maintain membership in the organization (Van Dyne et al., 1995). Further, affective commitment sustainsbehavioral direction when there is modestprobability of formal rewards (Allen and Meyer, 1996); it would appearrational that affective commitment drives those behaviors (i.e. discretionary behaviors) that do not depend primarily on reinforcement or formal rewards.OCB might be empirically associatedwith organizationalcommitment (Cohen and Vigoda, 2000), further it is significant to emphasize that OCB refers to a specific class of employee behaviours, while constructs such as “organizational commitment”.Fundamentally attitude based on the commitment is typically measured by seeking responses of the employees, such scale item statements as “ï found my values and organizational values are same”.
moved forward in the hands of one of the authors who lives and works in Damascus, Syria. Much of the time during the crisis, Damascus has faced power outages and internet disruption. Violence has visited the streets and food and medicine have been in short supply. Factions have engaged in bloody combat that has reached into the heart of the nation’s capital (Damascus) and that has imposed humanitarian, medical, economic, and infrastructure problems on nearly all citizens of Syria (The World Factbook, 2014). The purpose of this research is to learn about the relationship of wartime crisis with perceptions of job insecurity, a prospect, we reason, is highly likely given the incredible amount of uncertainty faced by employed citizens of Syria. We further examine outcomes of job insecurity: jobsatisfaction, affective commitment, trust, intention to quit and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Finally, we examine the mediating role of job insecurity between PEoWTC and individual and organizational outcomes. In other words, we want to explore if job insecurity would, as a transmitter, account for (Baron & Kenny, 1986) the relationship between PEoWTC and jobsatisfaction, affective commitment, trust, intention to quit, and OCB.
Perceived organizational support refers to “the extent to which the organization values [employees’] contribu- tions and cares about their well-being” . A supportive organization is committed to its workers . According to organizational support theorists, high POS tends to improve work attitudes and engender effective work be- havior for two reasons. First, these beneficial effects re- sult from a process of social exchange. Research by  suggests that workers examine the discretionary actions of discretion to have done, otherwise, and then workers infer that they are being supported. They then seek to repay this favorable treatment. Like that, employees be- come more committed and harder-working . In addi- tion, it seems that if an organization is given adequate training, resources, and support from management, it is more likely that members would both want their organi- zation to succeed and be more capable of helping their organization succeed. Therefore, it appears likely that the extent which the organization perceives that it is sup- ported will be positively associated with the display of OCB directed toward the organization [22,23]. Thus, we hypothesize that the extent to which an organization per- ceives that management provides it with support will affect the citizenship behaviors:
Our study has contributed to the existing literature on both areas of work-family interface and citizenshipbehavior in two ways. First, given that little research has ad- dressed the WIF–OCB relationship, let alone investigated the mechanisms or boundary conditions of the relationship, the current study is one of the first to link these two highly examined concepts (i.e., WIF and OCB) in the organizationalbehavior field and to uncover their relationship with time-lagged data. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll 1989) and social exchange theory (Blau 1964), the present study not only examines the direct effect of WIF on OCB but also incorporates job sat- isfaction as an indicator of social exchange into the WIF – OCB relationship. The find- ings of the mediating role of jobsatisfaction in the relationship between WIF and OCB provides novel evidence for the mechanisms or boundary conditions of the WIF–OCB relationship. In sum, the present research paves the way for a clearer picture of the connection between the work-family relationship and extra-role performance.
the levels of trust, distributive justice is not. Interestingly Konovsky (2000) found that in the presence of strong leader member exchanges with the supervisor, employees demonstrated high trust whether perceived distributive justice was high or low. The variable supervisor support had relatively a low mean and standard deviation values (M = 17.9, SD = 3.11) than other predictors showing that majority of the secondary school teachers in this sample were perceiving low support from their superiors. The researchers, therefore, concluded that individuals in this sample did not have satisfactory relationships with their superiors that caused them to be more intolerant of distributive injustice and demonstrating low levels of OCBs.
Civic virtue as an OCB dimension refers to the behaviors that the employee's deep concerns the life of the organization (Wang et al., 2005). It is therefore the employees may stand out to defend the organization’s interests when an outside challenge emerge (Organ et al., 2006). Courtesy is a form of helping behavior or preventing work-related conflicts with others (Wang et al., 2005). Courteous behaviors are important in fostering a harmonious atmosphere and associated productive outcomes for the work place. Sportsmanship represents a willingness of accepting and following the context that not conforming to an ideal standard, so called “ability to roll with the punches" (Organ et al., 2006).
According to the results above, it can be interpret that employees are aware of the situations by expressing that they will not waste their time on minor prob- lems; they will want to see the positive aspects of the problems, not the negative ones and they want to take an active role in resolving conflicts. In the study of Kalkan , the variable of “I keep pace with the business related developments” in the civic virtue was found to be with the highest average value while the varia- ble of “I keep up with the changes made in the structure of the organization I work with” was detected as the most effective dimension in the civic virtue di- mension. Hotel establishments have to stand out from the competition in re- spect to developing modern management approaches and technology so that these labor-intensive hotel establishments should first ensure the participation and acceptance of employees. Aksoy  studied the dimensions of organiza- tional citizenship behaviors separately and found that the majority of employees had a tendency to show organizationalcitizenshipbehavior. Baran  asserted that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior is mainly based on the voluntary partic- ipation of members and Waris  set forth that organizationalcitizenship be- haviors take place without an official request. Aras  exerted that these beha- viors are behaviors that are not included in the duty and job descriptions of the employees and do not require punishment in case of negligence along with re- quiring more personal preference.
Based on the hypothesis test in this study it was found that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior does not moderate the relationship of organizational commitment with teacher performance. This finding is in line with Otto's research (2018) where organizationalcitizenshipbehavior does not moderate the influence of organizational commitment on performance. This can be interpreted by employees who have strong OCB that does not affect their commitment to the organization. The findings obtained in the testing phase of the fourth hypothesis are also in line with the theory described by Gibson et al (2014) which states that organizational commitment does not always affect OCB in employees in an organizational environment, intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence influence the occurrence of these conditions. The same is explained by Shopiah (2012) in the organizational concept that the difference in experience and working age of each employee affects the way a person works, when the work environment is not conducive, the tendency of employees to work individually is far from the OCB value so it does not affect performance generated by employees. The results obtained are not in line with the research of Hakim (2013) where in his research the Judge found that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior moderate the influence of organizational commitment on performance.
typology of behavioral components as altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue Engagement with OCB by employees are (Williams et al., 2002). In 2002 stated that one of such precondition is workers’ perception of justice. In 2008 Asgari et al., (2008) also concluded that when employees perceive justice practices In 2005 Elovainio et al., (2005) have ustice as fairness and honest treatment to employees in the organization. Hubbel and Assad (2005) (2005) said that it is about the process of these outcome are fair described that organizational justice is spect in all activities of any The concept of organizational justice is been related with other important organizational variables such as organizationalcitizenship, loyalty, motivation, organizational climate, jobsatisfaction, absenteeism, productivity and release Colquitt et al., (2001) have found that organizational justice perceptions (OJP) strongly affect the OF CURRENT RESEARCH
Jobsatisfaction is a positive or an enjoyable state of emotions caused by one's evaluation of his/her job or experiences at work (Locke, 1976). Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) viewed jobsatisfaction as the extent to which an employee feel attracted by his/her job. Overall jobsatisfaction is characterized by satisfaction in multiple domains of the job such as pay, job security, promotional opportunities, benefits and the perceived importance of the job. Jobsatisfaction is related with many outcomes, driving economy scholars to be interested in this construct. Jobsatisfaction is shown to be a potent predictor of employee behavior and performance. For instance, jobsatisfaction is used to predict employee effectiveness and separations (Clark 2001; Shields & Price 2002). Moreover, overall well-being of an employee can be significantly predicted by jobsatisfaction (Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza 2001; van Praag et al. 2003).
The definition of is value shown by employees in performing their job which is valuable and meaningful to the organization. The contribution shown by the employee both directly and indirectly aimed at achieving the vision of the organization . Define job performance as the standard for advancements, redundancy, rewards, punishments, reviews and salary changes . It also satisfies the needs for employees to realize themselves employee performance symbolizes the broad belief of the personnel about their behavior and contributions towards the achievement of the organization . The five items used in this research were developed from several researchers, such as giving the best performance service, acting according to the norms and ethics, prioritizing the organization’s interests, being on time in doing the task, arriving on time at the office according to the break time and leaving time from the office, cooperate well in completing the job and giving positive encouragement to the coworkers.
the OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior can be apply by all the Bernama TV employees within the organization and how it can give an impact to the Bernama TV’s employees in terms of their behavior and attitude. The aim is also to see which affective commitment should the organization and the employees in Bernama TV focus more or change. A comparison between Bernama TV Management Team and Bernama TV Production Team will be done in order to observe the similarities as well as the differences in terms of their behavior and attitude towards to achieve good OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB). As ground work of this thesis theories regarding the behavior and attitude will be used and which dimension (occupational stress, organizational commitment – affective and jobsatisfaction) that the employees Bernama TV always used within the organization. The research question is based on the purpose with this study and is stated as follows: “. Is dimension of Occupational Stress, organizational commitment (affective), jobsatisfaction effect the dimension of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB)”. In order to conduct this study, the researcher have observe all the possibility dimension that may give big impact of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (OCB) towards Bernama TV employeesbehavior. Although Bernama TV is a well-known company that have emerged since 2 years ago, but still lack of the employees performance because of thei employeesbehavior and attitude rather than to have spirit of self belonging. The researcher really want to know which dimension (base on occupational stress, organizational commitment – affective, and jobsatisfaction) may build the organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and which one they should focus more or change. Besides of observing the Bernama TV employeesbehavior and their attitude, the researcher have come out those theories based on the previous researcher that have been done by other researcher. Lots of searching of journals, articles, books also from the internet, lots of reading in order to understand the concept of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior, behavior, commitment related behavior and commitment related attitude so that the researcher theory cannot be misinterpreted and also the study are reliable and valid.
This vision is a shared goal that is represented through all division functions within the X University body and becomes the foundation for all employees. Realizing a vision requires superior performance so that organizations become more effective. An effective organization in its journey requires the right resources. Resources that can be said to be good are those that can be used optimally. These resources consist of natural resources, financial resources, human resources, scientific resources, and technological resources . Recently, there have been many studies on variables that support organizational effectiveness. One of them that is quite influential is organizationalcitizenshipbehavior (OCB) . There is study aims at organizationalbehavior. This targeted behavior includes not only in-roles, that is, working according to job description standards, but also extra-roles, namely giving the company more than expected. OCB can be identified as a choice behavior that is not a formal work obligation of employees, but can support organizational functions effectively . OCB can influence organizational effectiveness for several reasons. First, OCB can help improve co-worker productivity. Second, OCB can help improve managerial productivity. Third, OCB can help make efficient use of organizational resources for productive purposes. Fourth, OCB can reduce the level of need for providing organizational resources for employee maintenance purposes. Fifth, OCB can be used as an effective basis for coordination activities between team members and between work groups. Sixth, OCB can improve an organization's ability to obtain and maintain reliable HR by giving the impression that the organization is an attractive place to work. Seventh, OCB can improve organizational performance stability. And finally, OCB can improve an organization's ability to adapt to changes in its business environment . Based on the pre-research results found several things about OCB on X University employees such as helping the work of colleagues, replacing the duties of colleagues who are absence, helping G
It is very important for organizations to identify factors that have relationships with OCB in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Antecedents of OCB mean important factors that lead to the creation of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior of employees. Podsakoff et al. (2000) identified four major antecedents of OCB, namely: employee characteristics, task characteristics, organizational characteristics, leadership behaviors. Moreover Bateman and Organ (1983) focused on employee attitudes and dispositions and leader supportiveness as antecedents of OCB. Furthermore, Jahangir, Akbar andHaq (2004) argued that, like most behaviors, there is no single cause of OCB. It is subject to multiple antecedents. Jahagir et al. (2004) introduce seven categories, namely: jobsatisfaction and organizational commitment, role perceptions, leadership behavior and leader member exchange, fairness perceptions, individual dispositions, motivational theories and employee age Various researches have been done on the factors that influence OCB. Some of the factors are jobsatisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement, organizational support, trust, organizational justice, personality characteristics, employee Characteristics and leadership behaviors etc (Podsakoff et al., 2000). Different researchers have described organizationalcitizenshipbehavior in a number of ways. But most of these researches were taken only two or three factors with OCB. In Sri Lankan context, so far only few studies have been done on the subject of OCB.
This research placed in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office, discusses about the influence of jobsatisfaction consist and work loyalty on OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. The variables are (1) jobsatisfaction that of work itself, supervision, workers, promotion and pay (2) work loyalty that consist of personal characteristic, job characteristic, characteristic design’s company and experience gained in work (3) OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior consist of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. This research aims to search: (1) The influence of jobsatisfaction on OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (2) The influence of work loyalty on OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior (3) The influence of jobsatisfaction and work loyalty simultaneously on OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior. This research is catagorized as a survey research. Types of data used in this research is quantitative data or shaped number. The instrument of this research uses questionnaire. Population in this research is the employees include security of Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office numbered 73 people. Validity test uses Pearson Product Moment meanwhile the reability test uses Alpha Cronbach. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis is used to test the hypothesis in this research. The results of the study found that this research accepted the hypotheses: (1) Jobsatisfaction has positive and significant influence on employee’s performance in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. (2) Work loyalty has positive and significant influence on employee’s performance in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. (3) The jobsatisfaction and work loyalty together influence OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior in Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office. Work loyalty is the dominant variable. Suggestion for Bank Indonesia Bandar Lampung Representative Office are (1) Make a periodic survey about employeesjob desk related to their position in the department (2) Make a periodically survey about the knowledge of employees about existing activities in Bank Indonesia, so no one will miss the information (3) The author suggested to the next researchers have to focus on indicators that provide such influence that contribute to the work of the department and information activities in the company.
Employee performance is defined as achievement as a person's level of skill in tasks that include his work (Byars and Rue, 1984). Whereas according to Bernardin and Russell (1993), achievement is a record of the results obtained from certain job functions or certain activities during a certain period of time. Campbell (1990) defines the job performance of employees as behaviors or actions that are in accordance with organizational goals. There are a number of factors that can affect a person's performance, such as effort, abilities, and role / task perception (Byars and Rue (1984), the performance of an individual can be seen through quantity, quality, speed of completion of work, collaboration, and attendance level (Mathis & Jackson, 2000).